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Part  I,  Vol.  XI. 






foui«i>e:d   xsee. 



•  l       III. II.,        I-L..llli, 







Patrons : 

*The  Right  Hon.  the  Lord  Munxaster,  M.P.,  Lord  Lieutenant  of  Cumber- 
*The  Right  Hon.  the  Lord  Hothfield,  Lord  Lieutenant  of  Westmorland. 
*  The  Right  Rev.  the  Lord  Bishop  of  Carlisle. 

President  &=  Editor : 
♦The  Worshipful  Chancellor  Ferguson,  m.a.,  ll.m.,  f.s.a. 

Vice-Presidents  : 
*The  Right  Rev.  the  Bishop  of  Barrow-in-Furness. 

Jam^s  Atkinson,  Esq. 

*  E.  B.  W.  Balme,  Esq. 

The  Earl  of  Bective,  M.P. 
*W.  Browne,  Esq. 

*  James  Cropper,  Esq. 
*The  Dean  of  Carlisle. 

*  H.  F.  CuRWEN,  Esq. 

*  RoBT.  Ferguson,  Esq.  F.S.A. 

*  The  Earl  of  Carlisle. 

*  \V.  Jackson,  FZsq.,  F.S.A. 
*G.  J.  Johnson,  Esq. 
*HoN.  W.  Lowther,  M.P. 
•H.  P.  Senhouse,  Esq. 

*M.  W.  Taylor,  Esq.''m.D.,  F.S.A- 

Elected  Members  of  Council : 

W.  B.  Arnison,  Esq.,  Penrith.  i  T.  F.  I'Anson,  Esq. ,^LD., Whitehaven. 

Rev.  R.  Bower,  Carlisle.  |  Rev.  Thomas  Lees,  F.S.A.,  Wreay. 

Rev.  W.S.Calverlev,  F.S.A.,  Aspatriaj  Rev.  Canon  Matthews,  .Appleby. 
J.F.CROSTHWAlTE,Esq.,F.S.A.,Keswickl  Alfred  Peile,  Esq.,  Workington. 
H.  SWAINSON    CowPER,    EsQ.,  F.S. A. j  Rev.  Hv.  WHITEHEAD,  Nesvton  Reig^y. 
Hawkshead.  Robert  J.  Whitwell,  Esq.,  Kendal. 

C.  J.  Ferguson,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  Carlisle.  | 

A  nditors : 
James  G.  Gandv,  Esq.,  Heaves  |         Frank  Wilson,  Esq..  Kendal. 

Treasurer : 

W.   D.  Crewdson,  Esq.,   Hclme  Lodge,   Kendal. 

Secretary : 
*Mr.  T.   WILSON,  Aynam   Lodsre,    Kendal. 

N.B. — The  members  of  the  Council  and  the  Ofticers  where  names  are  marked 
with  an  *,  form  a  Committee  for  carrying  out  the  provisions  of  the  Act  for  the 
Protection  of  Ancient  Monuments. 

Art.    I. — Law  Ting  at  Fell  Foot,  Little   Langdale,  West- 
morland.     By  H.  Swainson  Cowper,  F.S.A. 

Read  at  Fell  Foot,  September  ^th,  i88g. 

rriHE  remarkable  legislative  system  in  use  among  Scan- 
-L  dinavian  nations  in  early  times  has  attracted  the 
notice  of  not  a  few  writers  ;  at  the  same  time  the  sub- 
ject has  not  received  the  attention  it  merits,  and  I  am  not 
aware  of  any  single  volume  entirely  devoted  to  it.* 

The  system  put  generally  was  this :  each  nation  or 
province  was  cut  up  into  several — generally  three  or  four — 
main  divisions,  and  these  were  again  subdivided. t  In  each 
of  these  an  open  air  assembly  called  a  Titig  was  held 
which   ranked  as  follows  : — 

1.  The  Parish  thing ;  the  lowest.:}; 

2.  The  Provincial,  district,  or  intermediate  tiling.  This 
was  sometimes  a  circuic  court  ;  in  Shetland  and  Iceland, 
called  a  thing  soken. 

3.  The  National,  called  the  law  or  al-thing. 

*  Much  information  on  the  subject  will  be  found  in  the  following  works  : — 
Hibbert. — The  Tuif^s  of  Orkney  and  Shetland,  A^-cha'oIogia  Scutica,  vol.  iii. 
Worsaoe. — The  Danes  and  Norwep^ians  in  England,  pp.  15S,  296,  332,  &c. 
Wilson. — Prehistoric  Annals  nf  Scotland,  p.  113. 
G.  Lawrence  Gomme. — Primitive  Folk  Moots. 
Train's  Hist,  oj  the  Isle  of  Man,         i,  271. 
Mallet's  Northern  Antiquities. 

t  These  divisions  varied  both  in  name  and  number :  according  to  the  Landnama 
book,  Iceland  was  cut  up  into  Jiordings  or  quarters;  each  liording  contained 
three  or  four  thing-sokens,  and  each  thing,-soke>i  three  godardar  or  -parish  things. 
The  main  divisions  in  Shetland  were  also  called  thiiig-sokens.  The  Ridings  of 
Yorkshire  and  Lincolnshire  Worsaoe  considers  the  equivalent  of  the  S.  Norwegian 
Tredtnger  or  thirds  of  petty  kingdoms,  in  each  of  which  was  held  a  Trediiig  tiling 
to  which  disputed  causes  were  referred  from  the  district  (or  parish)  thing.  Cum- 
berland and  Westmorland  are  divided  into  wards,  which  may  represent  the  juris- 
diction of  the  middle  thing  or  soken.  In  the  less  Scandinavian  parts  of  England, 
the  divisions  are  Hnndreds.  Another  form  of  division  found  in  the  Danish  parts 
of  I^ngland  is  the  "  If  apentake."  Worsaoe  surmises  that  this  word  may  be  derived 
from  the  Danish  I'aal-entag  or  I'anbenlarm  (sound  or  clashing  of  arms)  that  being 
the  manner  that  assent  to  a  proposition  at  the  ting  was  made.  Hibbert  however 
states  that  a  U'apenling  or  general  inspection  of  arms  was  held  within  three  weeks 
after  the  al-ling. 

i  The  Parish  thing.  In  Shetland  these  were  presided  over  by  officers  called 
"foudes."  Shetland  in  old  charters  is  called  a  "foudrie."  Query:  has  the 
"  Pile  of  Foudrie  "  generally  called  Piel  Castle  near  Barrow  any  connection. 


2  LAW    TING    AT    FELL    1-OUT. 

At  these  things  local  affairs  were  discussed,  justice 
administered,  and  laws  promulgated.  A  right  of  appeal 
also  lay  from  the  lower  to  the  upper  courts  as  at  the  pre- 
sent day  to  the  court  of  appeal  and  the  lords. 

This  system  seems  to  have  prevailed  in  a  similar  form 
over  a  considerable  part  of  Northern  Europe  ;  traces  of  it 
are  found  abundantly  in  Norway,  Orkney,  Shetland,  Scot- 
land, Man,  and  wherever  as  a  matter  of  fact  the  Nor- 
wegians, and  Scandinavians  generally,  extended  their 

'•  The  Danes  and  Norwegians  in  Northern  England  settled  their 
disputes,  and    arranged  their  public  affairs  at  Thiiii^s  according  to 

Scandinavian  custom There  were  incontestably  in  the 

Danish  parts  of  England  certain   large  or  common  Thing  meetings, 

which  were   superior  to  the  Tilings  of  the  separate  ones 

A  law  of  King  Ethelred  (Thorpe  ;  leges  et  instii.  Anglo.  Sax.  glossary 
Lahman)  which  seems  to  have  been  promulgated  for  the  five  Danish 
burghs  and  the  rest  of  the  Danish  part  of  England  orders  that  there 
shall  be  in  every  wapentake  a  gemot,  or  Tiling.''' 

These  courts,  the  sites  of  many  of  which  are  still  to  be 
identified  by  their  names, t  took  place  as  I  have  said,  in  the 
open  air,  often  doubtless  at  some  well  known  tree  or  stone 
which  would  serve  as  a  rendezvous:  often  also  no  doubt 
at  some  stone  circle,  which,  especially  if  concentric,  would 
be  admirably  suited  for  the  purpose.  Yet  sometimes  it 
was  considered  necessary  to  erect  an  earthern  mound  of 
peculiar  form  upon  which  the  court  held  its  sitting. 

"  Not  unfrequently  the  fences  of  a  ting  were  concentric  ;  the  intent 
of  which  was  to  preserve  among  the  different  personages  of  a  ting,  a 
proper  distinction  of  rank.  The  central  area  was  always  occupied 
by  the  laugman  and  '  those  who  stood  with  him  ;  '  and  the  outer 
spaces  by  the  laugrettmen,  out  of  whom  the  duradom  was  selected, 
the  contending  parties,  and  the  compurgators."  t 

*  WorsacE  :   The  Danes  and  NMirrgiaJis  in  Englajid  p.  15S-9. 

■\  'riiii:rnlla  in  Iceland,  7'iiif:viild  in  Norway,  7"hi(itrall  in  Shetland,  Ihinpicall 
in  Cheshire,  Dnifivitll  Co.  Ross,  Tinn-atd  in  Uumfrieshire,  Ti/nirald  in  Man, 
Dinfislcd  in  the  Uutchy  of  Oldenburg,  &c.,  &c. 

X  Hibbert,  id  ante  p.  141. 


LA  W        T  1  N    d 
LITTLE        LAN  C?  OfKLL 






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x5cA^e    of   Fett 

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LAW    TING    AT    FELL    FOOT.  3 

Now  the  typical  example  of  a  mound  specially  erected 
for  the  purpose  and  the  one  which  will  immediately  occur 
to  the  members  of  this  society  is  the  Tynwald  hill  in  Man'; 
this  may  be  said  to  be  still  used  for  its  original  purpose, 
and  so  much  has  been  written  about  it,  that  it  is  here  only 
necessary  to  describe  it. 

The  Tynwald  Mount  is  circular  in  plan,  240  feet  in  cir- 
cumference, and  rises  by  four  circular  platforms  or  steps 
each  3  ft.  higher  than  the  one  below  :  the  breadth  of  the 
lowest  is  S  ft.,  the  next  6  ft.,  the  third  4  ft.,  and  the  sum- 
mit 6  ft.  in  diameter.  In  former  times  the  whole  was 
surrounded  by  a  ditch  and  rampart  of  rectangular  form  in 
which  was  contained  the  chapel  of  St.  John.^ 

Let  us  now  compare  the  mound  before  us.  It  consists 
of  an  oblong  quadrangular  platform  (the  E.  side  of  which 
is  75  ft.,  the  W.  70  ft.,  the  N.  21  ft.,  and  the  S.  19  ft.), 
surrounded  and  approached  by  stepped  platforms  all  of 
which  are  of  the  uniform  breadth  of  14  ft.  On  the  N.  side 
there  are  two  of  these,  on  the  W.  three,  and  on  the  S.  four. 
The  east  side  has  apparently  had  the  same  number  as  the 
west,  but  they  are  partly  destroyed  or  obliterated  by  a  row 
of  ancient  yew  trees,  and  by  the  farm  buildings. 

The  bank  of  the  summit  is  in  places  indistinct,  as  on 
the  east  side,  especially  at  the  north  end.  The  surrounding 
terraces  are  best  marked  at  the  south-west  corner,  where 
the  natural  level  of  the  ground  is  lowest,  and  here  the  lowest 
bank  seems  about  4  feet  high,  the  next  about  2  ft.,  and 
the  total  height  at  this  corner  from  10  to  12  ft.  The  banks 
seem  chiefly  formed  of  earth,  but  at  the  south-east  corner, 
where  they  are  partially  destroyed,  they  are  stony.  The 
ground  upon  which  the  mound  is  placed  rises  to  the  north, 
and  falls  to  the  south  ;  but  the  terraces  and  banks  of  the 
mound  itself  rise  gently  to  the  south. 

*Worsa(E:  Danes  and  N'oricegiana,  p.  296.     nHtton  and  Brayley  :  Braulicf:  of 
England  and  Wales,  vol.  iii,  p.  290. 


4  LAW   TING    AT    FELL    FOOT. 

Now  here  it  will  be  noticed,  there  is  a  decided  variation 
from  the  Manx  hill,  in  as  much  as  its  plan  is  an  irregular 
oblong  instead  of  circular.  It  also  covers  very  much  more 
ground  than  the  Tynwald. 

Nevertheless  the  general  scheme  of  a  central  space  sur- 
rounded and  approached  by  parallel  stepped  platforms  is 
exactly  carried  out ;  and  in  spite  of  its  somewhat  different 
form  and  the  singular  fact  that  no  tradition  with  respect 
to  its  origin  exists,  I  venture  to  suggest  that  we  have  here 
a  Scandinavian  Lawvwiint  or  Ting,  of  similar  character 
and  belonging  to  the  same  period  as  the  Tynwald  hill  in 

Supposing  this  surmise  to  be  correct  it  is  difficult  to 
guess  how  large  a  district  would  be  under  the  jurisdiction 
of  this  court.  Both  Westmorland  and  Cum.berland  are 
divided  into  wards,  which  not  improbably  represent  the 
judicial  divisions.  Langdale  is  in  Kendal  ward  ;  there  is 
besides  every  reason  to  believe  that  this  part  of  the  country 
was  subdivided  into  small  districts,  and  perhaps  the  four 
Westmoreland  wards  each  held  a  Thing  to  which  these 
smaller  assemblies  were  subordinate.  Troutbeck  near 
Windermere  was  divided  into  three  hundreds  or  constable 
wicks,  each  having  its  own  constable,  carrier,  and  bull.* 
These  are  perhaps  the  remains  of  an  ancient  Scandinavian 

The  mound  is  immediately  behind  the  farm  house  of 
Fellfoot,  at  the  head  of  Little  Langdale,  and  therefore 
close  to  the  commencement  of  the  pass  by  Hardknott  and 
Wrynose  into  Cumberland.  It  may  be  readily  conceived 
that  at  the  period  when  it  was  constructed  there  would  be 
no  road  of  importance  in  the  valley,  except  the  Roman  one 
leading  over  the  pass  ;  indeed  it  may  be  said  there  is  very 
little  else  now.  As  a  matter  of  necessity  therefore  the  in- 
habitants of  the  district  constructed  the  Thins'stead  here  in 

*  Clarke's  Survey  of  the  Lakes,  p.  134. 

LAW    TING    AT    FELL    FOOT.  5 

a  place  of  ready  access  to  all  who  should  have  to  attend 

From  the  evidence  of  its  position  then,  as  well  as  the  ac- 
tual size  of  mound,  I  should  be  inclined  to  imagine  that  the 
district  under  its  jurisdiction  may  have  been  considerable. 
Thus  itisplaced  at  the  baseofaseries  of  mountain  passes,  so 
that  litigants  and  others  could  approach  from  Cumberland 
by  the  Hardknott  pass,  from  Great  Langdale  and  Grasmere 
through  that  of  Blea  Tarn,  from  Elterwater,  Skelwith,  and 
Ambleside  by  the  Little  Langdale  valley,  and  from  Yew- 
dale,  Coniston,  and  Hawkshead  by  Tilberthvvaite. 

I  am  not  aware  if  any  significant  name  is  attached  to 
this  mound,  or  the  field  it  is  in,  but  the  place  names  in 
the  vicinity  are  abundantly  Scandinavian,  Slight  mention 
of  it  will  be  found  in  one  of  a  series  of  papers  on  the  Hawks- 
head  district  by  the  late  A.  Craig  Gibson  and  published  in 
the  proceedings  of  the  Lancashire  and  Cheshire  Historic 
Society,  new  series,  vol.  8,  and  I  believe  also  in  his  book 
entitled  "  Ramhlings  and  Ravings  round  Coniston  Old  Man." 


FELL  FOOT  HOUSE— On  the  front  of  this  picturesque  mountain 
homestead  may  be  observed  a  wooden  panel,  bearing  the  Fleming 
fret  with  a  cross  moline,  and  the  crest,  a  serpent  nowed.  Mr.  George 
Brown  of  Troutbeck  has  favoured  me  with  the  following  information 
upon  the  subject. 

"The  estate  still  belongs  to  the  Flemings  of  Rayrigg;  it  was  purchased  in 
1707  by  Fletcher  Fleming  who  was  the  youngest  son  of  Sir  Daniel  Fleming  of 
Rydal,  Knight,  and  brother  of  Sir  William.  This  Fletcher  resided  at  Fell  Foot 
until  his  death  in  1716;  he  left  a  widow  and  an  only  son  also  named  Fletcher. 
The  mother  and  son  continued  to  live  there  until  the  son  purchased  Rayrigg  in 
1735,  from  Thomas  Philipson  (in  whose  family  it  had  been  for  many  generations). 
After  purchasing  Rayrigg,  the  younger  Fletcher  appears  to  have  gone  to  live  at  it. 

The  arms  over  the  entrancre  door  will  probably  have  been  placed  there  by  the 
first  Fletcher  Fleming,  as  shown  by  the  cross  moline  in  the  fret  on  the  arms, 
which  is  a  mark  of  cadency  for  an  eighth  son,  which  he  would  be  considered,  as 
two  of  his  brothers  died  infants." 



Sir  Daniel  Fleming  =  Barbara 
of  Rydal,  knt.  and  bart.  I  dau.  of  Sir  Henry  Fletcher 
I  of  Hutton,  she  d.  1C75. 

Fletcher  Flemixg=Elizabeth 

eleventh  and  youngest  and  perhaps 
eighth  surviving  son,  bought  Fell 
Foot  1707,  d.  1 717.  

dau.  of  Thos  Braithwaite  of  Windermere. 

Fletcher  Flemixg= Isabella  Herbert 
Fell  Foot  and  afterwards  of  Rayrigg.  ]  of  Kendal. 

I         ""  TTl 

Fletcher  tlemixg.  Agxes. 


Note  by  the  Editor. — It  would  be  well  to  ascertain  if  any  tradition  exists 
of  a  fair  ever  having  been  held  at  this  place,  or  if  the  fell  shepherds  ever  had  a 
meeting  place  here  for  the  purpose  of  exchanging  wandering  sheep  :  such  would 
be  some  evidence  in  favour  of  this  mound  having  been  once  a  "  Law-Ting." 
The  mound  seems  more  or  less  natural,  but  improved  by  art,  and  the  field,  in 
which  it  is  situate  is  known  now  as  "  The  Orchard."  It  may  be  suggested  that 
terraces  are  cultivation  terraces,  but  it  seems  improbable  that  such  would  be  con- 
tinued round  the  cold  side  of  the  mound. 


Art.  II. — Hawkshead  Hall.     By  H.  Swainson  Cowper, 

Read  at  Hawkshead  Hall,  Sepicuiber  ^ih,  iS8g. 


OWING  to  the  absence  of  evidences  of  F^oman  occupa- 
tion in  the  Hawkshead  valley,  and  its  retired  position 
and  distance  from  the  Border  in  subsequent  times,  we  have 
little  or  no  account  of  Hawkshead  or  its  hall  until  a  com- 
paratively late  period.  Although  Baines,  in  his  History  of 
Lancashire,  mentions  the  discovery  of  a  portion  of  a  Roman 
road  on  the  eastern  borders  of  Satterthwaite,  pointing  to- 
wards Ambleside,  it  is  doubtful  if  there  was  ever  station,  fort, 
orvilla,  in  the  valley.  In  later  times  the  Cumberland  and 
Westmorland  hills  would  form  a  comparatively  sure  bar- 
rier against  the  inroads  of  the  Scots,  who  seldom  pene- 
trated as  far  as  Furness. 

It  is,  however,  worthy  of  remark  that  portions  of  Roman 
tiles  and  bricks  have  been  taken  out  of  the  walls  of  the  old 
Hall,  which  stands  near  where  Baines'  road  must  have 
come,  if,  as  he  surmises,  it  was  a  vicinal  way  between 
Ambleside  and  Low  Furness.  It  is  therefore  possible,  but 
in  the  absence  of  any  further  evidence,  improbable,  that  a 
Roman  fort  or  villa  stood  either  on  the  site  of  the  Hall  or 
somewhere  in  the  valley.  On  the  other  hand  it  is  quite 
possible  that  the  camp  at  Ambleside,  which  Camden  found, 
"  the  dead  carcase  of  an  ancient  city  with  great  ruins  of 
walls,"  was  for  centuries  used  by  all  comers  as  a  quarry 
for  building  materials,  although  in  the  case  of  Hawkshead 
Hall,  the  distance  (4  miles)  may  perhaps  be  advanced  as 
an  objection  ;  the  difficult}',  however,  of  quarrying  the 
hard  silurian  rock  may  have  made  it  worth  while  to  convey 
the  materials  lying  ready  at  Ambleside,  especially  as  it  is 
a  flat  and  easy  road  between  the  two  places. 



So  much  then  for  Hawkshead  in  Roman  times.  I  have 
already  said  that  there  is  Httle  or  no  history  till  a  compara- 
tively late  period,  that  is,  till  after  the  conquest  ;  but  in 
ifs  name  we  may  read  some  of  that  unwritten  history 
which  is  always  to  be  found  in  the  place  names  of  the 
most  retired  and  obscure  villages. 

The  word  Hawkshead  is  Saxon,  and  many  are  the  ver- 
sions* it  has  passed  through,  and  many  the  derivations 
that  have  been  given  for  it.  The  late  Mr.  Beck,  author  of 
Annales  Furnesienses,  in  a  rough  unfinished  MS.  descrip- 
tive of  Hawkshead,  gives  the  following  : — Hougunshead, 
Houghshead,  Hawkshead.  Houghhigh.  Head.  Hence. 
Hawkshead.  Havockshead  or  the  place  where  the  Hawk's 
mews  were  situated. 

The  first  two,  I  think,  may  be  dismissed,  but  with  the 
third  we  are  on  a  better  track.  It  is  quite  possible  that  it 
it  was  named  "  the  habitation  of  the  Hawk"  on  account 
of  the  numbers  of  those  birds  found  there,  but  much  more 
likely  is  it,  that  in  Hawk  (Icel.  Hawkr,  Saxon  Hafoc),  we 
have  the  actual  name  of  a  Saxon  or  Scandinavian  settler, 
who  dwelt  here  previous  to  the  conquest.  In  early  English 
times  the  names  of  birds  and  animals  were  plentifully  adap- 
ted as  personal  names,  as  Sture  or  Steer,  Drake,  Orm  or 
worm,  and  the  well  known  examples  of  i/g;zo'/s^  and  Hors^.t 

Thus  Hawkshead,  the  village  and  its  surroundings,  con- 
stituted the  seat  or  vill  of  Hawkr  or  the  Hawk,  while  the 
Hall  itself,  though  this  must  be  received  with  caution, 
may  have  been  his  actual  dwelling.  It  is  rather  remarkable, 
and  certainly  in  favour  of  this  theory,  that  the  "  Custom 

*  Haukeshede,  Haukeslieved,  Hankeseth,  ILackeset,  Hoxcta.  &c.,  FurnessCoucher 
Book.  Also  Ilaiikeiisihead,  Hiiiiihrad,  Hoxliead.  Hauxide,  "  Drunken  Barnabee's 
Journal."  Modern  local  pronunciation  Hhaaksiu.  Our  member  Mr.  W.  G.  Col- 
lin^wood  has  called  my  attention  to  the  English  form  of  the  surname,  Hacan  or 
Hakon.     1  his  may  survive  in  the  old  spelling  of  the  place  name  Haukensehead. 

f  The  affix  head,  side,  net,  &c.,  are  of  course  the  same.  There  is  another 
Hawkshead  near  Halton.  Sirinshead  or  Swiiiside,  Rampshrad  or  Rampsheved  now 
Rampside,  and  Omiside,  are  examples  of  exactly  similarly  censtructed  names. 
Furness  also  contains  Haiiksircll,  Ilnu-k/ield,  and  a  numerous  clan  of  Ihnckrig^s. 
For  an  interesting  account  of  early  English  'lotems,  see  an  article  on  Old  English 
Clans,  \ti  vol.  iv.  of  the  Coinhill  Magazine. 



of  High  Furness  "  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VHI  was  dated, 
not  at  Hawkshead  Hall,  but  at  Hawkshall,  perhaps  the 
original  form  still  retained  from  the  time  when  the 
early  lord  dwelt  there  in  his  hall  of  dab  and  wattle,  sur- 
rounded with  a  palisade  of  stout  oaken  palings.  Mr.  Beck, 
however,  in  a  note,  advances  the  theory  that  a  Saxon 
Thegn  dwelt  upon  the  church  hill,  called  Gallabar,  (on 
what  authority  I  am  unable  to  ascertain),  and  it  must  be 
confessed  that  its  situation  is  more  that  which  a  Saxon 
lord  would  choose  for  his  homestead,  than  that  of  the 
present  hall.  It  can  however  be  demonstrated,  I  think, 
that  the  present  building  or  part  of  it,  can  lay  claim  to  a 
very  respectable  antiquity,  being  as  early  as  the  13th 

In  Doomsday  book  there  is  no  mention  of  Hawkshead, 
it  being  perhaps  included  in  the  comprehensive  term  of 
Hoiigun.  If  Hawkr  ever  lived  at  Hawkshead,  he  or  his 
descendants  were  dispossessed  at  the  Conquest,  and  as  no 
Norman  baron  or  ecclesiastical  body  had  hxed  their  abode 
there,  the  great  survey  does  not  help,  and  Hawkshead 
and  its  environs  were  not  improbably  regarded  by  the 
Norman  usurpers  as  a  sort  of  ultima  Tlmle,  or,  perhaps, 
somewhat  as  we  regard  a  Scotch  moor,  suitable  for  a 
hunting  ground,  but  scarcely  fitted  for  a  residential  locality. 
Not  until  the  great  Abbey  of  Furness  was  in  the  full  vigour 
of  its  growth  do  we  gain  information  about  Hawkshead, 
and  then  only  in  a  second-hand  sort  of  way,  its  name  not 
even  being  mentioned.  This  occurs  in  a  charter  of  the 
time  of  Henry  II.  By  this  time  the  power  of  the  Abbey 
was  fully  established,  its  possessions  extensive,  and  its 
influence  in  this  part  of  the  country  very  great.  The  small 
Saxon  landowners  with  their  estates  were  falling  or  had 
fallen  into  its  hands,  and  the  very  place  names  in  the  dis- 
trict were  undergoing  a  change  ;  the  ihwaites,  bys,  and  tons 
becoming  granges  and  cotts,  and  later  on  parks  and  grounds. 

The  original   foundation   charter   of   Stephen,   Earl    of 
Boulogne,  in  1126,  had  granted  : — 



"...  all  Furness  and  Walney  .  .  .  Ulverston  .  .  .  Roger 
Bristoldcn  (whom  West  ingeniously  contorts  into  Braithwaite),  with 
all  that  belongs  to  him  .  .  .  fish  ponds  at  Lancaster  .  .  . 
Little  Guoring,  with  sac,  soc,  tol,  team,  infangtheof  and  everything 
in  Furness  except  the  lands  of  Michael  le  Fleming." 

The  vagueness  of  this  copious  grant  gavtf  rise  to  a  dispute 
between  the  monks  of  Furness  and  WiUiam  de  Lancaster, 
ist  Baron  of  Kendal;  which  shows  that  the  boundaries  of 
the  adjacent  barony  of  Kendal  were  not  satisfactorily  as- 
certained at  that  period.  The  decision  materially  affected 
the  little  town  of  Hawkshead,  inasmuch  as  its  inhabitants, 
if  it  then  existed,  could  scarcely  up  to  this  time,  have  been 
aware  to  whom  they  owed  suit  and  service.  This  dispute 
was  settled  by  a  reference  to  thirty  sworn  men,  and  their 
decision  was  afterwards  confirmed  by  the  following  royal 

■■'-  Henry,  King  of  England  and  Duke  of  Normandy  and  Aquitaine, 
and  Earl  of  Anjou,  to  the  Archbishops,  Bishops,  Abbots,  Earls,  Barons, 
&c.,  of  all  England,  &c.,  greeting.  Be  it  known  that  I  have  granted, 
and  by  my  Charter  have  confirmed,  the  agreement  which  was  made 
before  me  between  the  monks  of  Furness  and  William  the  son  of  Gil- 
bert, about  the  fells  of  Furness,  which  are  divided  from  Kendal  by 
the  boundaries  sworn  to  by  my  command  by  thirty  sworn  men  :  from 
where  the  water  descends  from  Wreineshals  (Wrynose  hill)  in  Little 
Langden  and  from  thence  to  Helterwatra,  and  from  thence  by  Braiza 
(Brathay)  into  Windermere,  and  thence  to  Leven,  and  thence  to  sea  • 
This  territory  the  Abbot  of  Furness  has  divided  by  the  undermentioned 
divisions;  From  Helterwatra  to  Tiilesburc  (Tilburthwait),  and  thence 
to  Coniston,  and  thence  to  the  head  of  Thurston  water,  and  thence 
by  its  banks  to  Crec,  and  thence  to  Leven  ;  But  William  chose  for 
himself  that  part  which  adjoins  these  boundaries  on  the  west  to  be 
held  from  the  Abbey  of  Furness,  wholly  and  lully,  in  woods  and 
pastures,  in  waters  and  fisheries,  and  in  all  things,  paying  out  of 
it  to  the  Abby  of  Furness  20s.  yearly  and  the  son  of  the  said 
William  should  do  homage  for  the  said  land,  to  the  Abbot : 
but  that  part  which  adjoins  the  said  boundaries  on  the  East  the 
Abbey  shall  hold,  and  in  that  part  William  shall  have  the  hunting 

*See  West  Anliq.  of  Furness,  p.  2S.  Beck's  Annalcs  Furitescenscs,  app.,  No. 
iv.,  and  Coitchcr  Book  of  Furness  Alley,  ed.  by  Kev.  J.  C.  Atkinson. 



and  hawking  ;  Wherefore  I  will  and  positively  command  that  this 
aggreement  be  held  to,  firm  and  unbroken,  and  that  the  said 
abbey  shall  have  and  hold  its  abovesaid  share  fully  and  in  peace,  in 
wood  and  pasture,  in  waters  and  fisheries,  and  in  all  places  and 
things.     Witnesses  : — 

■  bishops 

R.  Lincoln,;   1 

H.    UUNOLM,     ) 

R.  Earl  of  Legricestre 
Richard  de  Luci 
William  de  Vesci 
Godfrey  de  Valence 
William  de  Agremont 

Aubert  Gresly 
John  the  Constable 
Richard  Butler 
Henry  Fitz  Swain 
GospATRic  Fitz  Orm 
Richard  Fitz  Juon 

by  Stephen  the  Chaplain  at  Woodstoc. 

(The  names  of  those  who  made  the  perambulation  of  the  boundaries 
between  Furness  and  Kendal  according  to  the  above  mentioned  com- 
mand of  our  Lord  King,  Henry  Fitz  Swain,  Roger  his  son  of  Raven 
Kill,  Michael  de  Furness,  Gospatric  Fitz  Ormo,  William  Garnet, 
William  parson  of  Cartmell,  Ailward  de  Broughton,  Hugo  son  of 
Frostolf,  Benedict  de  Pennington,  Gillo  Michael  de  Merton,  William 
Brictwald,  William  son  of  Roger  de  Kyve,  Dolphin  de  Kyrkeby,  Swift 
de  Pennington). 

By  this  it  appears  that  the  wily  Baron,  who  seems  to 
to  have  had  first  choice,  selected  that  part  adjoining  the 
Abbot's  division  line  on  the  west,  i.e.,  the  Coniston  and 
Duddon  side,  to  hold  from  the  Abbey  by  a  rent ;  and  he 
also  secured  the  hunting  and  hawking  of  the  Hawkshead 
and  Windermere  side,  which  however  was  to  belong  to  the 
Abbey — No  bad  choice.  His  grand-daughter  and  heir,  to- 
gether with  her  husband,  Gilbert, son  of  Roger  Fitz  Reinfred, 
in  an  instrument  dated  T196,  relinquished  their  right  to 
the  hunting  on  the  abbot's  side.*  It  may  be  noticed  that 
in  neither  of  these  documents  is  Hawkshead  mentioned  by 
name,  although  it  afterwards  became  the  chief  manor  on 
the  abbot's  share. t  We  may  perhaps  judge  by  this  that 
it  was  then  but  a  place  of  slight  importance,  although  the 

*  Buck,  doe,  and  falcon. 

t  The  Abbot's  share  of  course  forms  the  Furness  Fells  proper  of  the  present  day. 


fact  of  the  village  itself  not  being  upon  the  boundary  line 
will  in  a  great  measure  account  for  its  being  ignored. 

We  come  now  to  the  earliest  mention  of  Hawkshead  in 
any  form  :  it  occurs  in  the  Coucher  Book  of  the  Abbey,  and 
has  reference  to  the  chapelry  of  Hawkshead  which  was 
originally  under  Dalton.  This  was  immediately  after  the 
commencement  of  the  13th  century,  when  Honorius,  Arch- 
deacon of  Richmond,  granted  permission  to  the  convent  to 
celebrate  mass  at  their  private  altars  with  wax  candles, 
during  an  interdict,  for  which  he  assigned  the  chapelry  of 
Hawkset  to  the  monks.  There  is  a  fireplace  in  the  gate 
house  at  the  hall,  decorated  with  the  dog  tooth  moulding 
characteristic  of  13th  century  work.  This  is  the  earliest 
architectural  feature  about  the  place,  and  is  interesting,  as 
it  would  seem  that  the  monks  on  this  grant  erected  or  re- 
built their  grange  or  farm  at  Hawkshead.'''  This  point  will 
be  more  fully  noticed  in  the  descriptive  part  of  this  paper. 

Still  the  Abbey  went  on  increasing  its  possessions,  not 
only  as  West  remarks  "  by  the  gifts  of  almost  every  suc- 
ceeding King  of  England,"  but  also  of  almost  all  the 
barons  and  landowners  great  and  small,  who  held  lands 
under  or  adjoining  it  ;  by  these  means  they  gained  for  their 
souls  supposed  salvation,  and  for  their  bodies  a  resting 
place  in  the  Abbey  church  itself.  The  Abbot  was  lord 
absolute  over  the  tenants,  many  of  whom  were  mere  villeins, 
until  emancipated  by  indulgence  of  the  Abbots.  The 
superior  grades  of  tenants  \vere,  first,  the  free  homagers, 

*  As  it  seemed  to  me  curious  that  monks  should  choose  a  time  for  building-  when 
the  country  was  lying-  under  a  papal  interdict,  I  asked  Mr.  Lees  his  opinion  and 
received  the  foUowinq-  interesting-  reply  : — "  As  1  learn  from  Du  Cange,  interdicts 
varied  in  severity.  The  one  in  K.  John's  time  was  not  so  severe  as  some  others; 
but  still  during  its  continuance  all  masses  were  forbidden  except  on  great  festivals. 
The  Cistercians  seem  to  have  evaded  this  rule,  for  W'ilkins  (Concilia  i.  p.  527), 
gives  a  bull  of  Pope  Innocent  complaining  that  the  Cistercian  order,  in  defiance  of 
the  interdict,  continued  to  perform  divine  service  as  usual. 

The  private  altars  I  take  to  mean  the  altars  in  the  side  chapels  at  which  the 
choir  monks  said  their  masses. 

'1  is  possible  that  the  suspension  of  all  public  offices  of  religion  gave  the  monks 
more  time  to  attend  to  their  buildings.     This  is  mere  surmise." 



feudatories  of  the  Abbot  and  bound  to  him  by  their  homage 
and  a  small  rent  ;  the  second  grade,  copyholders  who  held 
by  copy  of  court  roll,  paying  a  small  relief  upon  admittance, 
and  a  rent  in  lieu  of  all  service  except  military  ;  the  re- 
mainder, at  first,  as  I  have  said,  villeins  or  serfs  became 
eventually  the  customary  tenants.* 

Among  their  possessions  in  the  sequestered  district  lying 
at  the  north  of  Furness,  was  the  manor  of  Hawkshead, 
never  held  by  a  baron  or  lord  under  the  Abbey,  but, 
apparently,  till  the  dissolution,  in  direct  possession  of  that 
great  house  itself.  This  circumstance  will  in  a  great 
measure  account  for  the  lack  of  history  appertaining  to  the 
hall  and  its  inhabitants.  There  was  at  Hawkshead  no 
great  territorial  family  as  at  Kirkby  or  Coniston,  whose 
achievements  and  pedigree  Vv'ere  to  be  handed  down  to 
posterity,  and  consequently  no  charters  or  other  evidences 
to  which  we  can  refer  for  its  history.  In  few  documents 
is  it  even  referred  to,  but  at  Hawkshead  it  was,  that  the 
mentioned  "  Custom  of  High  Furness  "  was  dated  in  24 
Hen.  Vni.  This  document,  which  is  signed  by  the  abbot 
and  six  monks,  is  interesting  as  giving  besides  these  names 
the  names  of  many  of  the  tenants  of  Furness  Fells.  Ano- 
ther code,  drawn  up  in  the  27  Queen  Eliz.,  is  useful  for 
the  same  reason,  and  bears  third  in  the  list  of  the  jury, 
the  name  of  a  member  of  the  family  of  Nicholsons  who 
were  settled  at  the  hall  for  several  generations  after  the 

Haw^kshead  hall  is  described  by  Whittaker  and  others 
as  something  between  a  manor  house  and  a  cell.  There 
is,  however,  as  will  be  seen  from  the  descriptive  part  of 
this  paper,  much  more  of  the  former  than  of  the  latter  in 
its  characteristijs.  On  ordinary  occasions  it  would  be  oc- 
cupied by  a  few  monks,  and  doubtless  also  by  a  few  lay 
brethren  ;  at  times  the  abbot  himself  would  visit  here  and 

*  See  West's  Antui.  of  Furness  p.  156. 



lodge  the  night.  On  such  occasions  the  lay  brethren  would 
be  sent  scouring  the  fells  far  and  wide  in  search  of  good 
fare  for  that  dignitary's  table.  Perhaps  they  would  send 
to  their  brother  at  his  lonely  cell  at  Monk  Coniston  for 
some  of  the  noted  char  from  the  lake.* 

In  connection  with  Hawkshead  under  monastic  rule, 
has  often  been  mentioned,  the  hill  standing  on  the  left 
about  halfway  between  the  hall  and  the  town,  and  bearing 
the  name  of  Gallowbarrow.  Burn  &  Nicolson  record  that 
there  was  a  hill  in  the  township  of  Troutbeck  called 
Gallow  how,  and  there  was  also  a  Gallowbar  belonging  to 
Kendal  Castle. t  Mr.  Beck  among  his  Hawkshead  papers 
his  a  note  on  this  subject,  and  he  conceives  that  on  it  were 
erected  the  gallows  when  the  lords  had  the  power  of  life 
and  death  over  their  tenants  :  both  How  and  Barrow 
signify  hill,  though  it  may  be  questioned  how  late  they 
were  in  use  :  it  is  possible  that  the  hill  may  have  been 
used  for  that  purpose  at  a  very  early  period  and  both  its 
ancient  name  and  usage  may  have  stuck.  I  believe  it  is 
now  occasionally  called  by  the  natives  Gallows  hill. 

The  reference  made  by  Mr  Beck  to  the  church  hill  as 
Gallaber,  which  is  evidently  closely  allied,  requires  both 
explanation  and  authentication  as  it  is  almost  inconceiv- 
able that  at  any  time  Hawkshead  could  produce  criminals 
enough  to  require  two  places  for  capital  punishment. 

In  later  times  there  was  a  gallows  near  Poolstang  in 
Coulthouse  meadow  near  the  head  of  the  lake,  which  still 
bears  the  name  of  gibbet  moss,  and  which  is  the  subject 
of  a  very  gruesome  entry  in  the  parish  registers  in  1672.]: 

*  There  is  said  to  have  been  a  cell  at  Monk  Coniston,  but  I  do  not  know  upon 
what  authority.  Mr.  Marshall  of  Monk  Coniston  tells  me  there  is  an  old  landing 
sta<^e  at  the  head  of  the  lake,  used  by  the  monks,  no  doubt  for  the  fishing,  and 
also  on  the  route  to  the  Abbey. 

t  Annals  of  Kendal,  p.  78.  There  is  Galloperpool  near  Kirkby  .'  Also  Gallow 
Barrow  on  Swarthmoor,  near  L'lverston. 

•*"  See  "  Hawkshead  Parish  Registers,"  by  the  Rev.  J.  Allen.  Vol.  4  of 
Transactions  Cumbd:  &  Westmord.  Arch.  &  Ant.  Soc.  p.  35. 



When  this  was  first  started  as  the  hanging  place  I  do  not 
know,  but  a  lady  residing  at  Colthouse  informs  me  that 
she  can  remember  the  stump  of  the  gallows  still  standing. 
About  25  years  previous  to  the  dissolution,  Hawkshead 
Hall  was  leased  to  one  Thomas  Dowling  for  three  years, 
and  with  reference  to  this  Mr.  Beck  has  preserved  the  fol- 
lowing interesting  indenture  in  his  Annales  Furnesienses.* 

"  This  indentur  made  the  viij  dale  February  in  the  fourth  yere  of 
King  Henry  viij  Bethwixt  Alex,  thabot  off  Furness  and  the  convent  of 
the  same  on  that  one  partie  and  Thomas  Dowlying  upone  that  oder 
partie  Witnesith  that  the  said  abbot  and  convent  hath  grauntted  to  the 
said  Thomas  the  keping  of  the  mansione  of  Hawkshed  Halle  with 
all  maner  of  housold  stuf  and  insight  thereto  belonging.  And  also  the 
lath  garth  and  the  greyne  with  the  mosse  close.  And  also  the  said 
abbot  and  convent  hath  sett  and  lattyne  to  ffarme  to  the  said  Thomas 
the  above  said  mansione  and  percel  for  the  terme  of  iij  years  next 
ensuying  the  date  hereof  and  also  Haukeshed  milne  a  close  called 
Penres  feld  and  the  half  of  a  close  called  Sedehaw  field  with  the  teth 
corne  of  Hawkeshed  feld  during  the  same  terme.  And  the  said 
Thomas  graunttes  to  pay  yerely  at  days  accustomed  to  the  said  abbot 
and  convent  for  the  said  milne  iiij  li  during  the  said  terme.  And  for 
the  foresaid  close  and  half  close  ixs.  Item  for  the  teth  corne  above 
said  xl^  And  moreover  vj^  viijd.  to  be  payd  at  the  pleasour  of  the 
said  abbot  and  convent.  Also  the  said  Thomas  graunttes  to  fiynde 
the  said  house  of  Haukeshed  of  all  maner  of  Elding  during  the  said 
terme  upon  his  awyne  proper  costes  and  charge.  And  also  the  said 
Thomas  graunttes  to  delyver  to  the  said  abbot  and  convent  in  thend 
of  the  said  terme  the  said  manson  with  all  the  stuf  and  housold 
thereto  belonging:  and  also  the  clausurs  above  reherssyd  as  well  and 
as  sufficiently  reperelled  as  he  hath  receyved  them  at  his  entree 
Except  the  Reperacions  of  the  Mylne  and  instrumentes  thereto  per- 
tenyng.  And  at  all  thes  articles  shal  be  well  and  treuly  kept  John 
Ricerson  bally  of  Gatside  is  bounden  for  the  said  Thomas  in  an  ob- 
ligacion  of  xxl.  In  witness  wherof  the  above  said  parties  inter- 
chaungeably  hath  sett  ther  sealles. 

Yefyn  the  day  and  yer  abovesaid." 

Mr.  Beck  remarks  that  this  brings  to  light  a  new  species 
of  profit  to  the  abbey  derived  from  their  extensive  woods 

*  Annales  Furnesienses,  p.  305. 


— that  of  splitting  wood  into  lathes,  which  was  here  car- 
ried on  in  a  garth  near  the  hall.  Lathe  garth  is,  however, 
simply  Cumhrian  for  barn  v'ard.  The  name  still  remains, 
and  until  latelv  a  ruinous  barn  stood  in  the  field.  Green, 
Penros  field  or  High  and  Low  Penrose,  Sedehaw  field  or 
High  and  Ljw  Seddo  also  preserve  their  titles.  Perhaps 
the  last  mentioned  is  also  to  be  found  in  the  adjacent 
Shadow  wood,  commonly  supposed  to  be  haunted,  and  to 
bear  its  name  from  the  dark  and  gloomy  gills  which  inter- 
sect it. 

The  last  information  I  can  gain  of  the  hall  is  in  the 
same  year  as  the  crash,  1537  ;  and  is  contained  in  the 
valuations  of  the  Estates  in  the  Commissioners  ceitificate 
of  the  abbey  revenues. 

"The  Manor  place  of  Hawkeshead  with  the  demayne  lands  thereto 
belonging  iiij  li  xvij'*  Hawkshead  myll  iiij  li." 

And  from  a  rental  of  the  abbt)t  preserved  at  Westminster 
Item  Haula  de  Hawkeshead  cum  pertinenciis  xl''. 

In  1537  Roger  Pyle,  Abbot  of  Furness,  Briand  Garnor, 
Prior,  and  twenty-eight  monks,  surrendered  the  abbey  to 
Henry  VHL  From  that  time  till  1662  the  liberty  and  lord- 
ship of  Furness  remained  in  the  Crown,  when  they  were 
granted  to  the  Duke  of  Albemarle,  from  whom  they  have 
descended  to  the  present  Duke  of  Buccleuch.  After  the 
dissolution  the  manor  house  and  demesne  lands  ceased  to 
be  in  actual  possession  of  the  lord,  and  became  the  seat 
and  residence  of  small  squires,  under  whose  hands  they 
have  slowly  but  steadily  gone  to  decay.  The  court  barons 
have  been  held  by  the  lord,  but  they  have  been  held  in  the 
village  and  not  in  the  court  room  at  the  hall,  nor  have  the 
boundary  beaters  started  on  their  expedition  from  thence 
armed  with  flail  and  cudgel  in  case  of  a  scrimmage  with 
the  tenants  of  a  neighbouring  manor*. 

*  Part  of  the  estate  still  continues  free  from  the  custom  of  tenant  riaht. 



'^rWO  years  after  the  surrender  of  the  monastery  (1539) 
the  hall  was  held  by  indenture  dat.  12  Nov.  30  Hen. 
VIII.*  by  one  Kendall,  and  about  twenty-six  years  later 
in  "  A  Decree  for  the  Abolishing  of  Bloomeries  in  High 
Furnes,"  "  the  hall  or  mansion  house  of  the  mannor  of 
Hawkshead,  with  appurtenances,  now  or  late  in  the  tenur 
of  Giles  Kendal  "  is  mentioned  as  free  from  the  custom  of 
tenant  right. t  These  two  Kendals  may  have  been  father 
and  son,  and  from  their  name  they  were  probably  of  local 
extraction.  Nothing  more,  however,  is  forthcoming  about 
them,  and  in  1578  Hawkshead  Hall  was  leased  to  Edward 
Fenton  for  twenty-one  years, |  and  four  years  later  (1582) 
to  Rowland  Nicholson  for  31  years  from  the  expiration  of 
Fenton's  lease. § 

These  Nicholsons,  as  will  be  seen,  inhabited  the  hall 
for  about  100  years,  and  were  a  family  of  considerable 
local  importance  as  their  marriages,  wills,  and  inventories 
will  show.  Oddly  enough  they  seem  to  have  had  no  arms, 
or  at  any  rate  not  to  have  used  any,  as  one  of  the  family 
appears  amongst  the  "disclaimers"  at  Dugdale's  West- 
morland Visitation  in  1666  ;  he,  however,  with  some  others 
in  the  same  position  were  the  subject  of  a  note  by  Machell, 
in  which  he  characterises  them  as  "  the  ancient  gentry  of 
the  north,"  and  expresses  surprise  at  their  being  "  dis- 
claimers."||  It  is  possible  that  political  bias  prevented 
the  family  from  attending  the  Visitation  or  they  objected 
to  the  fees  charged  by  the  heralds.     I  have  not,  however. 

*  Brit.  Mus.  Add.  MS.,  24,  Soo. 

t  West's  Aiitiijuilies  of  Furjiess.     Appendix  No.  ix. 

:  Beck  MS. 

§  Ibid.  I  wonder  if  by  any  chance  the  Nicolsons  or  Nicholsons  of  Crosby-on- 
Eden  came  from  Hawkshead.  From  their  common  surname  Rowland  (see 
Parish  Registers  of  Crosby-on-Edcn.  These  Transactions  vol.  ix.  p.  360)  it  seems 
at  any  rate  possible. 

(I  Local  Heraldic  Visitations  by  R.  S.  Ferguson,  vol.  ii.  Transactions  this  Soc. 
pp.  20,  24. 



been  able  to  find  either  in  the  Herald's  College,  or  amongst 
their  deeds,  any  coat  armour  which  they  used  ;  nor  is 
there  among  the  Cumberland,  Westmorland,  or  Lanca- 
shire Visitations  any  pedigree  of  the  family  ;  I  was  on  the 
point  of  giving  up  searching  for  any  chronicled  details  of 
the  family  when  Mr.  A.  Scott  Gatty,  York  Herald,  called 
my  attention  to  a  pedigree  of  five  generations  in  Dug- 
dale's  \'isitation  of  Northumberland  and  Durham.  This 
turned  out  to  be  the  family  itself,  and  the  reason  for  their 
not  being  entered  in  Lancashire  was  that  there  was  a 
branch  then  living  at  Newcastle  in  a  considerable  com- 
mercial position.  This  pedigree  begins  with  John,  the 
father  of  our  lessee,  Rowland,  and  gives  four  Hawkshead, 
and  two  Newcastle  generations.  The  Newcastle  branch 
of  the  family  were  merchants,  and  some  of  them  held  high 
civic  posts,  while  the  elder  branch  at  Hawkshead  seem  to 
have  been  quiet  country  gentlemen. 

It  is  improbable  that  the  Nicholsons  belonged  to  Hawks- 
head before  they  came  to  the  Hall ;  i.t  may  be  seen  that 
the  first  in  the  pedigree  died  at  Hawkshead  nearly  ten 
years  previous  to  the  leasing  of  the  estate  to  Rowland  • 
there  were  also  three  baptisms  and  one  burial  previous  to 
this,  but  they  were  all  probably  children  and  grandchildren 
of  this  John.  Neither  do  there  seem  to  be  any  wills  of 
Hawkshead  Nicholsons  proved  in  the  Archdeaconry  of 
Richmond  previous  to  1590.  On  the  whole  I  am  inclined 
to  believe  that  they  came  from  somewhere  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Kendal.  From  the  calendar  of  Richmond 
wills  it  would  seem  that  Nicholsons  were  numerous  in 
that  district  from  early  times.  Ann,  widow  of  Christopher 
Nicholson  of  Crook,  and  daughter  of  William  Carus  of 
Awsthwaite,  who  died  in  1557  ^"^  whose  will  is  published 
in  vol.  26  of  the  Surtees  Society  proceedings,  makes  her 
father-in-law,  John  Nicholson,  an  executor.  It  is  highly 
probable  tha>t  this  was  John  Nicholson,  the  first  in  our 
pedigree;    Allan    Nicholson,   the    third    in   our  pedigree, 



seems  to  have  owned  property  at  Dillakar  in  Westmorland. 
This  is  very  plainly  demonstrated  by  his  inventory.  We 
also  find  baptismal  entries  of  issue  ol  another  Allan  in  the 
parish  registers,  whose  connection  with  the  first  Allan  it 
is  hard  to  decide,  but  he  was  probably  either  a  younger 
son  or  nephew,  of  whose  identity  with  Allan,  ofKirklands, 
in  the  parish  of  Kendal,  there  seems  to  me  very  little 
doubt.  It  may  be  also  noticed  that  several  of  the  family 
married  members  of  well-known  Westmorland  families 
residing  about  Kendal. 

The  Nicholsons,  therefore,  probably  came  to  Hawks- 
head  a  few  years  before  they  settled  at  the  Hall.  John 
died  in  1573,  an.l  probably  never  lived  in  the  Hall.  His 
son  Rowland  the  first  lessee,  in  1590.  In  1606  (3  James 
I.)  it  was  leased  to  Allan,  son  of  Rowland  Nicholson,  for 
thirty-one  years,  upon  determination  of  the  former  lease, 
at  a  rent  of  £12  17s.  per  ann.'^'t  He  died  in  [616,  and  we 
have  an  interesting  memento  of  him  left  in  the  rare  little 
work  by  Richard  Braithwaite,  the  author  of  "  Drunken 
Barnaby,"  entitled  "  Remains  after  death,"  and  published 
in  1618. 

Upon  the  late  decease  of  his  much  lamented  friend  and  kinsman, 
Allen  Nicholson,  a  zealous  &  industrious  member  both  in  church 
and  commonweale. 

Hauxide  laments  thy  Death,  Grasmyre  not  so, 
Wishing  Thou  hadst  been  dead  ten  yeares  agoe  ; 
For  then  her  market  had  not  so  been  done, 
But  had  suruiu'd  thy  Age  in  time  to  come  : 
And  well  may  Hauxide  grieue  at  thy  Departure. 
•'  Since  shee  recieu'd  from  thee  her  ancient  charter, 
Which  Grasmyre  sues  (since  Thou  art  turn'd  to  grasse) 
To  bring  about  &  now  hath  broght  to  passe. 

*  Beck  MS. 

t  Allan  m,  Susan  dau.  of  Daniel  Hechstetter,  one  of  the  German  Copper 
mining  family  at  Keswick.  See  two  papers  by  J.  F.  Crosthwaite,  F.S.A.  (i), 
Crosthwaite  Registers,  vol  ii.,  and  (2)  The  Colony  of  German  miners  at  Keswick, 
vol.  vi.  of  Transactions  Cumb.  &  West.  Arch.  8i  Ant.  Sec. 



This  much  for  Thee  :  nor  would  I  have  thee  know  it, 
For  thy  pure  zeale  could  nere  endure  a  Poet ; 
Yet  for  the  Loue  I  bore  thee,  and  that  Blood 
Which  twixt  us  both  by  Native  course  hath  flow'd  : 
"  This  will  I  sa}',  and  may;  for  sure  I  am 
"The  North  nere  bred  sincerer  Purer  man. 

Drunken  Barnaby's  knowledge  of  his  family  pedigree 
seems  here  to  have  been  somewhat  at  fault ;  there  was 
probably  no  blood  relationship  between  him  and  Allan 
Nicholson.  A  niece  of  the  latter,  Eleanor,  married 
Braithwait's  cousin's  son,  William  Braithwait,  of  Amble- 
side. They  were  probably  also  connected  through  the 
Bindloss's,  but  the  kinship  was  very  slight.  Neither  is  he 
correct  in  attributing  the  obtaining  of  the  charter  of 
Hawkshead  Market,  if  that  is  what  is  alluded  to,  to 
Nicholson,  for  it  was  Adam  Sandys  who  received  the 
patent  for  that  purpose  from,  James  I.  i\Ir.  Gibson,  who 
published  part  of  the  above  epitaph  in  an  article  on 
Hawkshead,  comments  upon  this,  and  suggests  that  the 
solution  may  be  found  in  the  word  ancient,  W'hich  would 
not  be  used  if  the  m.arket  charter  was  referred  to.  This 
seems  true,  and  it  is  possible  that  something  else  was  in 
Braithwait's  head  at  the  time. 

The  high  terms  in  which  Braithwait  speaks  of  Allan 
Nicholson  is  almost  the  only  information  we  get  con- 
cerning the  family  character.  Braithwait  w^as  an  out- 
spoken man,  and  he  evidently  regarded  Nicholson  with  a 
very  sincere  affection.  As  the  "  Remains  after  death  " 
was  published  in  i6iS,  it  was  evident!}'  written  soon  after 
his  death. 

It  is  worthy  of  notice  how  slightly  Hawkshead  is  noticed 
in  "  Drunken   Barnaby's  Journal  "  ;   it  occurs,  I  believe, 
once  only. 
"  Thence  to  Hauxides  marish  pasture," 

when  he  visited  it  in  his  capacity  of   horse  dealer  ;    as 
Richard   Braithwait  he  probably  knew  Haw^kshead  well, 



and  was  there  well  known  and  respected,  it  being  close  to 
the  Ambleside  seat  of  that  family;  but  as  the  discreditable 
Drunken  Barnaby  he  did  not  care  to  be  associated  with  a 
place  so  near  his  family  home.  His  true  character  has 
been  fully  discussed  elsewhere. 

Allan  was  succeeded  by  his  eldest  son  Nathaniel,  who 
is  said  to  have  been  a  captain  on  the  Parliamentary  side  : 
an  entry  in  the  Parish  Registers  records  a  tragic  event  at 
the  Hall  in  his  time. 

"  1633  Ap.  29  Leonard  Oxenhouse  who  hanc;ed  himselfe  in  Nathaniel 
Nicholson's  stable  burd." 

one  of  the  many  suicides  chronicled  in  the  Hawkshead 
Registers  ;  he  would  probably  be  a  farm  servant  at  the 
Hall,  and  the  stable  may  have  been  the  present  stable 
under  the  court  room. 

With  Nathaniel  we  come  to  a  genealogical  puzzle. 
According  to  Burn  &  Nicolson'''  he  married  the  daughter 
and  heiress  of  Christopher  Gilpin  of  Kentmere  Hall  in 
Westmorland,  who  was  the  last  of  his  name  there.  It  is, 
however,  proved  that  Christopher  Gilpin  married  Eliza- 
beth, daughter  of  Nathaniel  Nicholson,  as  his  second  wife. 
Mr.  Jackson,  F.S.A.,  who  has  published  a  pedigree  of  the 
Gilpins,t  evidently  thought  that  there  were  two  Nathaniels 
as  he  had  inserted  both  matches  in  his  pedigree.  As  there 
was  but  one  Nathaniel  this  of  course  is  absurd,  as  Chris- 
topher Gilpin  is  said  to  have  had  no  issue  by  his  first  wife, 
and,  consequently,  by  the  above  supposition,  they  would 
be  marrying  their  own  grand-daughters.  Chancellor  Fer- 
guson, F.S.A.,  suggests  that  the  solution  may  be,  that 
Christopher  Gilpin  had  a  daughter  by  his  first  wife,  Mag- 
dalen Pen.     Nathaniel  would  then  marrv  his  own  daugh- 

*  History  of  Westmoreland,  vol.  i.  p.  137. 

t  Memoirs  of  Dr.  Gilpin,   Prebendary  of  Salisbury,  ed.  by  Jackson,  published 
for  this  Society  by  C.  Thurnam  &  Sons,  Carlisle. 



ter's  Step-daughter.  This,  I  think,  is  very  unHkely,  as, 
whoever  she  was,  she  died  thirty  years  before  her  father, 
as  the  extracts  from  the  Parish  Register  will  show,  and 
was  then  the  mother  of  a  large  family.  Altogether,  I  am 
inclined  to  think  it  is  a  mistake  on  the  part  of  Nicolson  & 
Burn.  Unfortunately,  neither  the  wills  of  Nicholson,  or 
Gilpin,  or  their  wives,  which  might  have  cleared  up  the 
difficulty,  are  forthcoming  ;  at  anyrate  among  those  proved 
at  Richmond,  where  all  the  other  family  wills  are. 

One  of  the  results  of  this  connection  between  the  Gil- 
pins  and  Nicholsons  was  a  lawsuit  about  the  Kentmere 
Hall  estate,  which  ran  on  for  some  time.  Christopher 
Gilpin,  it  appears,  made  two  conveyances  of  the  estate  to 
different  persons,  firstly,  by  conveyance  dat.  March  3,  1650 
to  Nath.  Nicholson  and  (according  to  the  printed  copy  of 
the  case  among  the  Hall  deeds)  to  defraud  Nicholson, 
made  another  conveyance,  to  Mary  Philipson,  dat.  March 
:  the  same  year,  but  not  executed  till  seven  years  later. 
The  Philipsons  afterwards  claimed  the  estate,  but  as  they 
had  apparently  never  paid  a  penn}-  for  it  Nicholson  kept  in 
possession,  he  having  actually  paid  £"1,520.  About  1672 
both  Mr.  Gilpin  and  he  died,  and  S"^  Christopher  Philipson 
sued  his  grand-daughters  and  heirs,  and  eventually  got 
the  estate  partly  by  law  and  partly  by  purchase.  Through 
all  this  the  Gilpins  seem  to  have  kept  on  good  terms  with 
the  Nicholsons,  as  Christopher  Gilpin,  his  wife,  and  two 
other  members  of  the  family  died  at  Hawkshead  Hall.  It 
was  this  Nathaniel  Nicholson,  of  Kentmere  Hall,  as  he  is 
styled,  who  appears  as  "  disclaimer"  at  the  Westmorland 
Visitation  in  1666.*  He  died  soon  after  November  24, 
1671,  and  as  his  eldest  son  Daniel  was  buried  Dec.  i, 
1671,  at  Hawkshead,  their  deaths  must  have  taken  place 
verv  close  together.     Nathaniel's  burial   is  not  registered 

*  Christopher   Gilpin    of   Kentmere   was  also   a    "  disclaimer "    at   the   same 



at  Hawkshead,  so  he  was  probably  residing  at  Kentmere. 
Two  other  families  of  Nicholson  make  their  appearance  in 
the  Parish  Register  about  this  time,  and  I  am  unable  to 
fix  their  proper  place  in  the  pedigree,  but  from  their 
christian  names  they  were,  doubtless,  offshoots.  One  was 
of  Lawson  Park,  a  dreary  farm  on  the  fells  between  Grize- 
dale  and  Coniston  Lake,  and  the  other  of  Keenground  and 
Walker  Ground.  There  had  been  some  litigation  in  the 
time  of  Queen  Elizabeth  between  Allan  Nicholson  and 
Christopher  Sands,  concerning  Lawson  Park,*  and  this 
renders  it  probable  that  the  Nicholsons  we  now  find  living 
there  are  the  same  family  with  those  of  Hawkshead  Hall. 
One  of  them,  Dorothy,  who  died  here  in  1682,  may  be  a 
daughter  of  Nathaniel,  but  there  is  no  proof  of  this. 

Daniel  had  four  children,  one  son  and  three  daughters, 
one  daughter  died  young,  and  doubtless  also  the  son,  as 
nothing  more  is  heard  of  him.  Beatrix,  the  elder  of  the 
two  surviving  sisters,  married  successively  three  husbands, 
outliving  the  third.  Her  sister,  Judith  Carus,  "  for  valu- 
able consideration  "  passed  her  interest  and  title  to  the 
Hawkshead  Hall  Estate  to  her  sister  Beatrice,  by  whom 
it  came  to  the  issue  of  her  second  husband,  John  Copley. 

He  was  of  the  Gosforth  family  of  that  name,  and  in  his 
will  mentions  his  brother  William,  of  Gosforth,  and  his 
sister  Ann,  the  wife  of  John  Ponsonby  of  Hale. 

The  other  two  Copleys  who  owned  the  estate  were  also 
Johns.  Of  the  second  little  is  known  except  that  he  paid 
six  guineas  to  the  Duke  of  Montague  in  1720  for  leave  to 
fell  all  the  oak  trees  and  timber  growing  on  the  estate. 
By  this  he  probably  did  an  incalculable  amount  of  mis- 
chief, and  to  this  we  may  attribute  the  present  lack  of 
timber  on  the  Hawkshead  Hall  estate. 

The  last  of  the  name  of  Copley  was  an  absentee,  and 
lived  in  Sussex.     In   1756  he  sold  the  estate  to  Samuel 

*  Cal.  of  Fleadins^s,  Uutchy  of  Lancaster,  3G  Eliz. 



Irton  of  Westminster,  a  member  of  Irton  Hall  family. 
Samuel  Irton  died  in  1766.  By  his  wife  Harriet  he  had 
two  sons,  first,  George,  who  died  and  was  succeeded  by 
his  brother,  Edward  Lamplui^di  Irton,  who  married  a 
dauf^hter  of  —  Hodgson,  of  Hawkshead.  By  conveyance 
dat.  1792,  he  sold  the  property  to  Wilham  Fell,  of  Ulver- 
ston,  iMerchant,  who,  by  his  wife  Martha  had  a  son, 
Samuel  Irton  Fell  (bap.  1801,  Sep.  26,  at  Ulverston,)  who 
in  i860  again  sold  the  estate  to  my  grandfather,  James 
Swainson  Cowper  Essex,  in  whose  family  it  now  remains. 


IT  now  only  remains  to  give  a  description  of  the  building, 
the  descent  of  which  has  been  traced  in  the  two  fore- 
going parts. 

About  lialf  a  mile  to  the  north  of  the  town  of  Hawks- 
head,  at  the  angle  where  the  Coniston  and  Ambleside 
roads  join,  stands,  embosomed  in  trees,  all  that  now  re- 
mains of  the  ancient  house  called  Hawkshead  Hall.  A 
stream  called  Hall  Beck  flows  round  the  west  and  south 
sides,  whilst  on  the  north,  and  also  on  the  west  beyond 
the  stream  it  is  closed  in  by  higher  ground,  which  is  now 
occupied  by  a  rookery.  The  other  two  sides,  the  east  and 
the  south,  are  bounded  by  the  main  roads  to  Coniston  and 

Of  the  whole  range  of  buildings  I  do  not  believe  that 
more  than  half  remain.  Its  plan  has  been  a  quadrangle, 
and,  until  about  twenty  years  ago,  when  my  grandfather 
unfortunately  destroyed  the  central  buildings,  three  sides 
of  this  quadrangle  were  still  standing  ;  either  more  build- 
ings or  a  high  wall  once  completed  the  fourth  side. 

If  we  look  at  the  building  now  standmg  we  see  a  gate 
house,  and   to  the  west  of  this  an  old,  farm-like  building 


0  nalq[ti]3  dnn  iineluthi^IC  ^n 


^5^  .qfid  ,o^ 
i  .ar/1  EfrnA 

Lt    .vo'/.    .qfid    ) 
,is:di  Of.  .'pnA  .-; 

-.7  jsi  iifl  V(l  (Di:  ■!•)!■■»:>•. 
"  .H  1e  tLt-iii  c 


V;0?..I0H3lVI    t«HO{^ 


.4iP,di  '(lul_  i£  -gnivil  .H  in  .Orfli  \;j^.nB[  / 

Bevis  Nicholson 
hap.  Oct.   17   1660,  at     of  Egremc 
H.  at  Gosfort 

1 1  Dec.  16 


-Tjiii  IsbnaM  '{d>l3i/I  lo 
jc.(x)i  qi  .n£|_  .i£fn  ,"«90 

1g  aYbftfiS  •'h'bS  lo  .  . . .-  ,:::...:  ... 
ir,  cROi  3nuL  -ififn  noaniswi;  snnA  ••;.■ 
.H  ic  .o?">i  '''.  .cb''l  .lud  ,?-5?'*f  ?<:  vfit/.  .iq  ; 

John  Copley=     QjyK 

of  Hawkshead  Hall,  bap. 
Oct.  29  1690,  at  H.  Will 
Dec.  20  1750,  pr.  Jan.  23 
1754,  bur.  Dec.  2  1753  at 

bur. ,  fjSl 




S'larfjom  eirf  ni  banoiJcKU 

.Inj  .do 

I/"    -..,f  • 

33/.aD  ,Y3JioD  ja r/5/.a 

if  Hawkshead  Hall,  and  West  Ch[     ^^- ,   qj.   ^„£^  .q^d        .lud  ,is^i  01  .JaO  .qfid     ie  .T2uA  .qcd  .ijiinE 
1720  at  H.  sold  the  estate  to  Sam«^£4"„j  fiqcjiqa  ^o^^i  .H  Ib  ,t:E\i  i '<lu( 

March  9,  1756.  .Ij-b 

;Bf5igra  of  tljt  l^amilits  of  X^irljolson  nnii  C[Dplfn  of  lEfcatohsljcaJl  iE^all. 

Jlrlii.SlS."'4'?i9),d.*^  V| 

ii^hV  'i!fi. 

JOI.K  N.CII(.t*,«  lOHX  NICHOLSON  RokrtI,  holso 
p.liec.i,  bur.  Uk.  bsp.  Scp.KS  idjo,  nl  H.  bap.  Dec.  »  iCj^.  al 
bap.  Sep.  M  i63t.  at  H. 

liltinitn^  Si^t,  tlcrk,  h>^  *P' JO. 


'ff^^fTfrf---     '^ 


-T 1L 




with  chimneys,  some  of  which  are  of  the  cylindrical 
(sometimes  called  the  Flemish)  shape.  The  gate  house 
has  numerous  architectural  features,  including  an  early 
English  fireplace,  while  the  latter  has  no  architectural 
detail,  unless  we  count  the  chimneys,  which  may  be  of 
any  age.  From  sketches  and  photographs  which  exist, 
showing  the  central  and  destroyed  portion,  we  know  it 
to  have  been  of  the  same  character  as  the  farm-like  build- 
ings, though  some  of  the  windows  had  oaken  mullions, 
probably  of  16th  or  17th  century  date.  In  spite  of  this 
absence  of  detail  there  is  evidence  that  this  part,  or  a 
building  that  this  part  replaced,  was  as  old  as,  and,  pos- 
sibly, older  than  the  court  house. 

The  gate  house,  or  as  it  is  usually  called,  the  court 
house,  is  built  of  rough  rubble,  many  of  the  stones  of 
which  may  have  come  from  the  bed  of  the  stream  ;  the 
dressings  of  the  windows,  arch,  doorway,  and  niche  are 
of  red  sandstone,  probably  from  the  same  quarries  which 
supplied  the  material  for  Furness  Abbey.  The  quoins  at 
the  angles  of  the  building  are  of  Silurian  stone,  roughly 
trimmed.  The  gateway  passage  is  entered  by  a  drop  arch 
of  sandstone  ashlar  with  a  plain  chamfer ;  the  keystone 
of  the  arch  is  sculptured  with  foliage,  which  Beck  con- 
jectured to  be  sprigs  of  deadly  nightshade,  in  allusion  to 
the  connection  of  the  manor  with  Furness  Abbey.  Above 
this  is  a  heavy  arch  of  relief  fo-rmed  of  flat  Silurian  flags ; 
over  thi>s  is  another  sculptured  stone,  considered  by  the 
same  authority  to  be  a  coat  of  arms,  but  which  is  un- 
doubtedly an  animal's  head — probably  t'hat  of  a  lion. 
Above  this  again,  and  straight  over  the  keystone  of  the 
arch  is  a  niche,  with  pinnacles  and  crockets,  which,  until 
about  1834,  contained  a  seated  figure  of  the  Virgin.  The 
passage  through  the  gatehouse  is  not  vaulted  ;  the  side 
walls  containing  the  passage  are  not  bonded  into  the  side 
walls  of  the  building  and  their  masonry  seems  more 
modern  ;  the  inner  portal  opening  into  the  court  is  not 



ashlar,  but  of  similar  shape  to  the  outer  arch.  On  either 
side  of  the  passage  is  a  room,  neither  of  which  is  vaulted  : 
that  on  the  north  side,  probably  the  porter's  lodge,  has  a 
round-headed  doorway  with  a  plain  chamfer  leading  into 
the  court  ;*  that  on  the  south  has  a  splayed  loop,  which 
may  be  ancient,  looking  towards  the  road,  and  is  entered 
by  a  rough  flat-arched  door,  without  ashlar,  from  the 
court.  Neither  of  these  rooms  seems  to  have  had  doors 
from  the  passage. 

The  room  above  the  gateway  is  40  ft.  10  in.  in  length, 
and  21  ft.  in  breadth,  and  is  entered  at  the  north  end  by 
an  external  flight  of  stairs  and  a  doorway,  beneath  which 
is  a  broad  rough  arched  doorway  entering  the  room  be- 
neath, hue  now  blocked.     Mr.  ]3eck  in  his  MS.  says: — 

"This  room  has  been  entered  by  a  flight  of  steps  from  the  north  end, 
through  an  arched  doorway,  some  of  the  mouldings  yet  remaining 
about  it,  and  lighted  by  five  trefoil-headed  windows." 

The  mouldings  have  now  disappeared,  and  of  the  five 
windows,  two,  those  looking  into  the  court,  have  gone  al- 
togother,  two  more  are  mutilated,  and  the  large  one  on 
the  south  alone  remains  perfect.  This  is  a  good  pointed 
window  v/ithout  transoms  ;  it  has  been  protected  by  iron 
bars,  the  holes  for  which  remain,  and  the  cinque  foils  in 
the  head  are  grooved  for  glazing  ;  the  tracery  in  the  head 
is  of  early  perpendicular  character,  uncommon  in  design, 
and  its  date  perhaps  about  i4io.t  It  possesses  the 
curious  feature  of  not  being  placed  in  the  centre  of  its 
gable  but  considerably  east  of  it.  Two  other  windows 
remain  on  the  east  side  ;  they  have  been  square-headed, 
of  two  trefoil-headed  lights  each,  one  is  almost  entirely 
destroyed,  but  the  other  is  perfect,  with  the  exception  of 
the  mullion  dividing  the  lights.     On  the  same  side  nearer 

*  As  a  matter  of  fact  this  arch  is  slightly  horse  shoe  shaped  ;  this  may  possibly 
arise  from  settlement, 
t  This  date  was  assigned  to  it  by  Mr.  Loftus  Brock,  F.S.A.,  from  a  photograph. 



'TfaiL-fiei .   M- 




to  the  south  than  the  north  end,  is  a  red  sandstone  fire- 
place v/ith  a  flat  segmental  arch,  having  as  its  sole  orna- 
ment the  tooth  pattern  boldly  cut  in  the  angle,  the  teeth 
being  placed  very  close  together.  The  chimney  from  this 
fireplace  is  destroyed.  There  seems  to  have  been  a  dais 
in  the  southern  part  of  this  room,  but  it  has  disappeared, 
and,  in  fact,  the  whole  floor  is  lower  than  formerly.  The 
open  roof  is  ancient,  but  not  original,  and  consists  only  of 
tie  beam,  collar  beam,  and  rafters,  thus  being  exactly 
similar  to  the  roof  of  the  parish  church  ;  the  southern 
bay,  above  where  I  suppose  the  dais  to  have  been,  seems 
to  have  been  ceiled  at  some  period,  as  there  are  traces  of 
laths.  Externally  this  building  has  neither  buttress, 
plinth,  string,  nor  offset  of  any  kind  ;  and  the  gables  are 
now  roughly  corbie  stepped. 

I  have  taken  this  building  first,  as,  architecturally,  it  is 
the  most  important,  and  as  the  contiguous  buildings^ 
which  were,  at  least  as  old,  are  destroyed.  On  the 
whole  it  seems  that  this  gate  house  was  erected  early  in 
the  13th  century,  perhaps  soon  after  the  time  ^vhen 
Honorius,  Archdeacon  of  Richmond,  granted  permission 
to  the  convent  to  celebrate  mass  at  their  private  altars 
with  wax  candles ;  for  which  purpose  he  assigned  the 
chapelry  of  Hawkshead.  Of  this  13th  century  building 
nothing,  except  the  fireplace,  perhaps  the  round  arch  and 
some  of  the  walling,  seems  to  remain  :  it  has  been  com- 
pletely overhauled  in  the  beginning  of  the  15th  century, 
which  is  the  date  assigned  to  the  windows,  archway,  and 
niche  (from  a  photograph)  by  Mr.  Loftus  Brock,  F.S.A., 
to  whose  kind  help  I  am  much  indebted. 

The  buildings  destroyed,  which  consisted  of  the  hall, 
and  probably  the  chamber,  connected  the  gate  house  with 
the  kitchen  and  offices,  which  are  still  standing ;  they,  the 
hall  and  chamber  (and,  possibly,  the  offices  themselves,) 
I  have,  for  a  long  time,  considered  to  have  been  older 
than    the   gate  house  for  the   following  reason.     At  the 



south  end  of  the  latter,  and  beneath  the  pointed  window, 
is  a  small  lean-to  building,  in  local  parlance,  a  "  bull  hull," 
of  comparatively  modern  date,  one  wall  of  which  being 
all  that  remains  of  the  gable  wall  of  the  pulled  down  por- 
tion, which  here  joined  the  court  house,  corner  to  corner, 
the  two  gables  thus  forming  a  right  angled  recess.  Well 
in  this  "  bull  hull  "  it  will  be  seen  that  the  wall  of  the 
gate  house  is  not  bonded  into  the  fragment  but  built 
against  it,  thus  causing  it  to  appear  like  a  later  building. 
But  if  the  court  house  be  carefully  examined  it  will  be 
found  that  very  few  of  the  walls  have  bond,  for  instance 
the  side  walls  of  the  entrance  passage,  as  well  as  other 
main  walls  in  the  building.  This  peculiarity  seems  there- 
fore to  be  original,  and  the  walls  throughout  have  ap- 
parently been  run  up  and  built  independently  of  one 
another  in  a  most  curiously  rough-and-ready  sort  of 
fashion.  The  want  of  bond,  therefore,  at  this  corner, 
probably  carries  no  evidence  of  difference  of  age  with  it, 
especially  as  the  character  of  masonry  in  the  two  walls  is 
similar.  The  destroyed  portion  was  then  possibly  of  the 
same  age  as  the  court  house ;  yet  it  was  much  less  in- 
teresting, having  been  adapted  to  domestic  requirements 
in  more  modern  times,  and  at  the  time  of  its  demolition 
contained  no  ancient  windows,  nor,  as  far  as  can  be  ascer- 
tained, was  anything  of  the  sort  discovered  during  its 
destruction.  In  length  the  destroyed  portion  was  59  ft. 
4  in.,  in  breadth  23ft.  6  in.,  a  perfectly  plain  building, 
roughcast,  and  with  square  late  windows.  It  was  pulled 
down  at  two  different  times  :  firstly,  the  part  next  the 
gate  house,  then  the  remainder  up  to  the  kitchen  wing, 
which  is  left  standing.  The  part  first  destroyed  had  two 
or  three  windows  of  small  size,  with  oaken  mullicms  and 
a  chimney  in  front,  as  well  as  a  small  one  in  the  Eastern 
gable,  which  took  the  smoke  from  a  fireplace  under  it  ; 
this  can  still  be  seen  in  the  fragment  of  wall,  and  is  quite 
plain  with  a  massive  beam  for  a  mantel  tree.     The  other 



destroyed  part  was  of  greater  size,  and  was,  undoubtedly, 
the  hall.  It  had  one  window  in  front,  of  the  same  shape, 
but  larger  than  the  others,  and  when  destroyed  had  no 
oak  mullions,  but  an  ordinary  sash.  A  large  fireplace  of 
the  same  description  as  the  last,  may  be  seen  in  the  wall 
of  the  kitchen  wing,  which  warmed  this  room.  This  wall 
is  no  less  than  9  ft.  thick,  and  to  the  right  of  the  fireplace 
is  a  doorway  leading  to  the  domestic  offices,  which  con- 
sist of  two  chief  rooms  on  the  ground  floor,  one  the  kit- 
chen, the  great  ovens  of  which  are  undoubtedly  contained 
in  the  thick  wall  before-mentioned,  and  the  other,  perhaps 
the  buttery.  There  are  several  rooms  above,  which  are 
now  approached  by  a  massive  oak  staircase,  with  turned 
balusters,  of  Elizabethan  or  Jacobean  date.  On  the  roof, 
and  supported  by  the  thick  wall,  is  a  curious  shaped 
clustered  chimney  stack.* 

Now  here,  it  would  seem,  we  have  the  shell  of  an 
ancient  house,  probably  mostly  of  the  13th  century.  The 
unvarying  plan  of  early  manor  houses  was  always  a  large 
hall  in  the  centre,  occupying  the  whole  height  of  the 
house,  and  flanked  on  one  side  by  the  chamber,  with  the 
solar  above  it,  and  on  the  other  b_v  the  kitchen  wing.  As 
a  rule,  however,  the  chamber  and  solar  were  also  in  a 
wing,  thrown  either  backwards  or  forwards,  or  sometimes 
both,  which  does  not  appear  to  have  been  the  case  here. 
At  the  adjacent  manor  house  of  Coniston,  however,  they 
seem  to  have  been  under  the  same  roof-tree  as  the  hall. 
In  the  centre  was  the  hall,  its  length,  as  near  as  can  now 
be  ascertained,  about  34  ft.,  and  its  breadth  about  19  ft. 

*  Such  stacks  are  fairly  common  in  brick,  but  very  rare,  in  most  districts,  in 
stone,  and  when  they  do  occur,  seldom  contain  more  than  two  flues.  The  one  in 
question  contains  four,  and  another  at  the  north  end  of  this  wing,  two  ;  which 
latter  might  be  called  a  double  Flemish.  Although  such  chimneys  are  rare  in 
most  districts,  I  could  cite  several  instances  of  the  last  shape  in  this  locality. 
Clustered  stacks  first  appeared,  I  believe,  late  in  the  15th  century.  For  com- 
parison see  "The  Flemings  and  their  chimneys  in  Pembrokeshire,  by  Rev.  W. 
D.  B.  Allen,"  vol.  41,  Journ.  Arch.  Assoc. 



Beyond  tliis,  on  the  east,  the  chamher  and  solar,  throui^h 
the  first  of  which  would  be  the  approach  to  the  court 
room,  which  seems  to  have  been  by  a  newel.  At  the  op- 
posite end  of  the  hall,  to  the  right  of  the  fireplace,  is  a 
single  door  leading  to  the  offices.  Here  was,  doubtless, 
at  one  time  the  screens,  but  when  the  ancient  method  of 
warming  the  hall  by  brazier  and  louvre  was  abandoned, 
the  fireplace  was  put  in  the  end  wall,  and,  of  course,  the 
screens  would  be  destroyed  at  the  same  time.  Here  also 
in  the  court  was  the  main  entrance  which  does  not  seem, 
as  was  usual,  to  have  had  a  corresponding  door  opposite. 

The  fourth  side  of  the  quadrangle  is  now  occupied  by  a 
modern  wall,  but  in  the  north-west  corner  of  the  gate- 
house there  are  indications  of  a  very  high  ancient  wall  of 
another  range  of  buildings.  The  total  frontage  of  the 
wdiole  building  is  115  ft. 

The  actual  use  of  the  room  over  the  gateway,  commonly 
known  as  tne  court  room,  perhaps  requires  some  little  dis- 
cussion. If  the  hall  had  extended  to  the  gate-house  it 
would  have  occupied  the  position  of  the  solar,  but  it  is  too 
large,  in  comparison  with  the  rest  of  the  building,  fc;r  such 
a  purpose,  and  I  am  not  aware  of  any  instances  of  the 
solar  being  placed  over  a  gateway. 

A  manor  house  belonging  to  an  abbey  might  be  ex- 
pected to  contain  a  chapel,  but  with  the  exception  that 
its  chief  window  has  no  transoms,  which  is  the  usual  dis- 
tinction between  ecclesiastical  and  domestic  windows, 
this  room  does  not  possess  many  of  the  characteristics  of 
a  chapel.  There  is,  indeed,  at  Keenground  a  sandstone 
water  vessel  which  came  from  here,  and  which  may  have 
been  a  piscina,  but,  on  the  other  hand,  it  may  have  been 
a  water  drain  in  some  other  part  of  the  house,  and  as  its 
original  position  is  not  known  it  is  useless  as  evidence. 
Taking  it  all  in  all,  it  is  probable  that  this  room  was  used, 
like  many  others  in  early  times,  for  various  purposes,  but 
from  its  size  its  seems  likely  that  the  traditional  name  of 



court  room  is  fairly  correct.  The  external  stair  on  the 
north  perhaps  favours  this  theory,  as  by  it  the  tenants 
would  assemble  to  pay  suit  and  service,  while  the  lord,  in 
this  case  the  abbot  himself,  were  he  present,  with  other 
officials,  would  enter  from  the  hall  or  chamber  by  the 
newel  staircase. 

To  the  W.  of  the  Hall,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
stream,  stands  the  ancient  water  corn  mill  of  the  manor, 
whither  all  the  tenants  were  bound  to  bring  their  corn  to 
be  ground,  and  to  suffer  mulcher  at  the  miller's  hands. 
At  the  beginning  of  the  17th  century  there  were  some 
curious  disputes  concerning  the  rights  of  other  people  to 
erect  mills,  which  were  eventually  suppressed.  It  is  still 
a  part  of  the  Hall  estate,  and  is  now  combined  with  a 
saw  mill. 

Lastly,  there  seems  to  have  been  no  moat,  although  the 
situation  is  admirabl}'  suited  for  such  a  contrivance.  Per- 
haps such  an  arrangement  should  not  be  looked  for  in  a 
building  of  this  semi-ecclesiastical  character,  but,  as  has 
been  shown,  the  house  partakes  more  of  the  character  of 
an  ordinary  manor  house  than  anything  else.  The  beck 
by  which  it  is  enclosed  upon  two  sides  would  form  little 
or  no  protection,  yet  in  this  case  defence  does  not  seem  to 
have  been  considered  necessary. 

Note: — I  am  much  indebted  to  Mr.  W.  Alcock  Beck  of  Esthwaite 
Lodge,  for  allowing  me  to  search,  and  make  extracts  from  the  papers 
and  MS.S.  of  the  author  of  "  Annales  Furnesienses  "  now  in  his 


Wills  and  Inventories  proved  in  the  Archdeaconry  of  Richmond, 
and  now  in  Somerset  House. 




No.  1. 

The  Inventory  of  Rowland  Nicholson,  1590  (no  will.) 

Tkc  Invent  of  all  the  goods  &  chattclls  moveable  &  unmoveable  appertayningfe 
to  Rolland  Nicolson  deceased  priced  the  27  day  of  July  Ano  Dni  1590  by  Brian 
Benson  Will"'  Satterthwayt  Thomas  Dodgson  Ju.  &  Charles  Sattertht  Jurat. 

Inprmis  cattle  yong  &  old 

Itm  horses  &  mares 

Itm  sheepe  yong  &  ould 

Itm  corne 

Itm  malt  Sz  meale    . 

Itm  wooll 

Itm  pewter  . 

Itm  potte  candle  sticke  &  chafing  dishe 

Itm  caldrens  &  pannes 

Itm  bedding  &  bedstockc  . 

Itm  more  in  bedding 

Itm  in  chistes  &  arke 

Itm  in  table  clothes  &  napkins 

Itm  in  sheetes 

Itm  his  apparrell 

Itm  in  drinking  pottes  pitchers  & 

Itm  woodden  geare  with  an  arke 

Itm  in  quishones     . 

Itm  one  salt  &  xi  silver  spoons 

Itm  tables  a  pressor  &  2  contrs 

Itm  a  cupbourd 

Itm  fattes  &  tables  . 

Itm  iron  geare  with  sithes  . 

Itm  2  new  milnestones  with  an  oulde  one 

Itm  plow  &  plow  geare  with  an  iron  harow 

Itm  sadles  brydles  &c. 

Itm  hogges  yong  &  ould 

Itm  Carres  &  coyalls 

Itm  in  pultry 

Itm  a  litle  table  &  coffer 

Itm  in  lead     . 

Ivj  1  xiij  s  iiij  d 


xj  1  iiij  s  viij  d 

xviij  I 

V  1  iij  s 


iij  I  fij  s 

iij  1  vj  s  viij  d 

iiij  I  vj  s 


iij  1  xij  s  viij  d 

iiij  1  xvj  s  X  d 

.    xiiij  s  iiij  d 

viij  s 

V  1  X  s 

iij  s  iiijd 

iij  1  xvj  s  viij  d 

vj  s  viij  d 

iij  1  xiij  s 

Iiij  s  iiij  d 

xxxiij  s  iiij  d 

xiij  s 

iij  1  xvj  s  riij  d 


xxj  s 

xvij  s 

iiij  1 

U  s 

xxiiij  s 

ij  s  v  j  d 

ix  s 

At  Lonthwayt 

Itm  in  Church  close    . 

Itm  a  mosse  in  Breythey 



viij  d 
xiij  s  iiij  d 


The  Executors  of  Mr.  Xpofer  Sands  .  .  .  xxiiij  1 

Itm  Clement  Rigg    .  .  .  .  .  .  xx  1 

Itm  by  the  country  for  dyvers  journeyes 

Itm  Mr.  Miles  Phillipson  for  Roll  :  Phillipson's  tableing     xix  s  viij  d 

Itm  the  said  Mr.  .Miles  of  an  ould  reckoning  for  ye  sent  (?)  v  1 




Itm  John  Sawrey 
Itm  Edward  Kilner    . 
Itm  William  Rigg  of  James  . 
Itm  Mr.  Anthony  Sands 

.    xj  s  vj  d 

xxxij  s 

xxij  d  &  iS  d 


Suma    172I 

14  s    6d  besyds   the   debts   wch   all    in  a    maner 
prove  desparate 


Of  the  Cambridg  money 

Itm  to  Mr.  Jopson  &  Mr.  Dawson 

Itm  to  Mr.  Allan  Wilson 

Itm  to  Mabel  Sadler 

Itm  to  Mr.  Magson    . 

Itm  to  Ellin  Sattrthwt 

Itm  to  Agnes  Braythwt 

Itm  to  Francis  Gibson 

Itm  to  Edward  Sattrthwt 

It.  to  Myles  Sawrey    . 

It.  to  Or  Mylner 

It.  to  Georg  Walkr      . 

It.  to  the  Schole' 

It.  to  Isak  Dixon 

It.  to  Michael  Bowch  (Berwick?) 

It.  to  Samel  Listr 

It.  to  Xpofer  Danson  . 

Itm  to  James  Burnel    . 

Itm  to  Richard  Dodgson 

Itm  to  George  Ar  Heard 

Sma  G2.   14s.  3d. 


40  s 

1  ij  s  ix  d 




iij  1  vj  s  viij  d 

xxiiij  s 

xviij  s 


XXV  s 

xxvj  s  viij  d 

xxiiij  s  iiij  d 

.    xxxvij  s 

,  ij  s  vj  d 




xxij  d 

vj  s  viii  d 

xiij  s  iiij  d 

\o.  2. 

The   Will  of  Elizabeth  Nicholson,   1600. 

In  the  Name  of  God  Amen  the  xviij  day  of  March  Anno  Dm.  1600  I  Elizabeth 
Nicholsonne  de  Church  Stelle  at  Hauxheade  in  ffourneis  fells  within  the  Countye 
of  Lancaster  wydowe  Sicke  in  my  mortall  bodie  yet  nevertheless  beinge  of  wholle 
mynde  and  in  good  and  perfect  remembrance  (I  give  the  Lord  thanks)  dothe 
make  and  ordaine  this  my  present  testament  conteynnige  therein  my  last  will  in 
manor  and  forme  followinge  viz :  first  I  give  and  recommende  my  soule  to  the 
mercifull  hands  of  allmightie  God  my  only  savioure  and  redeemer  and  my  bodie 
to  be  buried  in  my  Parishe  Churche  of  Hauxhead  All  duetyes  (?)  to  be  doone  to 
the  same  as  the  lawe  requyrethe  Itm  it  is  my  wille  that  whereas  my  brother  in  lawe 
Clement  Rigge  oweth  mee  as  may  appeare  by  certaine  articles  and  bills  thereof 
made  the  summe  of  xxiij  1  vj  s  viij  d  or  thereabouts  upon  the  recovereye  whereof 
and  my  debts  payed  I  give  and  bequeathe  to  my  brother  Roger  Sands  the  summe 
of  vi  1  xiijs  iiij  d  of  the  same  summe  in  consideration  that  he  will  take  upon  him 
to  helpe  my  Executors  to  recover  the  same  Itm  1  bequeathe  to  Isabell  Satter, 
thwaite  my  mayde  xx  s  And  to  my  man  Rowlande  x  s  And  to  my  mayde  Agnes 



Rigge  X  s  Itm  I  make  my  full  and  wholle  Executor  of  all  my  goodes  and  cattailes 
moveable  and  unmo%'eable  quecke  or  deade  whatsoever  Peter  Magsonne  sonne  of 
Mr  Peter  Mag-sonne  schoolemaister  of  the  same  Hauxheade  in  ffournes  fells  and 
countye  aforesaj-de  Batchelour  my  debts  bequestes  and  ffunerall  expenses  payed 
and  discharged  out  of  the  same  Itm  I  make  and  ordaj-ne  my  supvisrs  Mr  Adam 
Sands  Mr  Edwyn  Sands  Mr  WiUm  Sawrey  and  Roger  Sands  my  brother  desyring 
them  for  God"s  sake  to  see  this  my  laste  Will  and  Testament  fullfilled  and  keepte 
as  my  truste  is  in  theme  In  Witness  whereof  to  this  present  laste  will  and  Testa- 
ment I  have  sett  my  seale  and  hand  the  day  and  yeare  above  written  in  the 
presence  of  us  viz  ffrancis  Magsonne  Jur.  Roberte  Burroughe  Jur.  and  Leonard 
Keene  (Proved  1601). 

No.  3- 

■■The  Inventory  of  Allan  Nicholson,  1616.     (No  will). 

The   inventory   of  the   goods   and   chattell   appertayninge   to   Alan    Nicolson 
deceased  priced  bj-  iiij  sworne  men  the  xxij  of  October  1616  viz  Roger  Dodgson 
George  Dodgson  John  Fisher  and  Chrystofer  Rigge  as  foUoweth 
First  In  Jewells  iij   Rings  ij   litle  Jewells  set  in  gold 
and  halfe  a  crowne  in  golde  xij  sylvec  sponyes 
ij  sylver  bowles  valewed  .  .  .      viij  I  iij    iiij  d 

Itm  in  Cattell  young  and  old  Rated  iijxx        .  .  .    vj  1  x  s 

Itm  in  horses  and  mares  five   .  .  .  .  .      x  1  x  s 

Itm  in  sheepe  younge  and  old  viijxx  and  xviij  whereof 

are  iijxx  at  Dillakar      .....       xxvj  I 

Itm  from e  .-        ......         xxxiijl  iiij  d 

Itm  corne  and  hay  worth         .  .  .  .  .  Iij  I 

Itm  hay  at  Uillakar      .  .  .  .  .      iij  1  vj  s  viij  d 

Itm  in  Bees       ......        xsxv  s  viij  d 

Itm  loose  timber  and  boards  aboute  the  house  .  .  iiij  I 

Itm  in  beddinge  and  bedstockes  in  the  parlour  wth 

other  things        .....  xiij  I  iiij  s 

Itm  his  appaiell  .  .  .  .  .  .     ixl  xs 

Itm  m jre  beddinge  and  bedstocks  in  another  chamber       x  1  iij  s  iiij  d 
km  in  meale  and  malt  .  .  .  •     U^  xiij  s  iiij  d 

Itm  in  hay         ...... 

.       j  viij 

pewter  at  viij         .  .  .  iiij  I 

Itm  copper  ketlcs  and  pannes  iijxx  xiijl  at  viijd  the  lb.     ij  1  viij  s  viij  d 

Itm  one  copper  pott  and  2  stills  ....         viijs 

Itm  brasse  pannes  and  kettles  XXV  1    .  .  .  .    x  s  ij  d 

Itm  brasse  potts  candlesticks  &.  mortars  wcighinge 

vjxx  xijlb  .  .  .  .  .       iij  1  xi  s  iij  d 

Itm  for  my  arkes  aboute  the  houses     .  .  .  .vis 

Itm  XX  hoiseloades  cf  lyme       ....  xiij  s  iiij  d 

Itm   one  fayre   cupbord  in   the  hall  iij  chajres  one 

figre  table  .  .  .  .  .  .Is 

Itm  one  litle  chist  ij  truncks  and  iij  old  chayres  .  .       viij  s 

Itm  sixe  stone  of  flaxe  ......       xiij  s 

*  The  gaps  in  this  inventory  are  occasioned  by  its  being  torn  where  it  has  been 




Itm  one  stone  of  wool    ..... 
Itm  in  the  high  buttery  &  old  hall  In  old  vessell  iij 

chists  one  old  amery  one  old  arke  wth  other 

wares  vessells  ..... 
Itm  Bigg  and  wheate  ..... 
Itm  one  fowlinge  peece  .... 

233   13     4 
Itm  in  the  mill  arks  and  chists  gavelocks  picks  wh 

kilne  hayre  ?        . 
Itm  kilne  hayre  ?  new  and  old. 
Itm  girdle  brand  Iron  Speet^  Racks  wth  other  Iron 

geare       ...... 

Itm  the  plough  wth  other  Iron  geare. 

Itm  bowes  ij       . 

Itm  butter  &  cheese      ..... 

Itm  peats  about  the  house  valewed  . 
Itm  sadles  sacks  wth  other  horse  geare 
Itm  barrowes  sleds  and  grind  stone 

xlj  s 

\iiij  s 

xiij  s 


xxvij  s 


X  s 

xiiij  s 


V  s 


viij  d 

XX  s 

xij  s 


Preistfeild  p.  George  Sandes 
Barl  ....  Gall  .  . 
....  ij     ...     . 

X  V  vij  s  viij  d 

7   14 














—  Rents  due  and  payde  since  his  death 
Itm  for  Haukes  head  hall    .  .  .  , 

—  Itm  for  Dillakar  .... 

—  Itm  Due  to  Mr.  Haukrigge  in  December  next 
2   Itm  to  John  Ward  at  severall  payments 

—  Itm  Due  to  Mr.  Haukrigge  for  sheepe  . 

5  Itm  Due  to  Mr.  Haukrigge  the  25  of  June  1616 

6  Itm   Due  to  Mr.  Daniel  Hackstretter  wch  was  lent 

since  his  death  .... 

—  Itm  Thomas  Dodgson  for  money  lent  by  him  to  Mr.  i 

Nicolson  at  Lancaster  .  .  .  ) 

—  George  Dodgson  for  Bees         .... 

—  Itm  oweinge  to  John  Blumer  wth  he  had  in  his  keepinge 

—  Itm  to  Thomas  Benson  .  .  .  .  . 

—  Itm  to  Mr.  Daniel  Hachstetter  .... 

2  c  22 1   17  s  4  d 

vij  1   xiiij  s 

iiij  1  X  s 


Ixvj  s  ij  d 

vl  X  s 


vj  s  viij  d 


1  X  s   vj  d 

V  s 
XX  I 

.    xl 

vij  1 


Mr.  Richard  Leake 

Market  money     . 

William  Sands    . 

George  Satterthwayte  of  Cragge 

Mr.   Henry  Hueson 

George  Rigge 

John  Banke 

XX  I 

xxij  1 


viij  s 


1  ix 

s  vj  d 
iiij  1 
.   vl 

,               , 

iiij  1 




Leonard  Keene  . 

Edward  Satterthwayte  of  Charles 

Ccorgfc  Sands     . 

T       \ 

.  ch 
Roger  Borwicke  . 
Robert  of  bridge  end 
[•".dward  Dickson. 
Blind  Michael     . 
William  Jackson 
John  Jackson 
John  Haulccrigge 
Solomon  Benson 
John  Benson 
William  Rigge  of  Norey  (Sorey  ?) 
Willni  of  New  house 
Hugh  Studert      . 
Willni  Gibson 
Thomas  Troughton 
Frauncis  Troughton 
John  Blumer 
Sundrie  psons  for  haye 

.  ij  1  X  s  vj  d 
iij  1  iiij  d 

xxxiij  s  vj  d 

XX  s 

ij  1  viij  s 


xxvij  s 

xxvij  s 

xxviij  s 

xiiij  s 

vij  1  V  s 

.     X  s  viij  d 

X  s  iiij  d 

.  xs 

i j  1   xij  s  V  d 


.  xs 

xiiij  s 

iiij  1 


Of  Roger  Dodgson  behind  for  the  parkc  .  .  xxx  s 

George  Dodgson  .  .  .  .  .  xx  s 

102  I  iS  s  5d 
(Adm.  gr.  to  "  Suzana  Nicholson  late  wiffe  "   13  dec.  i6iG). 

No.  4. 
The  Will  of  Allan  Nicholson  of  KirUands  Psh  of  Kendal,  1663, 

In  the  name  of  God  Amen  the  xij  day  of  July  Anno  Domini  1G63  I  Allan 
Nicholson  of  Kirklands  in  the  Parish  of  Kendall  and  Countie  of  Westmoreland 
being  att  present  sore  pained  with  bodily  diseases  and  infirmities  yet  of  perfect 
minde  and  memory  &  praised  be  God  for  the  same  doe  make  &  ordaine  ths  my 
present  testament  and  will  in  manner  &  forme  following  that  is  to  say  fifirst  I  com- 
mend my  soule  into  the  mercifuU  hands  of  Almightie  God  my  Maker  and  Re. 
deemer  &  my  body  I  committ  to  the  Earth  whereof  it  was  made  in  assured  hope 
of  a  Joyfull  Ressurrection  att  the  last  day  Itm  I  give  and  bequeath  my  Burgage 
house  wherein  I  now  dwell  with  all  it  appurtenance  unto  Agnes  my  wife  her 
heires  &  assignes  for  ever  Itm  I  give  unto  Obadiah  Thomas  &  Joseph  the  three 
children  of  Robert  Nicholson  my  Sonne  every  one  three  shillings  fourpence  apiece 
Urn  I  give  &  bequeath  unto  the  said  Agnes  my  wife  all  the  reste  of  my  goods  and 
chattells  whatsoever  giving  such  part  thereof  as  shall  be  due  unto  my  children  by 
Lawe  And  I  make  &  ordaine  the  said  Agnes  my  wife  sole  executrix  of  this  my  last 




will  &  testament  In  witness  whereof  I  have  hereunto  sett  my  hande  &  scale  the 
day  and  yeare  above  said 

Pmo  Allan  Nicholson 

Recorde  hereof  are  wee 

James  Walker 

&  William  ffisher 
(Pr.  19  Dec.  1G63.) 

November  ye  ii.  1663. 
A  true  and  pfect  Inventorie  of  such  goods  as  weare  Allan  Nicholsons  deceased 
&  prized  by  us  Thomas  Warde  &  James  Walker 

Imprimis  one  table  &  a  bufFert  forme 

Itm  2  chists     ..... 

Itm  5  buflfert  stooles 

Itm  4  chayres  .... 

Itm  in  wood  vessall  a  knopp  &  a  stand  & 

thing's    ..... 
Itm  in  brasse  &  pans  &  little  pans  . 
Itm  in  puther  ..... 
Itm  for  bedstocks  &  beding    . 
Itm  one  cow    ..... 
Itm  one  arke  of  hay 
Itm  speet  &  warkes  girdle  &  brandreth 
*Itm  6  ould  whichons  (?)  . 
Itm  earthen  potts    .... 
Itm  fower  parr  of  sheets 
Itm  in  apparrell  woolin  &  linn 
Itm  one  ould  bufTert  forme 

Itm  for  peats 

Itm  in  meale 

Itm  one  little  fouling  (piece  r) 

Sub  ptind  the  some  totall  is . 


For  hay  medow  to  Alan  Prickett    . 

To  James  Jackson  (lent  money) 

For  house  rent         ...... 

Funerall  expenses   ...... 


Restat  de  claro 






















•-i     4 

o  10 
o  10 

S  II   10 

3     7     S 

1672  jfune  15  Admon.  gv.  to  Susan  Crow  of  goods  of  Samucll 
Nicholson  her  late  brother.     (No  will). 

*Query  :  Quichones,  i.e.  cushions. 




No.  6. 
The  Will  of  George  Nicholson  of  Loji'son  Park,  16SG. 

In  the  name  of  God  Amen  the  ffourteenth  day  of  June  iGSG  I  Geargc  Nicholson 
of  Lowson  Parke  in  the  Parish  of  Hawkshead  in  the  County  Palatine  of  Lancr  hus- 
bandman being  infirme  of  body  yet  of  perfect  minde  and  in  very  good  Rembrance 
praised  be  God  Doe  make  and  ordaine  this  my  last  will  and  testament  in  manor 
tTollowing  ffirst  I  comend  my  soule  to  God  Almighty  trusting-  through  the  merito- 
rious passion  of  Christ  to  have  pardon  of  all  my  sins  :  and  my  body  I  committ  to 
earth  to  be  decently  buried  at  the  discretion  of  my  executrixes  hereafter  named  : 
and  it  is  my  minde  that  all  dues  theerefore  due  be  well  paid  And  as  for  my  tem- 
porall  estate  I  dispose  of  it  as  follows  that  is  to  say  I  give  unto  Elisabeth  Red- 
heade  my  daughter  one  shilling  and  all  the  Remainer  and  Residue  of  my  Goods 
and  Chattells  I  give  unto  Jane  Nicholson  my  wife  Agnes  Nicholson  and  Margaret 
Nicholson  my  daughters  equally  to  be  divided  among  them  And  I  make  the  said 
Jane  Nicholson  Agnes  Nicholson  and  Margaret  Nicholson  my  Executrixes 

In  witness  whereof  I  the  said  George  Nicholson  have  hereunto  putt  my  hand 
and  seale  the  day  and  year  fifirst  above  written 

Signed  sealed  &  declared  in  the  sight  and  psence  of  George  Nicholson 

Myles  Sawrey  Jur. 
Tho.  Atkinson  Jur. 
Will.  Sawrey  Jur. 

(Pr.  16S6.) 
The  Inventorie  of  all  the  goods  cattells  and  debts  belongeinge  to  George  Nichol- 
son of  Lowson  Parke  in  fforneis  ffells  deceased  prized  the  eighteenth  day  of  Sep- 
tember Anno  Dom  i6S6  by  Richard  .Atkinson  George  Bancke  Myles  Sawrey  and 
Thomas  .Atkinson  as  followeth  vizt. 

Imprimis  his  apparell      ...... 

Itm  wooden  vessells         ...... 

It.  Grideron   and    Brandrethe    Ratten    croke   and 
other  iron  geere    ..... 

It.  Peutter  and  brass 

It.  Bedclothes  &  Bedsteads     .... 

Item  Chestes  and  arkes 

It.  Wool 

It.  Kine  Calves  Heffers  and  Steeres 

It.  One  gelding  and  one  mare 

It.  Sheepe  yonge  and  oulde    .... 

It.  Haye  and  corne  ..... 

It.  Poultrie 

Item  chaires  and  stooles  .... 

Summe  in  all        .         .         . 

1  s  d 
00  10  00 
00  10  00 

00  15  00 

00  10  00 

01  10  00 
00  10  00 

2  00  00 
iS  00  00 

02  00  00 
20  00  00 

05    CO   oo 

00  00  oS 
00  01  06 

51  07  02 


Imps  to  Richard  Apleby 
It.  to  Sr  James  Graham 
It.  to  Thomas  Atkinson  . 

10  00  OJ 
iC  00  00 
05  00  00 

HAWKSHEAD  HALL.                                           39 

It.  to  John  Tomlinson     .         ,         .  .         .  .  03  00  00 

It.  to  George  Bancke      .         .         .  .         .  .  01  00  00 

It.  to  Richard  Dixon        .          .         .  .         .  .  01   00  00 

Item  his  funeral  expenses       .         .  .         .  .  01    10  00 

Sumine  in  all         .         .         .         .   37  I   10  s  00  d 
No.  7. 

The   Will  of  Samuel  Sandys,  1683. 

In  the  name  of  God  Amen  the  second  day  of  february  in  the  thirty  &  sixth  year 
of  the  raigne  of  our  most  gracious  Soveraigne  Lord  King  Charles  the  Second 
over  England  etc  Anno  Demi  16S3-4  I  Samuell  Sandys  of  Hauxhead  Hall  in  the 
Pish  of  Hauxhead  and  County  of  Lancaster  gent  being  sicke  and  weake  in  body 
but  of  pfect  memory'  &  remembrance  praised  be  Allmighty  God  for  ye  same  doe 
make  &  ordaine  and  declare  this  my  last  will  &  testament  in  manner  and  forme 
following  (viz)  first  I  bequeath  my  soule  into  the  hands  of  Almighty  God  my 
maker  hopeing  that  through  the  merritorious  death  &  passion  of  Jesus  Christ  my 
only  Saviour  &  Redemer  to  receive  free  pardon  &  remission  of  all  my  sins  And 
as  for  my  body  to  be  buried  in  Xtian  Buriall  at  the  discretion  of  my  executrix  and 
trustees  hereafter  nominated  And  as  for  such  worldly  estate  as  it  hath  pleased  God 
to  bless  me  with  I  give  devise  bequeath  &  dispose  in  manner  &  following  Imp  I 
give  unto  my  Honed  father  Mr.  Samuel  Sandys  ffive  pounds  to  be  paid  by  my 
Executrix  hereafter  named  within  one  full  yeare  next  after  my  decease  Itni  I  give 
&  bequeath  unto  my  Lov.  brother  Mr.  Miles  Sandys  ffive  pounds  Itm  I  give  unto 
m.y  Lov.  sister  his  wife  &  to  my  god-daughter  Bersheba  his  second  daughter  ffive 
pounds  apiece  to  be  paid  as  aforesaid  Itm  I  give  &  bequeath  unto  xx\y  Lov.  brother 
William  Sandys  ffive  pounds  to  be  paid  within  tw'o  yeares  next  after  my  decease 
unto  my  Lov.  brother  Mr.  Miles  Sandys  and  my  Cuz.  John  Philipson  to  be  let  out 
in  thcire  or  one  of  theire  names  in  trust  for  the  use  of  the  said  William  Sandys 
untill  he  attaine  the  age  of  twenty  one  yeares  Itm  I  give  &  bequeath  unto  my  Cuz. 
John  Philipson  &  my  god-daughter  Margaret  his  younger  daughter  twenty  shil- 
lings apiece  Itm  I  give  unto  my  mother  in  lawe  Mrs.  Bridgett  Nicholson  fforty 
shillings  Itm  in  token  of  my  respect  I  give  and  bequeath  unto  Mr.  Thomas  Bell 
minister  of  Hauxhead  tenn  shillings  to  buy  a  ring  with  to  weare  in  Remembrance 
of  me  Lastl}'  I  give  bequeath  unto  my  Lov.  wife  Mrs.  Beatrice  Sandys  all  my 
goods  and  chattells  whatsoever  moveable  &  immoveable  of  what  nature  kind  or 
quallity  soever  they  be  together  also  with  all  such  deeds  writeings  evidences  as- 
signemts  conveyances  or  other  assurances  whatsoever  now  in  my  custody  Relating 
to  or  any  way  concerning  the  demeasne  of  Kentmere  or  the  Freehold  or  Customary 
lands  belonging  to  Hauxhead  Hall  or  elsewhere  ;  whereunto  I  am  any  way  entitled  ; 
whom  alsoe  I  doe  nominate  &  appoint  sole  executrix  of  this  my  last  will  and  testa, 
ment :  she  payinge  &  dischargeing  my  full  debts  legacies  and  ffunerall  expenses 
Requesting  &  desiring  my  Lov.  bi other  Mr.  Miles  Sandys  and  my  cuz.  John 
Philipson  to  be  assisting  unto  my  said  Executrix  according  to  theire  abillities 
touching  and  concerning  the  pformance  of  this  my  last  will  &  testament  In  wit. 
ness  whereof  I  have  hereunto  putt  niy  hand  ik  seale  the  day  &  yeare  above 

Sam.  Sandys 



Sam.  Sandys 
Signed  scaled  &  dclivd  in  pscnce 

ffra.  Cray,  George  Moline,  I^lizabeth  Gili)in,  Anne  Gilpin. 
(Pr.  cS  May  1GS4.) 

ffebruary  ye  i4tli  Ano  Domi  (16S3) 
A  true  Inventorie  of  all  the  goodes  chattells  cattells  debts  Rights  &  credits  move, 
able  &   immoveable  of  the    Late  Samuell  Sandys  of  Hauxhead  Hall  in  the  p'ish 
of  Hauxhead  &  county  of  Lancaster  gentl.  deceased  approved  ye  same  day  by 
Adam  Rigg  James  Braithwt  Edward  Braithwt  &  James  Keen 

ut  scq. 
Im^s  His  appairell  wtli  a  rapier  &  belt  . 
Itm  money  in  his  purse    ...... 

Itm  in  sack     ........ 

Itm  in  ye  kitchin  loft  one  paire  of  Bedsteads  wth 

bedding  furniture  tables  six  chaires  val    . 
Itm    in  ye  bed  chamber  one  paire  of  bedstockes 

wih    bedding    &    furniture   a   table   and   two 

chaires      ....... 

Itm  goodes  in  ye  closet  as  pottes  classes  val 

Itm  a  shift  &  therein  eight  paire  of  sheets  two  tabl 

cloths  one  duzen  &  a  halfe  napkins. 
Itm  goodes  in  ye  little  loft  wth  two  beds  for  servt 
Itm  brass  &  pewter  in  the  kitchin   . 
It.  Potts  panns  wt'i  a  flaske  &.  other  Iron  implemts 
,        in  ye  kitchin     ...... 

Itm  Wood  vessell  earthen  potts  val 
Itm   Tables  foimes  chiste  &  arkes  . 
Itm  Meale  mault  groates  flfesh  val 
Itm  Hempe  &  j-arne        ..... 

Itm    in    ye    Barne   Bigge  &  oates   thiasht   & 

thrashed  ....... 

Itm  Hay  &  strawe  in  the  barne       .         , 

Itm    Husbandry  geate   as   ploughs   carte   teames 

boords  old  timber  val        .... 

Itm  A  bull  &  eight  cows  .... 

Itm  two  yoke  of  draught  oxen 

Itm  ffower  heffers  &  one  steere 

Itm  three  stirkes  &  six  calves  . 

Itm  ffower  horses    ...... 

Itm  one  hundred  &  ninety  sheep     . 

Itm   goodes   in   ye   mill  as  sieves  meassures  haire 

cloths  wth  ye  miller's  bedd 
Itm    two    hives   of    bees    wth    swine    poultry   and 

mannure  ...... 

Suma  bonora 























06  oS 




















































02     12    06 




ut  seq. 
Imps  Due  to  Mr.  Samuell  Sandys  of  Graithwt  at 

Candlemas  (S3) 
Itm  to  Mrs.  Judith  Carus 
Itm  to  John  Philipson  at  ye  same  time 
Itm  to  Mr.  Pepper  of  Preston 
Itm  to  John  Robinson  at  ye  said  time 
Itm  to  Robt.  Hubbersty  sons  at  ye  same  time 
Itm  to  Wiljm  Dennison  at  ye  same  time 
Itm  to  Robt.  Rawlinson  at  ye  same  time 
Itm  to  Richard  Appleby  ye  same  time    . 
Itm  to  Mr.  Rymer  and  Mr.  Gray  ye  same  time 
Itm  to  Mrs.  Bridgett  Nicholson  ye  same  time 
Itm  to  Willni  Mackereth  ye  same  time 
Itm  Servts  wages  due  ye  same  time 
Itm  to  Mr.  Gray     .... 
Itm  to  Mr.  Gibson  ye  same  time     . 
Itm  to  Mr.  Mansergh 
Itm  to  Edward  Braithwt 
Itm  ffunerall  expenses     . 

Suma  debit 

1  s  d 

74  00  00 
30  00  00 
53  00  00 
02  00  00 
53  00  00 
30  00  00 

21  04  00 
12  00  00 
12  00  00 
04  00  00 

22  iS  00 
01  00  00 
og  10  oS 
09  10  00 
04  10  10 

00  iG  00 

01  10  00 
17  00  00 

329  09  06 

No.  S. 

Admon.  gy.  of  effects  of  Richard,  Avchcv  27  Oct.  1720.     (No  hjUL] 

No.  g. 
The  will  of  Beatrice  Archer,  1726. 

The  last  will  and  testament  of  me  Beatrice  Archer  of  Hawkshead  Hall  in  the 
County  Palatine  of  Lancaster  widdow.  As  to  such  worldly  estate  as  it  hath 
pleased  God  to  bless  me  with  I  will  that  that  the  same  shall  goe  and  be  disposed 
of  as  follows  (to  wit)  I  give  and  bequeath  unto  my  son  Richard  Archer  and  my 
daughter  Beatrice  Archer  their  exectrs  &  admtrs  all  my  goods  chattells  rights 
credits  &  personall  estate  whatsoever  And  doe  make  and  ordain  them  executor 
and  executrix  of  this  my  last  will  and  testament  In  witness  hereof  I  have  hereto 
set  my  hand  and  seale  this  second  day  of  May  in  the  twelfth  year  of  the  raigne  of 
our  Soveraigne  Lord  George  by  the  grace  of  God  of  Great  Britain  ffraunc  & 
Ireland  King  defender  of  the  ffaith  etc.  and  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  God  one 
thousand  seaven  hundred  twenty  &  six 

The  marke  of 
Beatrice     +    Archer. 
Signed  sealed  and  published  by  the  above  named  Beatrice 
Archer  as  her  last  will  &  testament  in  the  presence  of  us 
who  have  subscribed  our  names  as  witnesses  hereto  in  the 
said  testatrixe's  psence 

Grace  Copley 
Marget  Jenney 
John  Copley 
(Pr.  feb.  13,  1727) 


42  hawkshead  hall. 

No.  lo. 
The  Will  of  John  Copley,  1689. 

In  the  name  of  God  Amen  The  eleventh  day  of  December  in  the  first  yeare  of 
the  raigne  of  our  most  Gracious  Soveraigne  Lord  &  Lady  King  William  &  Queen 
Mary  over  England  Scotland  ffrance  &  Ireland  King  &  Queen  defenders  of  the 
faith,  etc.  Anno  Domi  16S9. 

I  John  Copley  of  Hawkshead  Hall  in  the  pish  of  Hawkshead  in  the  County  of 
Lancaster  gentl.  being  of  good  and  pfect  memory  thanks  be  to  AUmighty  God  : 
And  calling  to  remembrance  the  uncertaine  estate  of  this  transitorj-  life  ;  and  that 
all  flesh  must  yield  unto  Death  when  it  shall  please  God  to  call :  Doe  make  con- 
stitute ordaine  and  declare  this  my  last  will  and  testamt  in  manner  and  forme 
following ;  and  first  being  pennitent  and  sorry  from  the  bottome  of  my  heart  for 
my  sins  past  most  humbly'desireing  forgiveness  for  the  same  I  give  and  comitt 
my  soule  unto  AUmightj'  God  my  Saviour  and  Redeemer  In  whom  and  bj'  whom 
the  merrits  of  Jesus  Christ  I  tr-ust  and  believe  assuredly  to  be  saved  and  to 
have  full  remission  and  forgiveness  of  all  my  sins :  And  my  body  to  be  buried  in 
such  place  where  it  shall  please  my  Executrix  and  Trustees  hereafter  named  to 
appoint  And  as  for  such  worldly  estate  as  it  hath  pleased  God  to  blesse  me  with  : 
I  give  devise  bequeath  and  dispose  of  in  manner  and  forme  following  Imprimis 
I  give  to  my  brother  Mr  John  Punsonby  twenty  shillings :  Itm  I  give  unto  my 
deare  and  loveing  sister  Mrs.  Ann  Punsonby  twenty  shillings :  Itm  I  give  unto  my 
deare  &  loveing  sister  Mrs  Barbara  Copley  Twenty  Shillings  to  buy  every  one  of 
them  a  ring  to  weare  in  remembrance  of  me  :  Itm  I  doe  nominate  and  appoint  my 
deare  and  loveing  brother  Mr  William  Copley  of  Gossforth  in  the  County  of  Cum. 
berld  John  Philipson  of  Rayrigg  in  the  County  of  Westmld  gentl.  W'illiam  Saw- 
rej'  of  Dale  End  in  Langdale  in  the  Pish  of  Grasmere  and  County  of  Westmld 
clerke  and  William  Dennison  of  Esthxraite  water  side  yeoman  :  trustees  and  supp- 
visors  of  this  my  last  will  and  testament :  and  by  these  pstes  doe  give  them 
William  Copley  John  Philipson  William  Sawrey  and  William  Dennison  full  power 
and  authority  to  sell  mortgage  lett  to  ffarme  or  otherwise  to  dispose  of  for  ever 
any  part  or  parcel!  of  mj'  estate  at  Hawkshead  Hall  within  the  County  of  Lan- 
caster towards  the  paying  of  my  debts  legacies  and  ffuneral  expenses  which  I  hope 
my  Supvisors  with  my  Executrix  will  take  care  to  pforme :  And  I  doe  desire  the 
Supvisors  and  require  them  to  give  a  just  and  true  account  unto  my  Executrix 
h«reafter  mencioned  after  my  debts  paid  And  to  pay  the  overplus  of  all  such  sums 
as  shall  be  raised  unto  my  said  Executrix  :  Itm  I  give  unto  my  deare  and  loveing 
brother  Mr  William  Copley  ffive  pounds  and  the  other  Supvisors  twenty  shillings 
apiece :  Lastly  I  give  and  bequeath  unto  my  loveing  wife  Mrs  Beatrix  Copley  all 
my  goods  and  chattells  whatsoever  moveable  and  immoveable  of  what  nature  or 
kinde  soever  they  be :  whom  alsoe  I  doe  nominate  and  appoint  sole  Executrix  of 
this  my  last  will  and  testament  desireing  and  requesting  my  bro.  Mr  William 
Copley  Mr  John  Philipson  William  Sawrey  and  William  Dennison  to  be  assisting 
unto  my  said  Executrix  according  to  theire  abillities  touching  and  concerning  the 
pformance  of  this  my  last  will  and  testament  In  witness  whereof  I  have  hereunto 
sett  my  hand  &  seale  the  day  and  yeare  above  written 
Sealed  published  and  declared  in  the  psece  of  Cudbert 
Hodgson  William  Rigge  Edward  Poole  &  Geori^e 

(Pr.  2S  Oct.  1691) 



No.  II. 
Abstract  of  Will  of  John  Copley  of  Hawheshead  Hall,  1750. 

December  20  1750  household  stuff  to  daughters  Beatrice  &  Isabel :  rest  of  per- 
sonalty to  son  John  Copley  clerk,  who  is  appointed  sole  executor.  Realty  at 
Hawkeshead  Hall  &  elsewhere  to  three  trustees  on  trust  for  payment  of  funeral 
&  probate  expences  &  debts :  portions  of  3^500  to  each  daughter  &  ^f  200  to  son 
Daniel  Coplej*  at  age  of  23,  residue  to  son  John  Copley,  los.  to  each  executor 

(Pr.  23  Jan.  1754) 

Extracts  from  the  Hawkshead  Register. 

1569.  July  25,  Xtopher  Nicholson  bapt. 

1572.  Dec.  22,  Willm  Nicholson       ,, 

1572.  Feb.  5,  Margaret  Nicholson    ,, 

1572.  Jany.  23,  Wm.  Nicholson  burd. 

1573.  May  20,  John  Nicholson         ,, 

1574.  Jany.  23,  Agnes  Nicholson  bapt. 
1577.  Feb.  24,  Edweine  Nicholson    ,, 

1579.  Aug.  26,  puer  Rowlandi  Nicholson  burd. 

1579.  Aug.  27,  Margaret  Nicholson  ,, 

15S0.  Novr.  12,  Rowland  Nicholson  &  Elizabeth  Rigge  marrd. 

1582.  July  25,  filia  Rowlandi  Nicholson  ex  secunda  uxore  burd. 

1590.  June  9,  Rowland  Nicholson  burd. 

1595.  Sept.  0,  Thomas  Nicholson         ,, 

'597>  Aug.  7,  Nathaniell  Nicholson  filis  allani  bapt. 

1599.  Nov.  22,  Daniell  Nicolson  alani  filius  ,, 

1601.  May  S,  Esabeth  ux  Rowlandi  .Nicholson  burd. 

1602.  Nov.  30,  Christopher  Nicolson  fil  allani  bapt. 
1606.  Jan.  4,  Elsapeth  Nicolson  fil  allani  ,, 
1616.  Oct.  7,  Allan  Nicolson  burd. 

1621.  Aug.  30,  Daniell  Nicholson  burd. 

1626.  Sept.  24,  Daniel  Nicolson  fil  Nathanielis  bapt. 

1626.  May  29,  Jo.  Nicolson  and  Esabeth  Dixon  marrd. 

162S.  Aug.   17,    Elsabeth   Nicolson    fil    Nathaniel   bapt. 

1630.  June  2S,  Christofer  Nicholson  fil  Nathaniel       ,, 

1630.  Sept.  26,  John  Nicholson  fil  allan  „ 

1631.  Feb.  12,  Susan  Nicolson  fil  Nathaniell  ,, 

1632.  Sept.  23,  Rowland  Nicolson  fil  allani  ,, 

1633.  Nov.  30,  Dorathye  N-cholson  fil  Nathaniel 

1634.  Feb.  7,  Dorothie  Nicolson  fil  Nathaniell  in  the  church  burd. 
1634.  Dec.    I,  John    Nicolson  fil   Thomas   bapt. 

1634.  Dec.  22,  Robert  Nicolson  fil  allan  ,, 

1634.  March  17,  Dorathye  Nicolson  fil  Nathaniell  bapt. 

1634.  Dec.  13,  John  Nicolson  fil  Thomas  burd. 

1637.  Nov.  30,  Samuell  Nicolson  fil  Nathaniell  bapt. 

1640.  Dec.  6,  John  Nickolson  fil  Nathaniell  ,, 

1642.  March  4th,  Susan  the  wife  of  Allan  Nickolson  in  the  quire  burd. 

1643.  Ap.  12,  Ellene  Nicolson  fil  Nathaniell  bapt. 

1643.  Ap.  12,  uxor  Nathaniell  Nicolson  in  the  quire  burd. 



1659.  Jan.  17,  Daniell  Nicolson  &  Bridgett  Pennington  marrd. 

1660.  Oct.  17,  Bevis  Nicolson  fil  Daniell  de  Hawkshead  Hall  bapt. 
1662.  May  13,  Judith  Nicolson  fil  Daniell  de  Hawkshead  Hall  bapt. 
1666.  July  S,  Richard  Redhead  &  Elizabeth  Nicolson  marrd. 

1670.  Aug.  iS,  Ellinor  Nicolson  fil  Daniell  buried  in  the  chancel. 

1671.  Dec.  I,  Mr  Daniell  Nicolson  in  the  chancell. 

1672.  May  17,  Samuell  Nicolson  buried  in  the  chancell. 
167S.  Feb.  16,  William  Nickolson  &  Margaret  Keene  marrd. 
1679.  June  3,  Judith  Nickolson  fil  Henery  de  Walker  Ground  bapt. 
1679.  Oct.  5,  Will.  Nickolson  fil  Wm.  de  Keen  Ground  ,, 
1679.  Ap.  27,  Stephen  Nickolson  &  Isabell  Hodgson  marrd. 

1651.  Ap.  —  Judeth  Nicolson  of  Keene  Ground. 

aflf.    \    Jenett  Holme     ^^^^ 
f    Agnes  Keene 

1652.  Ap.  30,  Elizabeth  Nicolson  fil  William  de  Keene  Ground  bapt. 
t6S2.     June  5,  Samuel  Sands     \ 

&  '    fil  Samuel  de  Hawkshead  Hall  chris'ned  at 

Bridgett  Sands   j        home. 

16S2.    June  —  Mr  Sam  Sands  &  Beatrice  Nicholson. 

(The  above  with  another  entry  is  inserted  out  of  place  with  '"'Eod.  die  " 
before  them.     This  may  be  June  5th,  15th,  or  17th.) 
16S2.     May  12,  Dorothy  Nicolson  de  Lawson  Pke. 

n      (  Susanna  Copeland 

1  Elizabeth  Redhead    burd. 

1652.  Feb.  23,  Elizabeth  Nicolson  daughter  of  Wm.  de  Keene  Ground. 

^ff     I    Eliz.  Walker 

\   Hy.  Nicolson      ^"'■'^• 

1653.  March  2S,  Bridgett  Sands  fil  Samuel  de  Haukeshead  Hall  in  Sands  quire 

afT.  Rachell  Nicolson  Ann  Gilpin. 

1653.  Feb.  S,  Mr  Samuell  Sands  of  Hawkeshead  Hall  in  Sands  quire  aff.  Mary 

Muncaster  Ann  Gilpin. 

1654.  Nov.  iS,  Mr  John  Copley  &  .Mrs  Beatrice  Sands  marrd. 

1654.  Nov.  9,  Margaret  daughter  of  Wm.  Nicholson  of  Keenground  bapt. 

1656.  Sep.  7,  Geo.  Nicolson  of  Lowson  Pke  burd. 

1691.  June  9,  William  ffisher  &  Margarett  Nicolson  marrd. 

1694.  Mar.  13,  William  Nicolson  of  Haukeshead  Field  burd. 

1695.  Jan.  19,  Mr  Archer  &  Beatrice  Copley  marrd. 

1696.  Dec.  9,  Beatrice  Archer  fil  Richard  de  Haukeshead  Hall  bapt. 
f.^  ,,  Myles  &  )    Sons  of  Richard  Archer  gentem  of 

1096.     uec.i,        pg^;^,       j-        Haukeshead  Hall  bapt. 

1704.     Dec.  4,  Jane  Nicoson  widdow  de  farr  Coniston  burd. 

Issue  of  Beatrix  Nicholson  by  Johi  Copley. 

1655.  Oct.  S,  Ann  Copley  fil  John  de  Haukeshead  Hall  bapt. 
1687.     June  iS,  Robert  Copley  fil  John  de  Haukeshead  Hall  bapt. 

1657.  Feb.  17,  Robert  Copley  fil  John  de  Haukeshead  Hall  in  the  chancell  burd. 
1690.     Oct.  29,  John  Copley  fil  John  de  Haukeshead  Hall  bapt. 




1652.     Dec.   22,   Margarett    Gilpin    in    Sands   quire   burd. 
1672.     Sep.  17,  Mr  Christopher  Gilpin  in  the  chancell    ,, 
16S6.     Ap.  16,  Mary  Gilpin  of  Haukeshcad  Hall  in  the  church  burd. 
16SS.     June  14,   Elizabeth   Gilpin   widdowe  de   Haukeshead   Hall  in   the  church 

Brass  plate  in  Kendal  Church  (nonj  in  the  BeUinp;ham  Chapel). 




WHO    DIED    THE    2STH    DAY 


AGED    46   YEARS. 

From  Brand's  History  of  Netccastle.     Epitaphs  note  or  late  in 
St.  Nicholas  Church. 


DEPARTED    29    SEPTEMBER    167O 


THEIR    CHILDREN.       HE     DEPARTED    JAN.    12    1695-6.      ANN    HIS    WIFE    I4   JUNE 

1655.     (He  was  Sheriff  1C52). 

William  Carr  Merchant  Adventurer  of  Newcastle  ob.  Ap.  14,  1C60  his  wife  Jane 
Jan.  31,  1666. 

The  folio-wing  Newcastle  Nicholsons  (from  the  same  authority) 
may  be  of  the  same  family. 

158S.     Roger  Nicholson  Governor  o-f  Merchants  Company,  Sheriff  15S3,  Mayor 
George  Nicholson  deputy  town  clerk  ob.  16  Feb.  1604  burd.  with  his  wife  Mar- 
garet in  St.  John's  Church. 









The  CASE  of 

John  Coplej',  Gent,  and  Beatrix  his  Wife ; 

And  of  George  Carus,  Gent,  and  Judith  his  Wife. 

Humbly  Presented  to  the  LORDS  Spiritual  and  Temporal  in 

PARLIAMENT  Assembled. 

March  3rd,  That  Christopher  Gilpin  Esq  ;  by  his  Deed  of  Feeoff- 
1650.  ment  duely  executed  with  Livery,  Dated  March  3d,  1650, 
for  the  Consideration  of  1520I.  really  paid  to,  or  for  the 
said  Gilpin,  Convej-ed  the  Demeasne  of  Kentmer  in 
Westmerland,  with  Apputenances  to  Nathan.  Nicholson 
and  his  Heirs  absolutely.  But  Gilpin  having  Married 
Nicholson's  Daughter,  there  might  be  some  Promise  that 
he  might  be  at  Liberty  to  Redeem  the  Premisses  on 
Repayment  of  the  1520I.  and  Interest. 

That  Gilpin  to  Defraud  the  said  Nicholson  made  some 
conveyance  of  the  Premisses  to  Mary  Phillipson  widow, 
and  her  Heirs,  in  Trust,  (as  is  pretended  for  Hudleston 
Phillipson  her  son,)  And  the  said  Conveyance  is  Dated 

March  ist,    March   ist,  1650,  although  not  executed  till  Seven  Years 

1650.  after,  and  there  is  1700I.  mentioned  as  the  Consideration 

thereof,  when  in  Truth  there  was  not  One  Penny  paid  for 

the  same.      And  the  said  Hudleston  Phillipson  was  then 

so  far  from   Claiming  anything  to   himself  under  that 

Janu.  22d,  Deed,  that  Five  Years  afterv/ards,  (viz.)  Jan.  22nd,  1655, 
1655.  he  (with  three  other  Arbitrators,)  by  an  Award  then 
made,  did  Award  that  there  was  due  to  Nicholson  1050I. 
but  that  he  should  there-out  allow  Gilpin  400I.  for  the 
Portion  of  his  Wile,  he  making  her  a  Jointure  of  30I.  per 
annum  out  of  the  Premisses.  And  Gilpin  was  also  there- 
out to  secure  to  Nicholson  the  650I.  Residue  of  the  1050I. 
And  thereupon  Possession  was  to  be  delivered  to  Gilpin 
by  the  said  Award, 

That  in  1657  the  Phillipsons  set  up  a  Title,  and  brings 
an  Ejectment  under  the  said  Deed,  and  upon  Tryal  at 

August,         Appleby,  in  August,  1657,  were  Non-Suited.      How-ever 

1657.  they  bring  another  Ejectment  the  next  Year,  and  there- 
upon there  was  a  Reference  to  Arbitrators,  who  taking 
Notice  of  the  said  former  Award,  and  that  there  waa  lool. 

Decern.  25,  more  become  due  to  Nicholson,  it  is  Awarded  December 

1658.  the  25,  1658,  that  Mary  Phillipson  should  pay  to  Nichol- 
Janu.  2ist.  son  the  21st  of  January  then  next  750I.  or  give  sufficient 



Security  for  the  same,  with  Interest,  and  should  also 
j^ive  Security  for  payment  of  400I.  to  Gilpin,  with  In- 
terest, in  a  Year.  And  also  that  she  should  settle  a 
Jointure  of  30I.  per  Annum  on  Elizabeth  the  Wife  of 
Gilpin,  and  that  she  should  give  Security  to  Nicholson 
to  Idempnifie  him  against  Five  several  Bonds  therein 
mentioned,  or  else  procure  the  same  to  be  Cancelled. 

That  there  never  was  any  Money  paid,  or  Security 
given,  or  anything  done  in  performance  or  Execution  of 
the  said  Award,  but  Nicholson  kept  Possession  of  the 
1662.  Premisses.  And  in  1662  Exhibited  his  Bill  in  Chancery 
against  the  Phillipsons,  and  Gilpin  to  discover  the  said 
Fraudulent  Deed,  and  for  Relief  in  the  Premisses.  And 
Hudelston  Phillipson  Dying,  the  Bill  was  revived  against 
Christopher  Phillipson  on  his  Eldest  !Son  and  Heir  (now 
Sir  Christopher  the  Appellant,)  And  neither  the  Phillip- 
sons,  nor  Gilpin,  did  by  their  Answer  to  that  Bill  set 
forth  One  Penny  really  paid  as  the  Consideration  of  their 

Novem.  24,  Deed.      And  November  the  24th,  1671,  the  Cause  was 

1671.  regularly  brought  to  Hearing  against  the  now  Appellant, 

(who    was   then  25  Years   Old,  tho  by  his    Petition  he 

suggests  he  was  under  Age,)  and  upon  the  Hearing  the 

Court  declared  themselves  satisfied,  that  the  said  Deed 

March  3d,    of  the  3d  of  March,  1650,  was  a  good  Deed,  and  ought 
1650.  not    to    be    Impeached,  being   made   for  Valuable  Con- 

siderations. And  did  therefore  Order  and  Decree,  That 
Nicholson  should  be  pay'd  1520I.  with  his  Damages  and 
Costs,  or  else  hold  the  Estate  Absolute.  And  an  Account 
was  directed  to  be  taken  to  see  what  was  due  to  Nichol- 
son, but  the  Defendants  not  appearing  to  hear  Judge- 
ment, they  had  a  Day  to  show  cause  against  the  said 

That  shortly  after  Nicholson  Dyed,  leaving  the  Respon- 
dents   Beatrix  and  Judith  his  Grand-children,  and  Co- 
heirs, tender  Infants.    And  they  being  afterwards  Married 
to  Mr.  Copley,  and   Mr.  Carus.     In   Michaelmas  Term 
1683.  1683,  Sir   Christopher    Phillipson   Exhibited  his   Bill  in 

Chancery  against  them,  to  have  an  Account  of  the 
Profits  of  the  Premisses,  and  that  he  might  be  let  in  on 
Payment  of  what  should  appear  due  to  the  Respondents. 
And  they  thereupon  Exhibited  their  Bill  of  Revivour  to 
Revive  the  said    Decree  and    Proceedings.      And   upon 



June  nth,    hearing  both  the  said  Causes  June  the  nth,  16S6.    It  was 
1686.  Ordered    and    decreed,  that    Sir   Christopher   Phillipson 

should  pay  to  the  Respondents  the  1520I.  Decreed 
Nicholson  with  Interest  and  Costs  to  be  Computed  and 
Taxed  by  a  Master  who  was  directed  to  take  an  Account 
of  the  Profits,  and  what  the  Master  should  certifie  due. 
Sir  Christopher  Phillipson  was  Decreed  to  pay,  and 
thereupon  the  Respondents  were  to  reconvey,  but  in 
default  of  pa3^ment,  Sir  Christopher's  Bill  was  to  stand 
desmist,  with  Costs. 

That  Sir  Christopher  Phillipson  not  resting  satisfied 
with  the  said  Decree,  Petitioned  the  Late  Lord  Chan- 
cellour  Jeffrej's  for  a  Rehearing,  which  being  granted, 
and  the  Causes  coming  accordingly  to  be  Reheard  before 

Novemb.  II,  his  Lordship  on  the   nth  of  November,   16S6,   It  was 
16S6.  Ordered,  that    the    said   former   Order   on   Hearing,  or 

Decree,  do  stand. 

That  the  said  Sir  Christopher  Phillipson  greatly  de- 
layed the  Account  before  the  Master,  by  taking  out 
several  Commissions  into  Westmerland  to  Examine  to 
the  Value  of  the  Premisses,  or  othenvise.  And  finding 
there  would  be  much  more  found  due  upon  the  said 
Estate  than  the  same  is  worth,  to  be  sold  out-right,  the 
Premisses  being  but  50I.  or  60I.  per  Annum  Value  And 
there  is  a  Free  Rent  of  lol.  per  Annum  Issuing  there- 
out, which  with  other  usual  Reprizes  amount  to  15I.  per 
Annum.      .And  there  was  a  Doweress  upon  the  Estate 

April,        til!  April,  1672.     .And  the  Master  being  ready  to  make 
1672.  his  Report,  Sir  Christopher  Phillipson  E.xhibits  his  Appeal 

to  vour  Lordships  to  execute  the  said  Award  made  above 
Thirty  Years  since,  and  whereof  there  has  been  never 
any  performance  but  the  contrar}'.  And  the  said  Gilpin 
and  his  wife  who  were  to  have  benefit  by  the  said  Award, 
were  not  made  parties  to  the  said  Sir  Christopher 
Phillipson's  Suit,  and  are  since  Dead ;  and  now  that 
Nicholson  is  also  Dead,  it  cannot  appear  what  he  paid 
upon,  or  was  damnified  by  the  said  Five  Bonds  against 
which  he  was  to  be  saved  harmless  by  the  said  Award. 

Note. — Since  completing  the  above  account  I  have  received  an  interesting 
letter  on  the  subject  from  Mr.  J.  Holme  Nicholson,  of  Carill  Drive,  Fallowfield, 
Manchester,  containing  the  following  additional  information  : — Firstly,  Nathaniel 
Nicholson  was  one  of  those  gentlemen  of  the  Lonsdale  Hundred  who  compounded 
for  Knighthood  at  Lancaster  on  the  23rd  March,  1631-2,  by  payment  of  a  fine  of 



£io.  (Record  Soc.  vol.  12).  Secondly,  with  regard  to  family  arms,  it  appears 
that  Roger  Nicholson,  Sheriff  of  Newcastle,  15S3,  bore  Arg.  on  a  pale  sa.  three 
martlets  or.  [Carr  MS.  (Surtees  Socy.  vol.  i,  pr.  1S62,  appendix  Ixix.)  ].  It  does 
not  appear,  however,  that  any  other  Newcastle  Nicholsons  bore  these  or  any  other 
arms,  and  as  Roger  is  not  found  in  Dugdale's  pedigree,  or  in  any  way  connected 
either  with  the  Hawkshead  or  Newcastle  families,  it  is  very  questionable  if  he  was 
any  relation  ;  Mr.  J.  Holme  Nicholson  calls  my  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  arms 
are  identical,  except  as  to  tincture,  with  those  of  Nicholson  of  Balrath,  Co.  Meath, 
who  were  supposed  to  have  sprumg  from  the  Nicholsons  of  Poulton  Hall,  near 
Lancaster.     Not  improbably  Roger  was  a  member  of  this  family. 


Art.   III. — S.  Catherine's  Chapel,  Eskdale  :  a  reason  for  its 

Dedication.     By  Rev.  Thomas  Lees,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 
Communicated  in  Eskdale,  September  ^th,  1889. 

THE  chapelry  of  Eskdale  is  a  portion  of  the  enormous 
parish  of  S.  Bees.  The  chapel  itself  is  dedicated  to 
Catherine,  V.M.:  and  Jefferson  ("  Allerdale  above  Der- 
went  "  p.  422),  tells  us  that  "  a  fair  is  holden  here,  on  the 
north  side  of  the  chapel-yard,  on  the  5th  of  December, 
O.S."  {i.e.  November  25th  of  our  present  way  of  reckoning), 
"  being  the  Feast  of  St.  Catherine,  virgin  and  martyr,  to 
whom  the  chapel  is  dedicated. 

The  name  of  S.  Catherine  does  not  appear  in  the  oldest 
English  Calendars,  but  we  find  it  in  the  Roman,  French, 
Spanish,  German,  Greek,  Scottish,  and  Sarum  English 
use.  None  of  our  most  ancient  English  churches  are 
dedicated  to  her.  In  fact  her  legend  is  not  earlier  than 
the  8th  century,  and  was  not  introduced  into  western 
Christendom  till  after  the  Crusades  in  the  nth  century. 
Her  cultus  then  became  rapidly  popular,  and  we  have  some 
50  churches  in  England  bearing  her  name,  and  a  vast 
number  of  chantry  chapels  and  altars.  Now  in  choosing 
a  patron  for  his  new  chapel  here,  the  founder  ma}^  have 
been  influenced  by  what  was,  at  that  time,  a  popular 
fashion  ;  but  the  object  of  this  paper  is  to  show  that  he 
was  probably  moved  by  a  deeper  and  more  solemn  motive 
than  this. 

S.  Catherine's  Day,  A.D.  ii2o,was  marked  by  a  dread- 
ful calamity  which  befel  the  royal  family  of  England,  and 
many  noble  houses  of  England  and  Normandy.  This  was 
the  wreck  of  the  "  White  Ship,"  in  which  perished  Prince 
William  the  Etheling,  son  of  Henry  I,  and  many  of  his 
courtiers.     Ordericus  \'italis  describes  the  catastrophe  in 


s.  Catherine's  chapel,  eskdale.  51 

such  a  feeling  and  vigorous  style,  that  I  trust  you  will 
pardon  me  for  a  somewhat  lengthy  quotation  as  rendered 
in  English  by  his  translator,  Mr.  Forrester.  (Bohn's  An- 
tiquarian Library,  Ordericus  Vitalis,  Vol.  IV). 

After  telling  us  of  the  embarkation  of  Henry  I,  at  Barfleur, 
on  November  25th,  Ordericus  continues  : — 

"  In  this  voyage  a  sad  disaster  happened  which  caused  much  lamen- 
tation and  innumerable  tears  to  flow.  Thomas,  the  son  of  Stephen, 
had  obtained  an  audience  of  the  king,  and  offering  him  a  gold  mark, 
said  to  him.  "  Stephen,  the  son  of  Airard,  was  my  father,  and  during 
his  whole  life  he  was  in  your  father's  service  as  a  mariner.  He  it  was 
who  conveyed  your  father  to  England  in  his  own  ship,  when  he  crossed 
the  sea  to  make  war  on  Harold. 

He  was  employed  by  your  father  in  services  of  this  description 
as  long  as  he  lived,  and  gave  him  such  satisfaction  that  he  honoured 
him  with  liberal  rewards,  so  that  he  lived  in  great  credit  and  pros- 
perity among  those  of  his  own  class.  My  lord  king,  I  ask  you  to  em- 
ploy me  in  the  same  service,  having  a  vessel,  called  the  Blanche- Nef, 
which  is  fitted  out  in  the  best  manner,  and  perfectly  adapted  to  re- 
ceive a  royal  retinue."  The  king  replied  : — "  I  grant  your  request  ; 
but  I  have  already  selected  a  ship  which  suits  me,  and  I  shall  not 
change  ;  however,  I  entrust  to  you  my  sons,  William  and  Richard, 
whom  I  love  as  myself,  with  many  of  the  nobility  of  my  realm.' 

The  mariners  were  in  great  glee  at  hearing  this,  and  greeting  the 
king's  son  with  fair  words,  asked  him  to  give  them  something  to 
drink.  The  prince  gave  orders  that  they  should  have  three  muids. 
No  sooner  was  the  wine  delivered  to  them  than  they  had  a  great 
drmking  bout,  and  pledging  their  comrades  in  full  cups,  indulged  too 
much  and  became  intoxicated.  By  the  king's  command  many  barons 
with  their  sons  embarked  in  the  Blanche-Nef,  and  there  were  in  all, 
as  far  as  I  can  learn,  three  hundred  souls  on  board  the  ill-fated  ship, 
but  two  monks  of  Tyron,  Count  Stephen,  with  two  men-at-arms, 
William  de  Roumare,  Rabel  the  chamberlain,  Edward  of  Salisbury, 
and  several  others  came  on  shore,  having  left  the  vessel  upon 
observing  that  it  was  overcrowded  with  riotous  and  headstrong 
youths.  The  crew  consisted  of  fifty  experienced  rowers,  besides  an 
armed  marine  force,  who  were  very  disorderly,  and  as  soon  as  they 
got  on  board  insolently  took  possession  of  the  benches  of  the  rowers, 
and  being  drunk  forgot  their  station,  and  scarcely  paid  respect  to  any 
one.  Alas  I  How  many  among  the  company  embarked,  were  without 
the  slightest  feeling  of  devotion  towards  God. 



Oui  maris  imniodicas  iiiodcratur,  et  aeils,  iras  ! 
Who  rules  the  storm,  and  cahns  the  raging  sea. 

They  even  drove  away  with  contempt,  amidst  shouts  of  hiughter,  the 
priests  who  came  to  bless  them,  with  the  other  ministers  who  carried 
the  holy  water;  but  they  were  speedily  punished  for  their  mockery. 
Besides  the  king's  treasure  and  some  casks  of  wine,  there  was  no 
cargo  in  Thomas's  ship,  which  was  full  of  passengers;  and  they 
urged  hun  to  use  his  utmost  endeavours  to  overtake  the  royal  fleet 
which  was  already  ploughing  the  waves.  In  his  drunken  folly, 
Thomas,  confident  in  his  seamanship  and  the  skill  of  his  crew,  rashly 
boasted  that  he  would  soon  leave  behind  all  the  ships  that  had  started 
before  them.  At  last,  he  gave  the  signal  for  departure  ;  the  sailors 
seized  the  oars  without  a  moment's  delay,  and,  unconscious  of  the 
fate  which  was  iminently  impending,  joyously  handled  the  ropes 
and  sails,  and  made  the  ship  rush  through  the  water  at  a  great  rate. 
But  as  the  drunken  rowers  exerted  themselves  to  the  utmost  in  pul- 
ling the  oars,  and  the  luckless  pilot  steered  at  random  and  got  the 
ship  out  of  its  due  course,  the  starboard  bow  of  the  Blanche-Nef 
struck  violently  on  a  huge  rock,  which  is  left  dry  every  day  when  the 
tide  is  out,  and  covered  by  the  waves  at  high  water.  Two  planks 
having  been  shattered  by  the  crash,  the  ship,  alas  !  filled  and  went 
down.  At  this  fearful  moment,  the  passengers  and  crew  raised  cries 
of  distress,  but  their  mouths  were  soon  stopped  by  the  swelling 
waves,  and  all  perished  together,  except  two  who  seized  hold  of  the 
yard  from  which  the  sail  was  set ;  they  hung  on  to  it  the  greater  part 
of  the  night,  in  earnest  hops  that  they  would  receive  aid  in  some 
shape  or  other.  One  of  these  men  was  a  butcher  of  Rouen,  of  the 
name  of  Berold  ;  the  other,  a  young  man  of  gentle  birth  whose  name 
was  Geoffrey,  the  son  of  Gilbert  de  1'  Aigle." 

Wearied  with  this  quotation  you  will  naturally  ask 
"  what  has  all  this  to  do  with  Eskdaie  and  its  little  church  ?" 
This  I  hope  to  show  3'ou.  After  a  heart-rending  account 
of  the  circumstances  of  the  wreck,  Ordericus  gives  a  list 
of  the  chief  victims  : — 

"  As  we  have  already  said,  the  king's  sons  William  and  Richard 
were  amongst  those  who  perished,  with  their  sister  Matilda,  wife  of 
Rotrou,  count  of  Mortain.  There  were  also  Richard  the  young  Earl 
of  C^iester,  distinguished  by  his  bravery  and  kindness  of  heart,  with 
his  wife  Matilda,  sister  of  Theobald,  count  Palatine.  Othere,  his 
brother,  son  of  Hugh,  Earl  of  Chester,  and  governor  and  tutor  of  the 
king's  youngest  son  at  the  moment  when  the  Blanche-Nef  went  down 
and  the  nobles  were  hopelessly  buried  in  the  waves,  took,  as  it  is  re- 


ported,  the  young  prince  in  his  arms,  and  sinking  with  him  they  were 
never  seen  again." 

The  rest  of  the  list  has  no  connection  with  our  subject. 
The  bodies  of  Earl  Richard  and  several  others  were  found 
some  days  after  the  shipwreck  far  from  the  spot  where  the 
vessel  was  lost.     Finally  Ordericus  tells  us 

"  Ranulph  of  Bayeux  obtained  the  Earldom  of  Chester,  with  aU  the 
patrimony  of  Earl  Richard,  being  the  next  heir  as  nephew  of  Matilda, 
Earl  Hugh's  sister." 

It  appears  then  tliat  this  Richard,  Earl  of  Chester,  and 
his  brother  Othere  were  cousins  to  Ranulph  Mescliines, 
ist  Earl  of  Carlisle;  and  at  their  death,  he  succeeded  to 
the  Earldom  of  Chester.  Finding  the  Earldom  of  Carlisle 
to  which  Henry  I  had  promoted  him,  too  unwieldy  and 
troublesome  to  manage  alone,  he  had  divided  it  into 
Baronies,  one  of  which,  that  of  Copeland  (since  called 
Egremont),  of  which  the  manor  of  Eskdale  is  a  parcel,  he 
retained  in  his  own  hands.  He  founded  as  we  know  the 
Benedictine  Cell  of  Wetheral,  and  the  abbey  of  Calder. 
Like  his  master  Henry  I,  Ranulph  found  the  need  of  the  re- 
straining influences  of  religion  over  his  wayward,  indepen- 
dent,  Cumbrian  vassals  ;  and  therefore  provided  for  their 
instruction  and  spiritual  needs  such  means  as  seemed  best. 
One  of  these  I  take  to  have  been  the  founding  of  this  chapel 
in  his  manor  of  Eskdale;  and  it  seems  but  in  accordance 
with  the  feeling  of  the  age  that  he  should  dedicate  it  to  S. 
Catherine  in  pious  memory  of  those  two  kinsmen  who  had 
perished  on  her  day  ;  and  by  whose  decease  he  was  enabled 
to  exchange  the  barren  wastes  and  mountains  of  Cumber- 
land, for  the  fertile  and  wealthier  lands  of  Chester. 

This  is  but  a  supposition  on  my  part  ;  it  is  for  you  t 
judge  if  it  be  a  reasonable  one.  May  it  not  be  that  many 
of  the  numerous  dedications  to  this  Saint  of  churches, 
chantries,  and  altars,  owe  their  foundation  to  those  who 
desired  thus  to  remember  those  dear  ones  who  perished  in 

the  Blanche-Nef  ? 




Art.  IV. — Appleby    Old   Bridge.      By   the    Rev.    Canon 

Read  at  Penritli,  July  ^ili,  1S89. 

rpHE  removal  of  an  ancient  and  well-known  landmark  in 
-L  the  north  of  Westmorland  can  hardly  be  passed  over 
without  some  notice  from  this  society,  though  it  is  to  be 
regretted  that  few  materials  exist  for  any  detailed  history 
of  it.  Nothing  is  known,  so  far  as  I  can  trace,  of  its 
building,  or  the  sources  of  its  support,  for  several  centuries  ; 
save  that  many  pious  bequests  can  be  traced  in  the 
Bishop's  Registry  of  Wills  given  towards  its  maintenance, 
and  I  must  therefore  offer  only  such  meagre  details  as  I 
have  been  able  to  obtain  as  to  its  history.  The  structure 
itself  was  of  exceedingly  simple  design  and  workmanship. 
Where  it  spanned  the  river,  immediately  above  an  ancient 
ford  that  appears  to  have  crossed  it  at  an  angle,  since 
much  washed  away  by  the  scour  from  under  the  bridge 
itself,  a  scar  of  hard  boulder  clay  abuts  on  the  water  at  the 
west  side,  of  about  eight  feet  in  height  originally,  from 
which  and  on  which  the  western  arch  sprang.  The  same 
bed  dipping  sharply  under  the  river  was  taken  as  the 
foundation  of  the  central  pier,  large  beams  of  oak  being 
laid  transversely  upon  this  to  form  the  basis  of  the  masonry. 
These  oak  beams  were  taken  up  in  excellent  preservation, 
and  nearly  as  black  as  bog  oak.  On  the  eastern  side  the 
hard  scar  had  dipped  completely  down,  and  the  same 
transverse  beams  of  oak  had  been  laid  upon  the  sand  and 
gravel  that  form.ed  the  beach  stretching  along  the  river 
side,  part  of  which  is  still  known  as  "  The  Sands."  On 
these  beams,  and  on  the  hard  scar  on  the  western  side,  the 
bridge  was  built  of  the  simplest  and  rudest  construction. 
A  mass  of  large  boulders  and  soft  sandstone  blocks  from 



the  neighbouring  scar  formed  the  foundation  and  abut- 
ments, with  mortar,  seemingly  of  hot  lime,  run  in,  that 
had  hardened  to  a  tenacity  greater  than  the  stones  them- 
selves in  many  instances  ;  and  undoubtedly  to  the  excellence 
of  the  mortar  the  bridge  owed  its  stability  for  so  many 
years.  The  scour  of  the  water  had  rather  undermined  the 
foundation  of  the  central  pier  and  caused  a  large  crack, 
which  made  the  bridge  unsafe.  The  arches,  of  the  simple 
circular  shape  of  Norman  bridges,  were  of  very  simple 
construction.  Ribs  of  soft  sandstone,  not  seemingly 
worked  to  any  radius,  spanned  the  arch,  on  which  were 
laid  similar  but  larger  and  very  rough  stones,  overlapping 
the  ribs  originally  by  some  three  or  four  inches.  But  by 
the  wash  of  the  water  during  repeated  floods  the  ribs  had 
been  forced  outwards  down  the  stream,  so  that  at  the 
crown  of  each  they  were  fully  that  much  out  of  truth,  and 
the  over-lying  stones  simply  rested  on  the  bare  edge,  the 
marvel  being  that  they  had  stood  so  long.  Owing  to  this 
pressure,  the  northern  or  lower  parapet  and  outer  casing 
had  fallen  in  about  40  years  ago,  and  had  been  rebuilt  and 
widened,  the  new  work  being  excellent  masonry,  but  on 
exceedingly  bad  foundations. 

As  to  the  history  of  the  bridge  there  are  few  records 
and  not  many  reliable  indications  in  itself.  The  archi- 
tecture would  lead  us  to  assign  it  to  the  12th  century, 
and  is  exactly  similar  to  that  of  the  bridge  at  Kirkby 
Lonsdale.  I  am  strongly  of  opinion  that  both  were 
built  by  the  Abbey  of  St.  Mary,  at  York,  which  owned 
the  rectorial  property  of  both  parishes ;  and,  in  the 
case  of  Appleby,  appear  to  have  owned  the  land  adjoining 
the  bridge.  In  the  lower  part  of  the  centre  pier  three 
carved  stones  were  found,  fragments  apparently  of  monu- 
mental tablets  with  floriated  cross,  but  much  broken.  It 
is  not  unreasonable  to  think  that  they  may  have  been  taken 
from  the  neighbouring  church  of  St.  Lawrence,  which  had 
been  sacked  by  the  Scotch  in  the  raid  in  1174  under  Wil- 


liam  the  Lion.  It  is  shortly  after  that  date  that  we  find 
the  first  historical  notice  of  the  bridge,  when  Richard  I. 
ordered  the  sheriff  of  Westmorland  to  repair  it.  It  is  said 
that  a  bottle,  of  antiquated  shape,  sealed  up,  and  with 
something  white  like  paper  or  parchment  in  it,  was  dis- 
covered in  the  foundations  and  thrown  up  to  the  contractor, 
who  missed  it,  and  falling  to  the  bottom  of  the  river  it  was 
never  found  again.  On  the  west  end  of  the  bridge  it  is 
known  that  an  ancient  chantry  was  situated,  with  an  ora- 
tor}' or  chapel  over  the  archway  by  which  the  bridge  was 
approached.  This  fact  probably  accounts  for  the  source 
of  the  revenues  from  which  the  bridge  was  in  early  da3's 
repaired — namely  the  voluntary  offerings  of  pious  travellers, 
supplemented  by  the  bequests  to  which  I  have  alluded. 
Not  much  is  known  about  this  chapel.  We  have  the  fol- 
lowing : 

(1445).  "23,  Hen.  VI. — Robert  Warcop,  mayor,  and  the  burgesses 
of  Appleby,  granted  to  John  Marshall  a  certain  ruinated''-  chapel  on 
the  west  end  of  the  stone  bridge  of  St.  Lawrence  in  Appleby,  to 
hold  this  said  chapel  to  him  and  his  successors,  repairing  the  said 
chapel  at  his  own  expense,  with  license  to  repair  also  a  certain  cham- 
ber or  oratory  over  the  said  chapel ;  to  pay  a  yearly  rent  of  2d.  to  the 
mayor  and  burgesses  if  demanded.  '  This  seems  to  be  the  very  same 
which;is  now  the  old  gaol,  having  to  this  day  much  more  the  appear- 
ance of  a  monkish  cell  than  a  prison.  The  revenues,  thereof,  perhaps 
did  arise  from  the  charity  of  passengers."  Nicolson  &  Burn  Vol.  I, 
p.  328. 

There  appears  to  have  been  no  endowment  attached  to 
this  chantry,  as  it  is  not  named  amongthe  others  suppressed 
by  Edward  VI,  though  in  that  list  there  are  some  men- 
tioned as  situated  upon  bridges  and  endowed — as  "  the 
chantry  upon  the  bridge  of  Great  Totneys  in  the  count}^ 
of  Devon,"  and  the  "  chappel  and  scite  of  the  chappel  of 

*  Probably  "  ruinated  "  in  the  sack  of  the  town  by  the  Scotch  in  13SS.  It  may 
be  noted  that  the  bridge  at  Kirkb}-  Lonsdale  had  a  chapel  standing  near  the 
the  western  approach,  though  not  on  the  bridge  itself. 



the  Assumption  of  the  B.  V.  Mary  upon  the  bridge  of  the 
town  of  Bristol."  It  is  never  mentioned  in  connection 
with  other  chantries  in  the  churches  of  Appleby,  which 
were  endowed.  No  trace  of  the  building  or  even  of  the 
foundations  of  this  chantry  or  oratory  could  be  seen.  In 
the  century  following  the  suppression  of  the  chantries  it 
was  used  as  a  gaol  for  county  prisoners,  who  had  hitherto 
been  kept  in  the  Castle  keep. 

To  this  date  must  be  assigned  probably  an  old  lintel 
of  which  three  fragments  were  discovered  when  the  old 
house  occupying  its  site  was  pulled  down,  on  which  the 
following  part  of  an  inscription  could  be  clearly  pieced 
together — 

I  TO    PORTA    PATEN   |   S    NULLI. 

a  lower  line  having  been  cut  through  so  that  the  letters 
were  not  decipherable.  But  I  could  make  out  the  lower 
half  of  the  date  1646.  Mr.  Bintiey,  through  the  Builder, 
elicited  an  interesting  letter  which  made  the  remainder  of 
the  legend  to  run 


but  even  with  this  key  the  remaining  letters  were  too  frag- 
mentary to  be  made  out.  In  the  following  century  the 
gaol  was  moved  to  the  other  side  of  the  water,  and  the  old 
buildings  having  been  converted  into  a  dwelling-house, 
all  traces  of  the  gaol  and  chapel  were  destroyed. 

Note  by  the  Editor. — Appleby  Bridge  was  repaired  in  the  year 
1847,  when  a  stone  with  a  Roman  sepulchral  inscription  was  taken 
out  of  the  parapet.  Hill.  MS.  Coll.  vol.  5.  This  stone  was  seen  by 
Horsley  and  is  engraved  in  the  Lapidarium  Septentrionale  No.  748,  and 
is  there  stated  to  be  in  the  possession  of  (the  late)  John  Bell,  Esq. 
of  Appleby. 



Thursday  and  Friday,  July  4th  and  5th,  iSSg. 

ri'HIS  Society  visited  Penrith  on  Thursday  and  Friday,  July  4th 
-^  and  5th,  1SS9,  when  the  first  meeting  of  the  year  was  held, 
and  visits  were  made  to  several  places  in  the  neighbourhood.  The 
committee  for  making  the  local  arrangements  were  the  worshipful 
Chancellor  Ferguson,  F.S.A.,  President  of  the  Society;  Major  Arni- 
son  ;  M.  \V.  Taylor,  M.D.,  F.S.A.  ;  Rev.  Thomas  Lees,  F.S.A., 
and  Rev.  H.  Whitehead.  These  gentlemen  arranged  an  excellent 
programme,  which  made  the  Crown  Hotel  the  head  quarters,  and 
comprised  visits  on  the  first  day  to  the  Roman  station  at  Plumpton, 
Catterlen  Hall,  and  Newton  Reigny  Church,  and  on  the  second  da)' 
to  Blencow  Hall,  Johnby  Hall,  Greenthwaite  Hall,  Greystoke  Church, 
Hutton  John,  and  Dacre  Church  and  Castle.  The  visit  to  Hutton 
John  was  postponed  in  consequence  of  the  melancholy  death  in  India 
of  Mr.  Hudleston's  son,  but  the  rest  of  the  programme  was  carried  out. 
On  Thursday  afternoon  the  members  and  their  friends  drove  to 
Plumpton,  which  was  reached  about  three  o'clock,  and  proceeded  to 
the  exploration  of  the  Roman  station — Voreda.  The  President,  in 
a  short  address,  described  the  camp  and  its  history.  He  attributed 
its  formation  to  the  period  of  Agricola's  invasion  in  79,  A.D.,  and  ex- 
plained that  it  stood  upon  the  great  Roman  thoroughfare  from  York 
to  Carlisle.  The  whole  place,  he  said,  would  well  repa}'  systematic 
and  extensive  excavation.  Sir  Walter  Scott  had  made  it  a  practice 
never  to  pass  in  the  posting  days  without  stopping  at  it  and  medita- 
ting upon  it ;  on  one  occasion  Sir  Walter  bought  five  altars  found 
here,  upon  which  were  figures  of  Jupiter,  Apollo,  Mars,  Mercury,  and 
Venus,  and  had  taken  them  to  Abbotsford,  where  thej'  now  are. 
Other  sculptured  stones  had  been  taken  from  the  station  in  large 
numbers  by  Sir  Robert  Cotton  ;  but  that  celebrated  antiquary  had 
had  the  misfortune  to  lose  the  whole  while  having  them  removed  by 
sea.  A  pleasant  half-hour  having  been  spent  in  examing  the  camp, 
the  party  adjourned  to  Romanway,  the  residence  of  Mr.  Joseph  Simp- 
son, and  partook  of  afternoon  tea,  which  Mrs.  Simpson  kindly  served 
to  her  numerous  guests.  A  number  of  objects  of  antiquity  displayed 
in  the  grounds  and  in  the  library  of  the  mansion  were  examined  with 



interest.  From  Mr.  Simpson's  residence  tlie  party  proceeded  to  Cat- 
terlen  Hall — one  of  the  numerous  Cumberland  manorial  halls  which 
have  been  deserted  by  the  aristocratic  families  by  whom  they  were 
built,  and  have  become  farm  houses.  Catterlen  Hall  is  now  in  the 
occupation  of  Mr.  Lancaster,  who  farms  the  surrounding  land.  Dr. 
Taylor  gave  a  description  of  the  building  and  conducted  the  party 
through  its  various  apartments.  The  peel  tower,  he  said,  was 
of  the  fourteenth  century;  there  was  an  addition  in  the  year  1577  by 
Roland  de  Vaux  ;  and  in  1657  another  addition  was  made  by  Christo- 
pher Richmond,  who  married  Mabel,  heiress  to  the  last  Vaux 
of  Catterlen — A  paper  by  Dr.  Taylor  on  Catterlen  Hall,  is  printed  in 
the  first  volume  of  the  Society's  Transactions. 

Newton  Reigny  Church  was  next  visited,  the  rector  the  Rev.  H. 
Whitehead  acting  as  guide.  Mr.  Whitehead  read  the  paper  upon  the 
church  by  the  Rev.  T.  W.  Norwood,  which  is  published  in  the  tenth 
volume  of  the  Transactions  of  the  society.  He  also  exhibited  the  regis- 
ter dating  from  1571,  and  the  communion  cup  bearing  the  date  of 
1568  ;  and  spoke  of  one  of  the  bells  in  the  tower  which  had  upon  it 
the  inscription  Sancta  Maria,  ora  pro  nobis,  in  small  black-lettered 
type,  and  had  been  cast  somewhere  between  1420  and  1538.  The 
font  in  the  church  and  m.any  curious  gravestones  in  the  churchyard 
were  also  described  at  length  by  the  genial  rector.  It  was  six  o'clock 
when  the  part}^  having  re-entered  their  carriages,  turned  their  backs 
upon  the  church  and  its  surroundings,  and  half-an-hour  later  they 
reached  their  headquarters  at  Penrith.  At  seven  o'clock  the  mem- 
bers and  their  friends  dined  together  at  the  Crown,  the  president 
being  in  the  chair.  After  dinner  the  Annual  Meeting  took  place, 
when  the  following  Officers  were  elected  : — 

Patrons  : — The  Right  Hon.  The  Lord  Muncaster,  M.P.,  Lord 
Lieutenant  of  Cumberland  ;  The  Right  Hon.  The  Lord  Hothfield, 
Lord  Lieutenant  of  Westmorland ;  The  Right  Rev.  The  Lord  Bishop 
of  Carlisle. 

President  and  Editor  :— The  Worshipful  Chancellor  Ferguson, 
M.A.,  LL.M.,  F.S.A. 

Vice-Presidents: — James  Atkinson  Esq.,  E.  B.  W.  Balme,  Esq., 
The  Bishop  of  Barrow-in-Furness :  The  Earl  of  Bective,  M.P., 
W.  Browne,  Esq.,  James  Cropper,  Esq.,  The  Dean  of  Carlisle,  H.  F. 
Curwen,  Esq.,  Robert  Ferguson  Esq.,  F.S.A. ,  The  Earl  of  Carlisle, 
W.  Jackson,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  G.  J.  Johnson,  Esq.,  Hon.  W.  Lowther, 
M.P.,  H.  P.  Senhouse,  Esq.,  M.  W.Taylor,  Esq.,  M.D.,  F.S.A. 

Elected  Members  of  Council:— W.  B.  Arnison,  Esq.,  Penrith- 
Rev.  R.  Bower,  Carlisle;   Rev.   W.  S.  Calverley,  F.S.xA.,  Aspatria  ; 



J.  F.  Crosthwaite,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  Keswick  ;  H.  Swainson  Cowper,  Esq., 
F.S.A.,  Hawkshead  ;  C.  J.  Ferguson,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  Carlisle  ;  T.  F. 
FAnson,  Esq.,  M.D.,  Whitehaven  ;  Rev.  Thomas  Lees,  F.S.A 
Wrea}' ;  Rev.  Canon  Mathews,  Appleby  ;  Alfred  Peile,  Esq.,  ^Vork- 
ington  ;  Rev.  Hy.  Whitehead,  Newton  Reigny  ;  Robert  J.  Whitwell, 
Esq.,  Kendal. 

Auditors  : — James  G.  Gandy,  Esq.,  Heaves  ;  Frank  Wilson,  Esq., 

Treasurer: — W.  H.  Wakefield,  Esq.,  Sedgwick. 

Secretary  : — Mr.  T.  Wilson,  Aynam  Lodge,  Kendal. 

The  following  new  members  were  elected  : — Miss  Wilson,  The 
Rowans,  Ambleside  ;  the  Rev.  T.  T.  Smith,  Wellbeck  Road,  Birkdale, 
Southport ;  Mr.  J.  W.  Lowther,  M.P. ;  Mr.  C.  J.  Parker,  The  Laithes, 
Penrith;  the  Rev.  J.  S.  Ostle,  Skelton  Rectory;  the  Rev.  M.  S. 
Donald,  Barton,  Penrith  ;  Mr.  R.  B.  Neville,  Penrith  ;  Mr.  John 
Monkhouse,  Hawthorn  Villa,  Kendal;  Mr.  T.  Newby  Wilson,  The 
Landing,  Ulverston  ;  Mr.  John  Fletcher,  Rock  House,  Ulverston  ; 
Mr.  Jenkinson,  Wordsworth  Street,  Penrith. 

The  following  communication  from  the  Society  of  Antiquaries, 
London,  was  read,  and  on  the  motion  of  the  Rev.  H.  Whitehead, 
seconded  by  the  Rev.  T.  Lees,  F.S.A.,  it  was  resolved  that  this 
Society  should  be  registered  in  accordance  therewith,  and  send  copies 
of  its  publications  and  papers.  It  was  also  resolved  that  it  be  left  to 
the  President  to  nominate  two  delegates  to  attend  the  next  Con- 
ference to  be  held  in  London  in  July. 


Soc.  Antiq.  Lond., 
Burlington  House,  Piccadilly,  London,  W., 

June  i^th,   iSSg. 


Ueak  Sik, 

I  beg  to  enclose  copy  of  the  Resolutions  agreed  to  at  the  adjourned 
Meeting  of  the  above  Conference  on  Tuesday,  May  7th,  1SS9,  which  have  now 
been  formally'  considered  and  approved  by  the  Council  of  the  Society  of 

Will  you,  at  your  earliest  convenience,  authorize  me  to  submit  the  name  of 
your  Society  for  registration  to  the  Council  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  in 
accordance  with  Resolution  I.,  at  their  Meeting  on  June  26th  next. 

I  have  also  to  inform  you  that  th.e  first  Congress  will  be  held  at  the  rooms  of 
the  Society   of  Antiquaries,  Burlington    House,  on  Wednesday,  July  17th,  1889^ 

at  2  p.m. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be.  yours  faithfully, 

Harold  Arthur  Dillon,  Secrclnnj,  S.A. 
The  Secretary,  Cumberland  &  Westmorkind  Antiq.  &  Arch.  Soc. 




At  an  adjourned  Meeting  of  the  Conference  of  Archseological  Societies,  held 
at  Burlington  House,  on  May  7th,  1SS9,  it  was  agreed  that  the  following  Recom- 
mendations be  submitted  to  the  President  and  Council  of  the  Society  of  Anti- 
quaries, with  a  request  that  they  should  receive  their  favourable  consideration. 

I. — That  a  Register  of  Antiquarian  and  Archa;ological  Societies,  hereinafter 
termed  "  Societies  in  Union,"  be  kept  at  the  rooms  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries, 
and  that  any  Society  desiring  to  be  placed  on  the  Register  should  submit  its  ap- 
plication to  the  Council  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  who  shall  grant  or  refuse  it 
as  they  think  fit. 

II. — That  every  Society  in  Union  shall  send  its  Publications,  and  the  Pro- 
grammes of  its  Meetings,  to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  and  in  return  shall  receive 
a  free  copy  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries'  Proceedings,  and,  should  they  desire  it, 
a  copy  of  Archjeologia  at  the  same  price  as  that  at  which  it  is  sold  to  Fellows. 

III. — That  if,  on  any  discovery  being  made  of  exceptional  interest,  a  Society 
in  Union  shall  elect  to  communicate  it  to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  before  them- 
selves making  it  matter  of  discussion,  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  if  it  adopts  it  as 
the  subject  of  a  paper  at  one  of  its  Ordinary  Meetings,  shall  allow  the  Society  in 
Union  to  make  use  of  any  Illustrations  that  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  may  pre- 

IV. — That  any  Officer  of  a  Society  in  Union,  or  any  person  recommended  by 
the  President,  Vice-President,  Chairman,  or  Secretary,  or  by  two  of  the  Members 
of  the  Council  »f  a  Society  in  Union,  shall,  on  the  production  of  proper  vouchers, 
be  allowed  to  use  the  Library  oi  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  but  without  the  power 
of  removing  books,  except  by  the  express  permission  of  the  Council  of  the  Society 
of  Antiquaries. 

V. — That  from  time  to  time  a  Congress  shall  be  held  in  London,  the  first  to 
be  summoned  during  the  present  year.  The  Council  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries 
shall  be  ex-officio  Members,  and  the  President  (or  in  his  absence  one  of  the  Vice- 
Presidents)  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  shall  be  President  of  the  Congress.  Six 
Members  of  the  Council  of  the  Royal  Archaeological  Institute,  six  of  the  Council 
of  the  British  Archseological  Association,  and  four  of  the  Council  of  the  Cambrian 
Archaeological  Association,  may  be  nominated  by  these  Societies  to  represent  them 
at  the  Congress.  Each  Society  in  Union  may  send  two  Delegates  to  the  Congress. 

VI. — That  the  object  of  the  Congress  be  to  promote  the  better  organization 
of  Antiquarian  research,  and  to  strengthen  the  hands  of  the  local  Societies  in 
securing  the  preservation  of  ancient  monuments,  records,  and  all  objects  of 
Antiquarian  interest. 

VII. — That  for  this  purpose  it  shall  promote  the  foundation  of  new  Societies 
where  such  appear  necessary,  and  the  improvement  and  consolidation  of  existing 
Societies  where  advisable,  and  suggest  the  limits  within  which  each  local  Society 
can  most  advantageously  work,  and  the  direction  in  which  it  appears  most  de- 
sirable at  the  moment  that  the  efforts  of  the  Societies  in  Union  should  be  exerted. 

VIII. — That  the  Societies  in  Union  be  invited  to  furnish  reports  from  time  to 
time  with  reference  to  their  action  in  these  directions.  That  the  Roj-al  Archaeo- 
logical Institute,  the  British  Archaeological  Association,  and  the  Cambrian 
Archaeological  Association,  be  requested  to  offer  to  the  Congress  any  remarks 
which  may  be  suggested  by  their  Annual  General  Meetings  or  otherwise. 



IX. — That  the  Secretary  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  be  requested  to  act  as 
Secretary  of  the  Congress,  with  whom  the  Secretaries  of  the  Societies  in  Union 
can  correspond,  and  that  the  Council  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  be  requested 
to  advise  on  any  matters  which  may  arise  in  the  interval  between  one  meeting  of 
the  Congress  and  another. 


Soc.  An'tio.  Lo.xd., 
Burlington  House,  Piccadilly,  London,  VV., 
July,  Sth,   1SS9. 


Dear  Sir, 

I  have  much  pleasure  in  informing  you  that  the  name  of  your  Society 
has  been  placed  on  the  Register  of  Societies  in  union  with  the  Society  of 

Will  you,  at  your  earliest  convenience,  inform  me  the  names  of  the  Delegates 
appointed  to  represent  your  Society  at  the  first  Congress,  which  will  be  held  at 
the  rooms  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  Burlington  House,  on  Wednesday,  July 
17th,  1SS9,  at  2  p.m. 

The  Council  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  suggest,  amongst  others,  the  fol- 
lowing as  suitable  subjects  for  discussion  at  the  Congress: — 

1.  The  formation  of  archaeological  maps  by  counties,  on  the  plan  already 

laid  down  by  the  Society  of  Antiquaries. 

2.  1  he  preservation  of  ancient  monuments  and  buildings. 

3.  The  publication  of  parish  registers. 

I  shall  be  g'ad  to  receive  early  notice  of  any  other  subject  your  Society  or  its 
representatives  may  think  proper  for  discussion. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  yours  faithfully, 

Harold  Arthur  Dillon,  Secretary,  S.A. 


Soc.  Antio.  Lnod., 
Burlington.  House,  Picdadilly,  London,  W., 
July  3T.^/,   iSSg. 


Dear,  Sir 

I  beg  to  inform  you  that  the  first  Congress  of  Archaeological  Societies 
in  union  with  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  was  held  here  on  Wednesday,  July  17th, 
John  Evans,  Esq.,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  President  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries, 
in  the  chair,  when  delegates  from  the  following  Societies  attended: — The 
Archaeological  Societies  of  Berkshire,  Bristol  and  Gloucestershire,  Buckingham- 
shire, Cumberland  and  Westmorland,*  Derbyshire,  Surrey,  Sussex,  Wilts,  and 
Yorkshire ;  the  Royal  .•\rchaeological  Institute ;  the  British  Archaeological  Asso. 
ciation,  and  the  Huguenot  Society  of  London.  The  delegates  of  a  number  of 
other  Societies  were  unfortunately  prevented  from  attending. 

*  R.  A.  Allison,  Esq.,  M.P.,  and  H.  Swainson-Cowpcr,  Esq.,  F.S.A.  attended 
on  behalf  of  this  society. 



The  following  resolutions  were  discussed  and  agreed  to  : — 

I.  That  each  local  Society  be  requested  to  take  into  consideration  the 
desirability  of  placing  on  record,  on  the  6-inch  scale  maps  of  the 
County  with  which  they  are  concerned,  all  the  local  names  of  fields, 
and  all  relics  of  antiquity  for  which  a  locality  can  be  fixed. 

That  such  maps  should  be  kept  in  duplicate  so  that  eventually 
a  copy  may  be  deposited  with  the  Society  of  Antiquaries. 
II.  That  all  local  Societies  be  requested  to  be  on  the  watch  against  any 
wilful  or  injudicious  destruction  of  ancient  monuments  or  buildings, 
so  as  at  once  to  bring  local  opinion  to  bear  against  the  destroyers ; 
and  that  in  cases  of  what  appears  to  be  national  importance,  the  aid 
of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  or  the  Inspector  of  Ancient  Monuments 
be  invoked. 
III.  That  a  Committee  (consisting  of  Rev.  Canon  Benham,  F.S.A.,  Messrs. 
R.  S.  Faber,  Edwin  Freshfield,  LL.D.,  V.P.S.A.,  W.  J.  Hardy, 
F.S.A.,  and  Ralph  Nevill,  F.S.A.,  with  power  to  add  to  their 
number)  be  appointed  to  draw  up  a  scheme  for  the  uniform  trans- 
cription of  Parish  Registers  and  Records,  showing  the  best  form  of 
arrangement,  &c.,  and  in  the  case  of  their  being  printed,  the  best 
form  of  size,  type,  &c. 

That  the  Report  of  such  scheme  should  give  as  much  information 
as  possible  in  regard  to  printing  and  publishing,  and  such  other  in- 
formation as  may  be  likely  to  be  useful  to  inexperienced  people,  who 
may  be  willing  to  undeitake  the  work  of  transcribing. 
IV.     That  in  the  case  of  extracts  from  Parish  Registers  and  Records  being 
printed  in  Parish  Magazines,  the  Incumbents  be  requested  to  com- 
municate copies  to  the  Local  Societies  and  to  the  Society  of  Anti- 
V.     That  the  attention  of  the   Local  Societies  be  called   to  the  proposed 
Bill,  entitled   an    Act  for  the   Preservation   of  Public  and    Private 
Records,  which  it  appears  may  provide  for  a  long  recognised  want. 
It  was  also  resolved  that  the  Council  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  be  asked 
to  summon  the  next  Conference  in  July,  1S90. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be,  yours  faithfully, 

H.VROLD  Arthur  Dillon,  Sccrelary,  S.A. 

The  following  papers  were  read  : — Horse  Interment  at  Lanercost, 
Rev.  H.  J.  Bulkeley;  Appleby  Bridge,  Rev.  Canon  Mathews;  Gold 
Armlet  found  in  Westmorland,  Mrs.  Ware;  Recent  Local  Finds, 
The  President;  The  Siege  of  Carlisle  in  1644-5,  The  President. 

On  Friday  morning  several  of  the  members  visited  St.  Andrew's 
Church,  Penrith.  At  ten  o'clock  the  party  drove  to  Blencow  Hall, 
where  a  paper  by  Dr.  Taylor,  descriptive  of  the  building  was  read, 
the  Rev.  T.  Lees,  F.S.A.,  supplementing  Dr.  Taylor's  remarks  with 
an  account  of  the  heraldry  over  the  doorway  of  the  Hall.  Leaving 
Blencow,  a  short  drive  brought  the   party  to  Johnby  Hall,  where  a 



second  paper  was  read  by  Dr.  Taylor,  who  conducted  the  visitors 
around  the  building  and  grounds.  Afterwards  a  visit  was  paid  to 
Greenthwaite  Hall,  where  again  Dr.  Taylor  acted  as  cicerone,  and 
explained  this  very  interesting  building.  At  all  these  Halls  Mr.  Lees 
added  to  the  interest  of  Dr.  Taylor's  papers  by  drawing  on  his  well- 
furnished  note  book  for  accounts  of  the  families,  who  once  owned  and 
inhabited  them.  The  day's  programme  included  luncheon  at  the 
Queen's  Head  Inn.  Afterwards,  Greystoke  Church  was  minutely  in- 
spected, and  Mr.  Lees,  who  was  for  many  years  curate  of  Greystoke, 
read  an  interesting,  historical,  and  descriptive  paper,  which  will  ap- 
pear in  the  Society's  Transactions.  From  Greystoke  the  party  drove 
to  Dacre,  and  went  over  the  Castle  and  Church,  the  Rev.  W.  S.  Cal- 
verley,  the  Rev.  Canon  Mathews,  the  Rev.  T.  Lees,  and  the  Vicar 
of  Dacre  (the  Rev.  J.  White),  taking  a  prominent  part  in  the  discus- 
sions which  arose  in  the  course  of  the  ramble  over  these  buildings. 
The  four  beasts  of  stone  in  the  churchyard  excited  great  curiosity,  and 
the  Vicar  read  a  paper  on  them  ;  the  Rev.  Canon  Mathews  read  a 
paper  on  a  carved  stone  found  in  the  east  wall  of  the  church.  This 
brought  the  day's  programme  to  a  close,  and  the  members  returned 
to  Penrith,  where  the  party  broke  up  after  a  thoroughly  successful, 
and  a  very  pleasant  and  profitable  meeting. 

On  Saturday  morning,  a  few  of  the  members  who  had  stayed  over 
night  had  a  run  to  Eamont  Bridge,  and  there  inspected  with  great 
interest,  Mayburgh,  King  Arthur's  Round  Table,  and  other  objects 
of  interest ;  Major  Arnison  taking  the  party  in  charge,  and  genially 
filling  for  the  occasion  the  office  of  guide. 

Wednesday,  and  Thursday,  September  4th  and  5th,  1889. 

On  Wednesday,  Sept.  4th,  1889,  at  2  p.m.,  the  members  of  the 
Society  and  their  friends  to  the  number  of  about  1 10,  met  on  Bowness 
pier,  and  embarked  on  Col.  Ridehalgh's  beautiful  steam  yacht  the 
Britannia  ;  in  this  well  found  craft  they  proceeded  first  to  Lake  Foot, 
and  from  thence  to  Waterhead,  with  the  view  of  ascertaining  whether 
it  is  likely  that  the  Romans  used  the  lake  as  a  waterway.  At  Water- 
head  carriages  were  taken  for  Hawkshead  ;  on  roz</t' the  site  of  the 
Roman  Camp  near  the  head  of  the  lake  was  pointed  out.  At  Hawks- 
head  Hall  a  paper  on  that  building  was  read  by  Mr.  H.  Swainson- 
Cowper,  F.S.A.,  by  whose  kindness  tea  was  also  provided  for  the 
party  in  the  Town  Hall,  at  Hawkshead.  The  church  was  afterwards 
visited,  where  Mr.  John  W.  Ford  read  a  paper  on  two  fine  Rawlinson 
monuments,  which  through  his  exertions  had  been  removed  from  one 



of  the  city  churches  on  its  demolition,  to  Hawkshead.  From  that 
place  the  party  returned  to  Ambleside,  and  a  large  number  dined  at 
the  Queen's  Hotel.  After  dinner  the  following  new  members  were 
proposed  and  elected  : — Mr.  Herbert  Moser,  Kendal ;  Major  Alcock- 
Beck,  Hawkshead  (proposed  by  Mr.  Swainson-Cowper)  ;  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Arthur  Severn,  Coniston  (proposed  by  Mr.  W.  G.  Collingwood)  ; 
Lady  Lawson,  Brayton  Hall;  Mr.  W.  H.  Watson,  Braystones  ;  Mr. 
Myles  Kennedy,  Ulverston  ;  Mr.  Cowper  Essex,  Hawkshead;  Miss 
Mary  Ullock,  Bowness;  and  Mr.  S.  H.  le  Fleming,  Rydal  Hall  (pro- 
posed by  the  President). 

The  President  moved  a  vote  of  thanks  to  Colonel  Ridehalgh  for 
the  kind  way  in  which  he  had  taken  the  members  round  the  lake. 
(Applause).  The  trip  had  added  greatly  to  the  eclat  of  the  meet- 
ing, and  it  was  a  pleasure  to  embark  on  that  beautiful  yacht, 
everything  on  it  being  so  shipshape  and  well  found.  A  friend  of  his 
had  remarked  to  him,  on  seeing  the  programme  proposed  for  the 
meeting,  that  they  were  going  to  have  very  little  archaeology  and  a 
great  deal  of  pic-nic.  The  President  scarcely  concurred  in  this  idea. 
The  first  thing  for  an  archaeologist  to  do,  was  to  endeavour  to  under- 
stand the  topography  of  the  district  in  which  he  was  interested  :  that 
they  were  trying  to  do  when  they  went  up  and  down  the  lake  that 
day.  The  conclusion  the  President  had  come  to,  as  the  result  of  the 
voyage,  was  that  the  Romans  must  have  used  the  lake  for  the  con- 
veyance of  stone  from  Dalton-in-Furness  to  the  north  end  of  Winder- 
mere, where  there  was  a  Roman  camp. 

The  vote  of  thanks  to  Colonel  Ridehalgh  was  carried  with  ac- 

Rev.  H.  Whitehead  made  a  few  remarks  on  a  cup  and  cover 
belonging  to  Ambleside  church,  which  the  vicar,  the  Rev.  C.  H. 
Chase,  kindly  brought  for  exhibition.  This  cup  is  a  magnificent 
example  of  a  distinctive  fashion  that  prevailed  from  1608  to  1628,  of 
which  the  Carpenters'  and  Armourers'  Companies  have  good  examples. 
The  cup  has  an  inscription  just  below  the  rim,  stating  that  it  was 
presented  to  the  parish  of  Grasmere  (spelled  on  the  cup  Gresmore)  in 
the  year  1684  by  Mr.  James  Newton,  to  be  used  for  communion  pur- 
poses. The  date  of  the  presentation  was  1684,  but  from  the  marks 
on  the  cup  it  was  made  in  1618,  and  had  probably  been  used  for 
secular  purposes  before  being  dedicated  to  sacred  use.  It  is  engraved 
in  Old  Church  Plate  in  the  Diocese  of  Carlisle.  There  were  also  shown 
a  massive  silver  ring  which  was  recently  found  in  an  urn  in  a  garden 
at  Urswick  (Ulverston),  and  the  seal  of  the  Statute  Merchant  of  Car- 
lisle, on  which  the  President  made  a  few  observations.     There  was 




also  shown  a  large  lock  amd  key  that  secured  the  door  of  a  house  in 
Finkle  Street,  Kendal,  from  which  the  shot  was  fired  by  whic  one 
of  the  rebels  was  killed  on  Saturday,  December  14th,  1745. 

Dr.  Barnes  read  a  paper  on  the  "  Plague  in  Cumberland  and 
Westmorland,"  which  will  be  printed  in  the  Society's  Transactions. 

The  President  made  some  remarks  on  the  Roman  camp  at  Amble- 
side, which  there  had  been  no  time  to  visit  in  the  afternoon.  The 
remains  were,  he  said,  now  very  scanty  and  must  at  one  time 
have  been  much  larger.  Camden,  who  wrote  about  1600,  stated  that 
at  the  upper  end  of  Windermere  lay  the  carcase  of  an  ancient  city; 
the  fort  had  been  oblong  in  figure,  fortified  with  a  ditch  and  rampart, 
and  from  the  remains  of  bricks  and  mortar,  and  coins  found,  the  work 
was  evidently  Roman.  Sir  Daniel  le  Fleming,  writing  in  1671,  bore 
out  the  observations  of  the  previous  writer.  West,  the  author  of  the 
guide  to  the  lakes,  writing  about  1792,  mentioned  the  camp,  deploring 
its  ruinous  state  ;  and  Hodgson,  the  historian  of  Northumberland,  in 
his  history  of  Westmorland,  written  in  1820,  gave  an  account  of  a 
visit  to  the  place.  Some  of  the  coins  and  other  articles  found,  in- 
cluding a  small  brass  eagle,  were  now  in  a  museum  at  Keswick.  A 
collection  of  Roman  gold,  silver,  brass,  and  copper  coins  found  at 
Ambleside  was  given  to  the  Bodleian  Library,  in  1674,  and  it  would, 
the  President  said,  be  interesting  to  get  a  sight  of  these,  as  from  them 
some  deductions  might  be  made  as  to  the  age  of  the  camp.  The  camp 
must  have  covered  about  3*  acres,  and  it  might  be  imagined  was 
meant  to  accommodate  a  cohort  of  400  men.  Roman  bricks  and  tiles 
had  been  found  near  the  camp,  showing  the  existence  of  a  num- 
ber of  villas,  inhabited  probably  by  the  wealthier  class  of  Romans. 
There  was  some  evidence  in  Burn  &  Nicolson's  History  of  Westmor- 
land of  a  Roman  villa  having  existed  on  Curwen's  Isle,  on  the  Lake, 
but  the  evidence  was  n-ot  very  positive. 

The  meeting  then  closed,  it  being  ten  minutes  to  eleven. 

Next  morning  the  members  were  seated  in  five  char-a-bancs  at  eight 
o'clock,  and  a  start  was  made  from  the  Salutation  Hotel  at  a  quarter 
past,  by  way  of  Skelwith  to  Little  Langdale,  whose  soft  beauty  was 
enhanced  by  the  morning  sun.  Lazily  the  bits  of  cloud  clinging  to 
the  north  end  of  the  magnificent  form  of  Wetherlam  were  rolled  up- 
wards, and  the  warmth  of  a  perfect  autumn  day  was  enjoyed  during 
the  rest  of  the  route.  The  solitary  hill  farm.  Fell  Foot,  was  reached 
shortly  before  ten  o'clock,  and  here  the  first  halt  was  made.  The 
well  defined  earth  work  at  the  west  side  of  the  house  was  inspected 
and  its  resemblance  to  the  Manx  Tinwald  hill  near  St.  John's,  was 
verified.  Peaceably  set  at  the  head  of  this  intensely  quiet  valley  the 
"  law  ting  "  had  been  fixed  at  a  convenient  spot  for  the  people  from 



the  neighbouring  dales  to  muster  and  submit  their  grievances  to  the 
rude  but  strict  law  adjudged  by  the  elder  men.  Standing  on  the  green 
top  of  the  mound  Mr.  Swainson  Covvper  read  a  paper  on  the  hitherto 
undescribed  Law  Ting. 

From  this  point  everybody  had  to  walk  up  the  sinuous  road  over 
Wrynose,  and  never  since  the  long  string  of  packhorses   and  pack- 
men had  trudged  over  the  same  way  from  Whitehaven  to  Kendal 
with  their  valuable  loads,  had  so  many  pedestrians  toiled  along  that 
road,  at  the  same  time,  as  were  seen  on  Thursday.     The  party,  both 
ladies  and  gentlemen,  begun  the  long  tussle  with  the  difficulties  of 
the  1250  feet  climb  to  the  top  of  Wrynose  Pass  with  light  hearts, 
but  those  stubborn  heights,  plus  those  of  Hardknott,  soon  clogged 
the  light  hearts  with  heavy  heels,  for  the  work  to  do  was  fairly  good 
even  for  a  practised  walker.  How  anyone  can  reasonably  expect  such 
steep    mountain  tracks   to   be    safely  traversed  by  heavy  carriages 
passes  belief.     There  are  sharp  drops  of  one  in  three,  and  breakneck 
turns  in  both  passes  which  careful  folk  would  only  face  on  fell  ponies, 
or  better  still,  on  their  own  legs.     A  couple  of  inches  deep  of  loose 
samel  and  rough  stones  on  the  steepest  bits  didn't  tend  to  make  them 
any  easier.    However,  good  spirits  and  pluck  on  the  part  of  the  ladies 
carried  them  over  the  ground  as  cheerfully  as  any  of  the  stronger 
sex.     The  usual  contortions  needed  to  stoop  in  and  touch  the  three 
counties  of  Westmorland,  Cumberland,  and  Lancashire  were  made  at 
the  three  shire  stones,   and  the  descent  to  Wrynose   Bottom — the 
least  interesting  bit  of  the  route — was  begun.     A  halt  to  water  the 
horses  was  made  at  Cockley  Beck,  and  then  Hardknott   Pass  was 
faced.     About  three-quarters  of  the  way  up  a  well-marked  burial 
cairn  on  the  west  side  of  the  road  was  visited,  and  the  top  of  the  pass 
— 1290  feet  above  sea  level — was  reached.     On  descending  hence  the 
worst  bits  of  road  on  the  route  were  met  with,  and  the  drivers  of  the 
machines — empty,  of    course — must    have    had    both    coolness    and 
capacity  to  reach  the  foot  without   a  turn-over. 

The  party  left  the  road  to  inspect  Hardknott  Castle — where  Lord 
and  Lady  Muncaster  had  been  waiting  some  time  to  receive  them. 

Here  the  President  read  a  paper.  Asking  his  audience  to  transfer 
their  thoughts  for  a  while  to  the  period  of  the  Roman  occupation  of 
Britain,  he  traced  in  imagination  the  journey  of  a  party  of  Roman 
tourists  from  Lancaster  by  the  inland  route  of  Kendal,  Ambleside, 
Wrynose  and  Hardknott  to  Ravenglass.  On  reaching  the  summit 
of  the  pass,  the  eyes  of  the  travellers,  after  a  momentary  general  sur- 
vey of  the  Vale  of  Esk  far  below  them,  would  rest  on  the  massive 
walls  of  the  fortress,  which  rose  boldly  from  the  slopes  to  the  right 
of  their   descending   path.     As   they  approached    the    fortress,  the 



travellers  would  pass  the  parade  ground,  a  space  of  about  two  acres 
in  extent,  cleared  of  rocks  and  stones  and  levelled,  on  which  it  might 
well  happen  that  at  the  moment  the  garrison  was  drawn  up  in  review 
order  to  be  inspected  by  the  general  commanding  at  Eboracum,  or 
some  officer  of  high  rank.  The  visitors  would  remark  the  brilliance 
of  his  uniform,  and  his  silver  gorget  with  phalera;  of  chalceJonj"  and 
jet,  adorned,  perhaps,  with  the  proud  inscription  —  "  Britannia 
Devicta  "  beneath  the  figure  of  a  crouching  Briton.  The  inspection 
over,  the  part}'  would  pass  into  the  fort  beneath  an  arched  gateway, 
over  which,  partially  defaced  by  time  and  weather,  could  still  be  dis- 
cerned some  letters  of  the  word  "  Agricola,"  under  whose  command 
the  stronghold  had  been  erected.  But  it  was  then  300  years  since 
Rome  had  set  her  foot  on  the  island,  and  the  commandant  could 
scarcely  satisf}'  the  enquiry,  which  his  visitors  addressed  to  him, 
whether  the  erection  of  the  fortress  was  the  work  of  the  great  general 
of  the  name  or  of  another  of  lesser  fame,  one  Lucius  Calpurnius 
Agricola.  As  the  commandant  courteously  entertained  his  guests 
and  feasted  them  on  salmon  from  the  Esk  and  venison  from  the  fells, 
the  commandant  would  no  doubt  bewail  to  them  the  hardships  of  his 
lot,  cast  amidst  rugged  mountains  beneath  an  inclement  sky,  and 
dwell  with  regret  upon  the  genial  sunshine  of  far-off  Italy,  or  the 
social  delights  of  less  distant  Carlisle.  And  so  to  Ravenglass  the 
party  would  then  w-end  their  way,  and  there  in  the  hospitable  villa  of 
the  tribune,  who  ruled  over  the  busy  port,  would  forget  the  fatigues 
of  their  toilsome  and  difficult  journey. 

Recalling  his  hearers  from  the  4th  to  the  19th  centur}',  the  Presi- 
dent then  briefly  described  the  existing  remains,  and  the  various 
objects  which  had  been  obtained  by  examination  on  the  spot. 

The  scene  here  was  most  glorious.  The  rich  and  romantic  valley 
of  Eskdale  stretched  away  towards  Ravenglass  and  the  sea,  while  to 
the  north  the  monarchs  of  the  Lake  hills — Scawfell  and  Scawfell 
Pike,  with  Bowfell,  Great  End,  and  their  big  fellows,  softened  by  a 
silvery  haze,  stood  sentinels  over  a  scene  unmatched  in  the  kingdom. 
A  steep  scramble  down  from  the  camp  landed  the  party  at  the  foot 
of  the  pass  where  the  carriages  were  again  mounted,  and  a  drive  past 
lusciously  scented  hay-fields  and  corn  hattocks  soon  landed  the  com- 
pany at  the  Woolpack  Inn,  in  Eskdale,  where  lunch  awaited  them, 
very  much  wanted  by  everybody,  for  even  archasologists  "  cannot 
live  on  papers  alone."  Here  a  quiet  rest  under  the  trees,  a  short 
paper  by  the  President  on  the  Stanleys  of  Dalegarth,  and  an 
examination  of  two  British  urns  found  at  Barnscar,  which  Lord 
Muncaster  had  brought,  filled  a  pleasant  half-hour,  when  the  car- 
riages were  again  mounted,  and  while  some  drove  to  BeckFoot  to 



catch  the  train,  others  went  to  visit  Eskdale  church  and  the  water- 
fall at  Stanley  Gill,  thus  finishing  one  of  the  pleasantest  of  the  many 
pleasant  excursions  of  the  Society. 

This  meeting  in  point  of  numbers  beats  the  record  ;  ninety-three 
were  present  on  the  first  day,  and  sixty-five  on  the  second.  The 
committee  may  well  be  congratulated  on  their  successful  arrange- 
ments :  it  was  no  trifling  exploit  to  bring  five  huge  carriages  and  so 
many  people  safely  over  Wrynose  and  Hardknott,  and  speaks  most 
creditably  for  the  drivers  and  their  horses,  which  were  furnished  by 
Mr.  Michael  Taylor,  the  landlord  of  the  Queen's  and  Salutation 
hotels  at  Ambleside. 


Art.  V. — On  a  supposed  interuient  of  a  Horse  with  Human 
Remains  at Lanercost.  By  the  Rev.  H.  J.  Bulkeley. 
"DECENTLY  some  workmen  were  deepening  the  farm 
dairy,  which  stands  a  few  yards  from  the  west  end  of 
the  vicarage  and,  according  to  the  plan  of  Lanercost  Prior}' 
of  the  date  1743,  occupies  the  site  of  an  old  building  :  they 
found  three  human  bodies  buried  about  four  feet  below  the 
surface.  One  body  lay  from  south  to  north,  but  the  others 
in  the  usual  position,  from  west  to  east.*  One  body, 
larger  than  the  others,  lying  from  west  to  east,  was  en- 
tombed, being  surrounded  and  covered  by  rough  flags  of 
stone,  with  a  special  chamber  for  the  head,  as  in  some  old 
stone  coffins.  There  were  some  traces  of  lime  having  been 
used  to  join  the  stones  of  this  chamber,  but  not  the  other 
stones.  None  of  them  showed  any  signs  of  inscription  or 
of  fine  working.  They  were  recognised  by  one  of  the 
workmen  as  from  a  neighbouring  quarry.  The  body  lay 
on  the  earth.  The  skull  was  in  good  preservation,  only 
one  tooth  wanting.  The  soil  was  river  gravel.  The  re- 
mains of  a  horse's  skeleton  was  found  at  the  foot  of  this 
body,  and  those  of  another  horse  at  a  little  distance  off  and 
outside  the  walls  of  the  building  marked  in  the  plan  of 
1743.  The  bones  of  the  second  horse  were  of  remarkable 
size,  so  large  that  it  was  supposed  they  might  be  those  of 
some  ancient  monster  buried  in  the  old  river  gravel,  but 
an  expert  has  decided  that  they  are  only  the  bones  of  a 
horse.  Remembering  how  the  "  Society  upon  the  Stains- 
low  "  was  broken  up  through  Mr.  Jones  proving  that  some 
supposed  prehistoric  bones  were  only  those  of  "  one  of  his 
lost  mules,"  we  should  bear  in  mind  that  farmers  have 
been  known  to  bury  near  their  farms  cows  and  horses  that 

*   My  information  is  that  all  three  skeletons  were  lying-  from  west  to  east.— 


TroTJt  Old  Plarv  of  Lanercost 

Dated,    17^3. 

LANERCOST    ABBEY,     1743. 


From    Ordrwnce  Sheet 

Ijilurgecl  Ground  Tlan  of'  Va'try 

LANERCOST    ABBEY,     1S89. 


have  died,  but  this  is  being  too  sceptical.  Some  years  ago, 
when  drains  were  being  made,  other  human  reu  lins  were 
found  near  this  spot.  It  may  have  been  part  of  an  old 
parish  burial  ground,  but  Lord  William  Howard,  in  copy- 
ing the  inscription  on  the  cross  on  the  green,  says  that  it 
stood  in  cimiterio  exteriore,  and  it  is  not  likely  that  the 
position  should  have  been  changed,  especially  considering 
the  adjacent  position  of  the  present  churchyard,  or  that 
there  should  have  been  two  parish  burial  grounds  so  near 
to  one  another.  Nor  is  it  likely  that  the  whole  green  was 
a  burial  ground,  for  it  would  have  been  extravagantly  large, 
and  excavations  have  been  made  in  other  parts  of  the  green 
without  the  discovery  of  human  remains.  Ma}'  these 
burials  have  been  anterior  to  the  foundation  of  the  priory  ? 
Is  this  the  site  of  an  ancient  church  and  churchyard  ? 
But,  if  the  tomb  was  that  of  some  semi-christianised  Dane 
or  Saxon,  buried  with  his  faithful  horse  to  bear  him  com- 
pany to  the  shades,  and  if  (there  is  much  virtue  in  your 
"if")  there  were  at  that  time  any  remains  of  an  intra- 
mural Roman  station,  why  were  not  stones  to  make  the 
tomb  taken  from  the  ruins  at  hand,  instead  of  from  a 
quarry  some  distance  off  ?  Or  was  the  body  that  of  some 
famous  mosstrooper,  excommunicated  on  account  of  his 
crimes,  and  so  denied  burial  in  consecrated  ground,  and 
yet  by  not  altogether  unsympathetic  monks  allowed  a 
resting-place  near  the  priory  ?  In  the  plan  of  1743  a  small 
plot  of  ground,  including  the  old  building,  within  the  lines 
of  which  the  entombed  body  was  found,  is  called  "The 
Fold."  Can  this  name  have  such  an  ecclesiastical  inter- 
pretation as  may  help  us  ? 


With  the  exception  of  the  farmer  and  his  wife,  and  the  workmen 
employed,  no  one  saw  this  find,  as  an  agent  on  the  estate  decHned  to 
allow  the  work  to  be  stopped  :  bj'  his  orders  the  skeletons  were  buried 
elsewhere,  and  the  stones  of  the  cist  piled  up  in  a  heap.     This  is  much 



to  be  regretted,  as  Mr.  Bulkeley  resides  within  a  few  feet  of  the  place. 
He  heard  of  the  find  afterwards,  and  gathered  what  he  could  from  the 

The  cist  was  six  feet  long  by  two  feet  broad  :  the  chamber  for  the 
head  was  one  foot  by  ten  inches,  giving  a  total  length  of  seven  feel> 
so  that  the  occupant  must  have  been  a  very  tall  man.  His  feet  were 
to  the  east,  and  the  skeleton  of  the  horse  was  at  his  feet,  lying  east 
and  west ;  the  other  two  skeletons  were  on  the  north  side  of  the  horse, 
and  close  to  it.  All  were  at  a  uniform  depth  of  three  feet  below  the 
floor  of  the  dairy,  and  so  close  together  as  to  make  it  almost  impossible 
for  the  horse  to  have  been  inserted  later  without  disturbing  the  human 
interments  :  of  this  there  was  no  sign.  There  can  be  no  doubt  that 
the  interments  of  the  men  and  horse  (the  first  horse)  are  older  than 
the  building  of  1743,  whose  date  is  unknown. 

It  maybe  worth  while  to  mention  in  this  connection  that  the  Dacre 
of  Naworth,  who  fell  at  Towtonfield,  was  buried  at  Saxton  churchj-ard 
with  his  horse  beneath  him.*  Local  tradition  says  the  moss  troopers 
of  the  Borders  were  in  the  habit  of  having  their  horses  buried 
with  them. 

*See  Yoik.'ihirr  Archceolo^ical  and  Topographical  Socict]/,  vol.  x,  p.  299. 


Art.  VI. — Some  Manorial  Halls  in  the  Barony  of  Greystoke. 

By  M.  Waistell  Taylor,  M.D.,  F.S.A. 
Read  July  ^th,  1889. 

I. — Blencow  Hall. 

rriHIS  is  a  picturesque  and  interesting  specimen  of  the 
-'-  successive  changes  and  development  in  domestic 
architectural  planning  which  have  occured  in  the  North  of 
England,  and  it  is  one  of  the  numerous  manor-houses, 
which  wereholden  of  the  great  Barony  of  Greystoke.  It  is 
pleasantly  situated  on  a  gentle  slope  in  the  valley  of  the 
Petteril,  about  a  mile  from  Greystoke  Castle,  and  not  far 
from  the  village  of  Great  Blencow.  In  the  i6th  of  Ed.  III., 
William  de  Graystock  succeeded  as  Baron  of  Graystock  and 
lord  of  Morpeth  ;  he  was  a  man  of  renown  and  a  builder  ;  he 
built  Morpeth  Castle,  and  it  was  during  his  lifetime,  about 
ten  years  after  his  succession  that  the  expansion  of  Gray- 
stock Castle  was  commenced  ;  for  he  obtained  the  king's 
licence  to  castellate  his  manor-house  at  Graystock.  Wil- 
liam de  Graystock  served  with  the  Black  Prince  in  invasions 
into  France,  and  one  of  his  followers  was  Adam  de 
Blencowe.  Adam  must  have  greatly  distin<guished  himself 
on  some  occasion,  probably  at  the  battle  of  Poictiers,  for 
in  honor  of  his  prowess,  the  lord  of  Graystock  granted  to 
Adam  and  his  heirs  by  warrant,  his  own  arms  with  a 
counter  change  of  tincture,  viz,  a  shield  sable  with  a  bend 
barred  argent  and  azure,  with  three  chaplets  of  roses  gules.* 

The  Notes  appended  to  the  text,  have  been  added  to  this  paper  by  the  kindness 
of  the  Rev.  Thomas  Lees,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  Wreay,  Carlisle. 

*  This  grant  of  Arms  was  made  A.D.  1356.  Nine  years  before  this  (xxi.  Ed.  IH. 
1347),  King-  Edward  the  IIL  had  granted  to  Adam  de  Blencowe  the  "  Clausa 
de  Calnethwayt  and  Braythwaythowes  "  in  the  Royal  Forest  of  Inglewood;  and 
two  years  afterwards  in  135S,  makes  him  another  g^rant  of  all  the  lands  in  Grey- 
stoke, Blencowe  and  Newbigging,  which  had  belonged  to  John  Riddall.  The 
estate  at  Great  Blencowe  was  sold  in  1S02,  to  William  Troutbcck  Esq.,  (Lyson's 
Cumberland,  p.  90).  Thomas  Lees, 



It  cannot  be  maintained  that  this  place  was  the  site  of 
the  homestead  of  Adam  de  Blencowe,*  for  there  is  noth- 
ing remaining  here  that  can  take  us  back  to  the  middle 
of  the  14th  century;  it  is  probable  that  the  ivy-clad 
tower  on  the  N.  side  was  erected  by  one  of  the  Blen- 
cowes  after  the  middle  of  the  rsth  century.  The  gener- 
ations of  the  Blencowes  enjoyed  honourable  consideration 
and  made  distinguished  alliances  with  the  gentry  of  the 
county,  and  they  have  handed  down  their  descent  in  the 
male  line,  I  believe,  to  the  present  time,  and  the  family 
had  residence  here  until  the  close  of  the  iSth  century. 
In  1S02  Mr.  Henry  Prescot  Blencowe  sold  the  property 
to  the  Duke  of  Norfolk,  and  it  is  now  included  in  the 
Greystoke  domain. 

During  the  Civil  War  the  place  was  battered  with  can- 
non by  a  detachment  of  the  parliamentary  army,  and  a 
raised  platform  is  pointed  out  in  an  adjoining  field  from 
which  the  guns  were  levelled. t 

The  S.  tower  is  roofless,  and  presents  a  shell  of  bare 
walls,  the  N.  tower  is  partly  ruinous,  but  the  lower  portion 
has  been  re-roofed,  and  is  utilised  as  a  stable  and  hayloft. 
The  central  portion  is  quite  habitable,  and  is  occupied  as 
the  residence  for  the  farm. 

The  entrance  to  the  premises  is  through  a  quadrangular 
courtyard  on  the  W.  side,  about  70  ft.  square,  and  our  at- 
tention is  at  once  attracted  to  the  carvings  over  the  door 
in  the  centre  of  the  main  block.  It  is  a  Tudor-headed 
doorway,  with  beaded  and  hollow  moulding;  surmounting 
the  lintel  there  is  an  oblong  slab,  inclosed  within  a  boldly 

_  *  Burn  conjectures  that  the  first  seat  was  at  Great  Blencow  on  the  other 
side  of  the  river,  where  he  mentions  the  ruins  of  an  old  tower  as  existing  in 
his  day.     Burn  and  Nicolson,  vol.  ii.  p.  375.  '^ 

t  General  Lambert  in  command  of  the  Parliamentary  forces  took  Penrith  on 
15th  June  164S,  and  made  it  his  head  quarters  for  a  month.  Detachments  of  his 
army  took  Greystoke,  Rose,  and  Scaleby  Castles;  Denton,  in  his  MS.  History  of 
Cumberland,  says  that  Greystoke  and  Rose  Castles  were  burnt  by  Major  Cholmlev 
in  1648.  Probably  the  Major  commanded  this  detachment  of  Lambert's  army 
As  Blenco\ye  Hail  lay  in  the  direct  way  from  Greystoke  to  Rose  it  seems  most 
hkely  that  it  was  battered  on  this  occasion.     Thomas  Lees. 




projecting  label,  terminating  in  round  ornamental  caps. 
In  the  centre  of  the  stone  there  is  a  shield  with  a  canton 
in  the  ist  quarter,  without  any  other  charge,  and  in  raised 
Roman  capitals,  in  three  lines,  the  inscription  : — * 









Superimposed,  there  is  another  smaller  square  tablet,  also 
within  a  hood-moulding,  which  contains  the  initials  1R-  ^ 
and  three  shields,  set  one  and  two. 

The  shield  in  the  upper  compartment  is  blank  or  has 
been  defaced;  below,  the  dexter  shield  bears  Crackenchorpe 
(chevron  between  3  mullets,  2  and  i) ;  :|:  the  sinister  shield 
is  charged  with  a  fret  of  8  pieces  and  a  chief. 

The  general  plan  and  construction  of  the  central  building 
accords  with  the  style  prevalent  at  the  date  1590  given  on 
the  tablet,  presenting  the  usual  Elizabethan  characteris- 
tics. It  is  a  long  single  tenement  of  two  stories,  the 
rooms  having  windows  on  both  sides  :  these  are  divided 
by  chamfered  mullions  into  two,  three,  or  four  lights  ;  and 
have  hoods  with  a  hollow  splay  beneath,  with  terminations 
in  balls  carved  with  crosses,  or  with  spiral  and  circular 
lines,  and  some  with  the  initials  of  the  builder,  H.  B. 

The   principal  doorway  in  the  middle  of  the  building 

*  Anthony  Blencowe  married  Winifred  daughter  of  Thomas  Dudley;  and  thus 
the  Blencowes  were  related  to  Lord  Guildford  Dudley,  the  husband  of  the  unfor- 
tunate Lady  Jane  Grey.  On  the  night  before  her  execution  Lady  Jane  wrote  an 
exhortation  at  the  end  of  a  New  Testament  which  she  sent  to  her  sister  Lady 
Catharine  Grey,  in  which  are  these  words  "  Live  still  to  die,  that  you  by  death 
may  purchase  eternal  life."  IN'Iay  not  this  inscription  be  an  echo  of  this .'  Mr. 
W.  Jackson  pointed  out  this  coincidence  to  me.     'Thomas  Lees. 

t  On  this  inscription,  see  these  Transactions,  vol.  i,  p.  335,  vol.  vi,  p.  289. 

+  Richard  Blencow  married  Eleanor  Crackenthorpe.  Temp.  Hen.  vii.  Pos- 
sibly this  man  might  have  been  the  builder  of  thepele  :  the  style  and  details  ac- 
cord with  this  epoch.— MJF.T. 



gives  entiy  to  a  passage  or  vestibule  ;  to  the  left  of  which 
is  the  common  hall  or  dining  place,  27  ft.  b}-  21  ft.,  at  this 
period  an  apartment  of  greatly  reduced  dimensions,  and  no 
longer  holding  the  place  of  importance  in  the  establish- 
ment which  it  did  in  the  previous  century.  At  one  end  of 
the  hall  is  the  usual  little  parlour,  18  ft.  by  loft.,  with  two 
mullioned  windows  to  the  E.  front.  In  the  vestibule  there 
is  a  straight  flight  of  steps  to  the  first  floor,  which  con- 
tains bedrooms  only.  To  the  right  of  the  passage  is  the 
original  kitchen  pertaining  to  the  dwelling  in  this  stage  of 
its  occupation.  It  is  small,  18  ft.  by  11  ft.,  exclusive  of  a 
large  recess;  the  fireplace  opening  consists  of  an  elliptic 
arch  of  9  ft.  g  in.  span.  This  central  block  bears  evi- 
dence of  having  all  been  built  at  one  time,  and  of  having 
been  set  up  against  the  side  of  the  N.  tower.  This  tower 
has  a  projection  from  the  face  of  the  block  of  7  ft.  into  the 
courtyard,  and  of  10  ft.  g  in.  on  the  E.  front.  The  central 
portion  of  the  edifice  has  62  feet  of  frontage,  and  forms  con- 
nection with  two  towers  in  the  form  of  the  letter  H.  These 
two  towers  are,  roughly  speaking,  of  about  equal  dimen- 
sions, and  both  externally  present  a  similar  plan  and 
elevation,  so  that,  viewed  superficially,  or  from  a  distance, 
the  visitor  might  easily  imagine  that  both  were  contemp- 
oraneous. However,  when  I  point  out  to  you  the  dif- 
erences  in  detail,  I  have  confidence  that  you  will  agree 
with  me  in  my  interpretation  of  the  history  of  Blencow 
Hall.  Let  us  take  first  the  N.  tower.  This  is  oblong  and 
rectangular  in  plan  ;  its  dimensions  on  the  N.  side  are  44 
ft.  and  on  the  W.  32  ft.,  but  the  E.  face  has  been  prolonged 
by  a  projecting  turret  about  ten  feet  square,  so  as  to  have 
presented  originally  an  |_  shaped  plan.  To  the  re-entering 
side  of  this  turret  the  front  wall  of  the  Elizabethan  addi- 
tion has  been  affixed.  Within  the  turret  is  a  corkscrew 
stair  entered  by  a  narrow  doorway  on  the  E.  front,  by 
which  access  is  obtained  to  the  floors  of  the  building.  In 
the   main   tower  there   is  a  basement,  two  stories,  and  a 


a.  Original  Entrdnce. 

b.  Doors  blocked. 
c  Tudor  doorway. 
d  Modern  opening. 

rt  Entrance  to  central  black 

1'  Buttress. 

Ground  Floor  Plan. 



battlemented  roof.  The  basement  contains  one  single 
chamber,  36  ft.  by  20  ft. ;  it  had  no  stone  vaulting,  but  was 
joisted  in  timber.  On  the  first  floor  there  is  a  room  of 
equal  dimensions,  entered  by  an  elliptic  doorway  from  a 
landing  on  the  spiral  stair;  this  represents  the  solar  of  the 
old  keep.  This  is  now  covered  over  with  a  pent-house  roof, 
and  is  used  as  a  hay-loft.  The  tower  above  this  is  a  ruin, 
the  roof  and  floorings  are  gone.  The  newel  stair  still  gives 
access  to  the  battlements.  It  may  be  seen  that  the  second 
story  has  contained  two  rooms,  each  with  a  Tudor  fire- 
place in  the  N.  wall  ;  the  dividing  partitions  must  have 
been  of  wood,  as  there  is  no  transverse  wall  of  division  in 
the  tower.  The  covering  has  probably  been  a  slightly  in- 
clined roof  of  overlapping  flags,  allowing  of  a  walk  within 
the  parapet  all  round.  The  merlons  and  embrasures  are 
coped  with  a  splay  and  round.  The  parapet  is  very  slightly 
projected  from  a  plain  cornice  tabling,  and  at  the  angles 
there  are  gutter-spouts  or  gurgoyles.  There  are  several 
little  square  window-slits  remaining  in  this  tower,  but  the 
larger  openings  are  mullioned,  with  square  labels  over 
them,  with  ball  terminations,  some  carved  with  the  initials 
H.  B.,  probably  Elizabethan  insertions.  The  masonry  is 
in  substantial  rubble  in  well-laid  regular  courses,  and  the 
walls  are  4^  ft.  thick,  without  plinth  or  set-off. 

Here,  therefore,  we  have  a  tower  constructed  evidently 
for  defence,  on  the  model  of  the  ordinary  square  keep  or 
border  pele,  with  an  attached  turret  on  the  [_  shaped  plan, 
which  became  common  in  the  15th  and  i6th  centuries.  It 
is  true  that  there  is  an  absence  here  of  the  vaulted  sub- 
structure, but  in  some  of  the  later  pele  towers  the  vaulting 
in  stone  of  the  basement  came  to  be  omitted,  as  we  have 
seen  at  Clifton  tower,  and  at  Hutton  Hall,  Penrith.  It 
may  be  asserted  that  this  keep  stood  alone  as  the  home- 
stead of  the  Blencowes  for  a  period  of  100  years  be- 
fore Henry  Biencowe  made  his  enlargements  in  Elizabeth's 



\Vc  proceed  now  to  the  inspection  of  the  S.  tower,  which 
is  attached  to  the  opposite  end  of  the  central  building. 
This    erection   lies  in   the   same   plane,  occupying  pretty 
nearly  a  corresponding  superficies,  follov/s  the  same  pro- 
jections, presents  a  similar  elevation,  with  adjunctive  de- 
tails of  battlemented  parapet  and  string-course,  identical 
with  the  X.  tower.     But  we  need  not  proceed  far  in  the 
inspection,  before  we  can  perceive  that  it  is  but  a  super- 
ficial copy  of  the  old  keep,  made  at  a  much  later  date, 
when  all  thought  of  defensive  requirements  in  a  structure 
had  been  abandoned.      The  mason  work  is  not  so  sub- 
stantiall}'  laid,  it  is  more  shallow,  the  walls  are  only  23-  ft. 
thick,  the  windows  on  the  ground  floor  are  large  mullioned 
openings,  and  affording  easy  access  from  the  outside.     It 
is  cut  up  into  a  variety  of  rooms  very  much  as  a  modern 
house.    The  ground  floor  is  divided  into  two  unequal  com- 
partments, by  double   partition   walls,  inclosing  a   scale 
stair  of  twelve  steps,  2  ft.  S  in.  wide,  leading  to  the  upper 
floor.      The  larger  apartment  has  been  the  draw-ing-room 
of  the  renovated  mansion,  and  measures,  inclusive  of  the 
projecting  bay,  29  ft.  by  17  ft. ;  it  is  well  lighted  by  a  5  ft. 
mullioned  window  to  the  E.  and  by  two  other  lights  to  the 
S. ;  there  is  a  Tudor  fireplace  with  an   oblique  triangular 
recess  sunk  in  the  lintel  stone;  a  square  doorway  with  a  plain 
chamfer  gives  an  entrance  from  the  garden  front.     The 
smaller  apartment  is  20  ft.  by  14  ft.,  and  it  communicates 
directly  w'ith  the  range  of  buildings  forming  the  wing  in  the 
courtyard.     In  the  interior  the  common  rubble  of  the  walls 
has  been  covered  with  cement.    Above,  there  have  been  two 
floors,  with  private  apartments  having  fireplaces  and  square 
windows,  some  with  mullions  and  handsome  hood  mould- 
ings coved   in   cavetto   with   carved   terminations  of   the 
same   description  as  prevail  throughout  the  rest    of  the 
edifice.     This  tower  is  now  a  roofless  shell,  with  a  great 
rent  in  its  E.  wall. 



My  belief  is  that  the  addition  of  this  tower  was  an  after- 
thought in  the  renovation  of  Blencow  Hall,  effected  by 
Henry  Blencowe,  in  1590.  He  first  finished  the  oblong 
main  block  attached  to  the  old  pele,  which  formed  a  com- 
pact substantial  dwelling  house  complete  in  itself,  with 
hall,  kitchen,  and  necessary  apartments.  But  Henry 
Blencowe  was  a  man  of  importance  in  the  county,  he  had 
married  Grace,  sister  of  Sir  Richard  Sandford,  of  Howgill 
Castle,  in  Westmorland.  He  improved  in  position  during 
the  time  of  James  I.,  from  whom  he  received  the  honour  of 
knighthood,  and  he  was  twice  High  Sheriff  of  Cumberland. 
It  is  possible,  therefore,  that  some  years  later  Blencowe 
conceived  the  idea  of  further  extensions  for  domestic  ac- 
commodation, and  in  carrying  out  the  plan  he  seems  to 
have  been  governed  by  the  desire  of  producing  symmetry 
in  the  elevation,  which  in  the  Jacobean  period  had  come 
to  be  considered  as  essential  in  architectural  design.  Hence 
in  projecting  a  wing  from  the  opposite  side  of  the  central 
block,  with  its  advanced  style  of  internal  planning  and 
capacity,  he  imitated  the  external  features  of  the  old 
pele  tower,  so  that  the  two  towers  might  be  symmetrical 
and  balance  each  other.* 

The  range  of  buildings  attached  to  this  tower,  forming 
the  S.  enclosure  of  the  courtyard,  was  constructed  at  the 
same  tim.e.  On  the  ground  floor  was  the  new  kitchen, 
18  ft.  by  16  ft.,  with  large  fireplace  and  oven  under  a  built- 

*  Dr.  Taylor's  conjecture  as  reg-ards  the  erection  of  the  present  Hall  is  con- 
firmed by  the  following-  statement  made  by  Edmund  Sandford  in  his  MS. 
"  Cursory  Relation  of  the  Antiquities  and  Familyes  of  Cumberland,  writ  about 
the  year  1G75." 

"A  little  above  Grastock  Castle  sixteen  miles  south  of  Carlisle  and  first  you  have 
thereupon  Blencow;  an  ancient  Sq.  family;  and  one  knight  of  late.  Sir  Henrv 
Blencow,  grandfather  of  the  now  Sqr.  Blencow  made  it  a  very  fair  house  of  two 
towers,  and  married  Grace  Sandford,  sister  of  the  first  Sir  Rich.  Sandford,  of 
Howgill  in  Westmorland;  and  a  younger  braneh  of  the  Sandfords  of  Askam 
Tower  nye  hand;  and  Crister  Blencow  married  Mary  Robinson  of  Rooby  Hall, 
Yorkshire,  and  the  now  Squire  Blencow,  married  Anne  Layton  ;  eldest  daughter 
to  Sq.  William  Layton  of  Ualemain  :  300  p.  an.     Thomas  Lees. 



up  low  segmental  arch,  with  wide,  open  chimney,  and  ad- 
joining were  the  usual  store  rooms  and  offices,  and  above 
were  the  servants  dormitories.  This  wing  is  pierced  with 
a  wide  semicircular  archway  through  which  is  the  road  to 
the  extensive  outside  farm  offices;  the  mullioned  and 
labelled  windows  are  in  due  proportion  and  harfhony  with 
the  style  prevailing  throughout  the  entire  structure.  The 
remains  of  a  small  chapel  still  exists,  situated  on  the  W. 
side  of  the  courtyard,  a  portion  of  the  E.  window  has  been 
preserved  in  the  gable  end  facing  the  quadrangle  ;  it  con- 
sists of  an  acutely  pointed  arch,  recessed  with  round  and 
hollow  mouldings,  divided  by  a  chamifered  shaft  into  two 
pointed  lights,  without  cusps  or  tracer}'. 

II. — JoHNBY   Hall. 

Johnby  Hal!  is  a  small  dependent  manor  of  the  Barony 
of  Greystock,  and  stands  on  the  verge  of  the  eastern 
boundary  wall  of  Greystock  Park.  At  the  very  beginning 
of  the  present  century  Charles  the  nth,  Duke  of  Norfolk, 
added  i,ooo  acres  to  the  old  park  of  Greystoke  Castle  by 
throwing  into  it  large  pastures  from  the  Johnby  and  Green- 
thwaite  estates,  which  he  had  recently  purchased,  so  as  to 
form  a  vast  inclosure  of  about  6,000  acres,  surrounded  by 
a  wall  9  ft.  high. 

Within  a  short  distance  is  the  hamlet  of  Johnby,  in 
which  still  exist  some  remains  of  ancient  yeomen  home- 
steads, A  remnant  of  the  forest  and  mosslands  con- 
stituting part  of  the  forest  of  Englewood,  which  compre- 
hended the  rough  wild  country  to  the  north,  is  found  close 
by  in  the  moor  and  scrub  of  Johnby  Wythes,  the  famous 
fox-cover.  The  old  pronunciation  of  the  place  name, 
Jwo-anby,  is  preserved  in  the  vernacular  of  the  district. 





D        C 

Main  staircase 
Service  itair  to  Hall- 
Service  stair  to  Parlour 
Doorway  174-7 
Doorway  1637 

Court    Yard 


Ground  Plan. 



The  environs  of  the  hall  embrace  an  extensive  cluster 
of  17th  century  erections  indicative  of  the  agricultural 
weal  and  activity  of  the  period;  great  barns,  byres,  stabling 
and  out-buildings,  with  mullioned  and  labelled  windows, 
and  inclosures  of  high  "  massy  walls  and  brave  stone 
dykes  "  for  gardens  and  orchard. 

Within  an  inner  courtyard  stands  the  dwelling  house. 
The  original  hall  consists  of  a  rectangular  oblong  block, 
substantially,  but  plainly  built  of  freestone  rubble  in 
regular  courses,  with  di'essed  stones  at  the  coins  and 
openings  :  it  is  in  three  stories,  with  a  hipped  roof,  with- 
out a  parapet.  Jutting  out  at  the  S.E.  corner  of  the  main 
building,  with  a  projection  of  io|  ft.,  there  is  a  small 
rectangular  tower  i2j  ft.  in  width,  which  presents  at  the 
re-entering  angle  the  main  entrance  to  the  house.  This 
gives  to  the  plan  the  [_  shaped  formation,  which  was 
adopted  very  frequently  in  the  period  which  succeeded  the 
pele  tower  epoch,  and  which  was  perpetuated  for  a  long 
time  in  country  mansions,  especially  in  Scotland. 

Our  attention  is  at  once  attracted  by  the  carved  panel 
and  inscription  over  the  entrance.  The  treatment  of  the 
doorway  is  unique  in  detail.  The  opening  is  square- 
headed,  shewing  a  renaissance  character,  the  lintel  and 
jambs  having  a  bold  roll  on  the  angle,  and  surrounded  by 
a  bead  and  hollow  moulding.  Besides  which  there  is  a 
bold  ornamental  moulding  carried  alongside  the  jambs 
over  the  head  of  the  doorway,  forming  an  ogee  arch,  in- 
closing a  blank  tympanum,  with  the  curve  produced  up- 
wards in  the  contrary  direction  to  join  the  horizontal 
string  course  on  the  wall  of  the  tower.  Within  the  space 
thus  included  there  is  a  stone  panel,  on  which  are 
carved  the  coat  of  arms  and  an  inscription.  In  this  carv- 
ing there  is  a  remarkable  anomaly  in  the  disposition  of 
the  ornaments  placed  over  the  shield.  The  helmet  stands 
direct  without  bars  and  a  little  open,  denoting  a  knight's 
degree,  furnished  with  mantling  and  tassels,  but  without 




wreath  or  crest,  and  below  the  head-piece  clasping  the 
collar  are  two  gauntlets  grasping  an  annulet,  a  very  un- 
usual place  to  find  the  crest  of  the  Musgraves.  On  the 
shield  there  are  : — ist  6  annulets,  3,  2,  and  i,  charged 
with  a  martlet,  (for  Mnsgravc^,  2d  barry  of  six,  a  bend 
sinister,  (for  Mariindale),  3d  lion  rampant,  (for  Tilliol),  4th 
3  swords  in  triangle  with  the  points  outwards,  (for  [Staple- 
ton).  The  shield  is  surrounded  with  a  roundel,  with  the 
motto  in  raised   Roman  letters  : — 

"  0    GOD   GIVE    ME   VISDOM    TO    KXOVE    THE," 

and  in  a  line  below,  the  date  1584.  Below  there  is 
carved  the  following  inscription  in  eight  lines : — 





YRE  ■  TO  •  MARTENDAL  TO  •  GOD  .  I  ■  PR 

It  was  quite  the  mode  at  this  period  for  the  founder  to  in- 
sert such  a  tablet  over  the  entrance  to  his  building  setting 
forth  his  coat  of  arms  and  some  quaint  record  of  its  erec- 
tion. We  have  had  opportunities  of  viewing  many 
examples  of  such  carved  panels  over  doorways  of  about 
the  same  date,  for  instances,  those  set  up  by  Vaux  at  Cat- 
terlen,  1577,  by  Sandford  at  Askham,  1574,  by  Cracken- 
thorpe  at  Newbiggin,  1533,  by  Cliburn  at  Cliburn  1567, 
and  Blencow  at  Blencow.  1590. 



The  whole  length  of  the  ground  floor  is  vaulted  in  three 
divisions,  each  forming  a  chamber  traversing  the  breadth 
of  the  building  ;  each  compartment  is  arched  over  with 
the  identical  semicircular  tunnel-vault  which  had  for  cen- 
turies been  employed  in  the  basement  chambers  of  castle- 
keeps  and  peles.  The  walls  have  a  thickness  of  4  ft.  In 
the  compartment  to  the  W.,  which  is  the  largest,  in  con- 
sequence of  the  inclusion  of  the  passage,  there  is  a  fine 
chimney-recess  surmounted  with  a  segmental  arch  of 
10  ft.  6  in.  span,  with  a  bold  bead  on  the  arris.  This 
was  undoubtedly  the  old  kitchen  ;  its  measurements  are 
24  ft.  by  20  ft.  At  one  angle  there  is  a  narrow  newel- 
stair  leading  to  the  lord's  parlour  on  the  first  floor,  and  op- 
posite there  is  a  passage  running  the  length  of  the  building 
in  front  to  the  main  staircase  of  the  hall.  There  is  com- 
munication also  with  the  two  other  cellars  which,  no  doubt 
served  as  buttery  and  storehouse.  All  the  window  lights 
on  the  basement  are  small  rectangular  openings,  these  being 
one  to  the  front,  three  to  the  back  of  the  house,  and  two  in 
the  gable,  all  very  small,  with  the  object  of  security.  All  the 
internal  doorways  are  square-headed,  and  have  a  bold 
half-round  moulding  on  the  edge.  The  present  external  en- 
trance to  the  kitchen-cellar  is  an  insertion  and  has  incised 
on  its  lintel,  1747,  the  date  probably  at  which  all  the  vertical 
windows  in  the  front  of  the  house  were  substituted  for  the 
early  mullioned  windows,  of  which  examples  are  seen  in 
other  parts  of  the  building.  The  windows  in  the  turret  are 
original,  one  of  two  lights  with  a  single  mullion,  lighting 
the  staircase  high  in  the  wall,  and  another  in  a  small 
apartment  in  the  top  story,  a  fine  window  of  three  lights, 
with  moulded  mullions  and  transoms  ;  both  have  dripstones 
moulded  in  cavetto,  with  short  returns  terminating  in  caps. 
There  is  a  good  three-light  window  of  a  similar  descrip- 
tion in  the  gable  lighting  the  E.  end  of  the  hall.  At  the 
back  of  the  house  there  are  remaining  two  single  mullioned 
and  labelled  windows,  and  a  number  of  very  small  square 




This  building  is  interesting  in  so  far  tliat  it  presents  an 
example  of  late  domestic  work,  of  the  date  of  which  we  are 
assured,  exhibiting  a  transition  character  ;  in  the  main  the 
place  retains  many  of  the  features  of  the  pele  tower  type, 
and  shews  the  persistence  of  the  desire  for  strength  and 
security  even  at  this  date.  This  is  evinced  in  the  vaulted 
substructure  with  its  small  narrow  openings,  in  the  great 
main  apartment  on  the  first  floor,  and  the  small  winding  stair 
leading  to  it  at  one  angle  from  the  basement.  The  entrance 
stair  however,  is  not  now  as  formerly  dark  narrow  and 
steep,  compressed  in  the  thickness  of  the  wall,  but  is  toler- 
ablv  wide  easy  and  well  lighted,  accommodated  in  a 
separate  tower.  This  example  shews  us  the  slowness  and 
the  difficulty  there  is  at  all  times  in  shaking  off  the  in- 
fluence of  old  usages  and  style  in  domestic  architecture, 
and  the  persistence  in  perpetuating  old  types  and  features, 
even  during  the  ascendency  of  new  inspirations. 

The  main  doorway  in  the  turret  leads  into  a  small  en- 
trance lobby,  from  which  there  is  at  right  angles,  a  pas- 
sage continued  along  the  front  of  the  basement,  giving 
access  to  the  three  vaulted  chambers.  The  wide  well- 
staircase  leads  to  the  hall  and  ascends  no  higher,  and  it 
presents  a  peculiar  feature.  The  stone  steps  unite  to  form 
a  newel,  and  the  central  column  is  continued  above  the 
upper  step  of  the  landing,  and  is  branched  out  into  eight 
moulded  arched  ribs,  which  form  the  groining  to  a  roof- 
vault  above.  At  their  impost  with  the  pillar  and  at  their 
terminations  these  ribs  are  corbelled  out  into  caps  and  balls, 
so  as  to  express  a  degree  of  gracefulness  in  the  treatment. 
This  feature  of  the  radiating  out  of  the  newel  into  arched 
ribs  for  vaulting  occurs  not  unfrequently  in  the  North,  as  ac 
Cockermouth  Castle  for  example,  and  in  some  of  the 
Northumbrian  castles,  as  in  Belsay,  Warkworth,  and 
Edlingham.  From  the  landing  on  the  stair  one  enters  the 
principal  apartment  or  the  hall,  which  exclusive  of  its  re- 
cesses, measures  36  ft.  by  30  ft.  The  great  chimney  fire- 

Jo7i 7(7)7/  HaU . 


place  is  projected  into  the  room  from  the  centre  of  the  S. 
front,  but  its  span  is  now  concealed  by  bein^  built  up ;  on 
each  side  of  it  a  vertical  window  has  replaced  the  old 
openincjs  ;  the  original  mullioned  windows  on  the  N.  side 
and  E.  gable  still  remain.  At  the  N.E.  angle  of  the  apart- 
ment, opposite  to  the  main  entrance,  there  is  a  small 
wheel-staircase,  included  in  the  wall,  giving  access  to  the 
upper  story.  At  this  end  of  the  hall  there  are  two  stone 
segmental  arches  resting  on  buttresses  and  on  a  central 
pier  thrown  across  the  breadth  of  the  room,  leaving  a 
lighted  corridor  or  recess  behind  them.  This  is  the  part 
of  the  hall  known  as  the  "  Screens,"  and  was  doubtless 
used  as  a  service-room  or  pantry.  A  little  back-stair 
in  the  wheel-form  communicates  with  the  cellar  and  kit- 
chen, b}'  which  the  dishes  and  drinkables  were  brought 
up  and  passed  by  a  hatch  to  the  guests  seated  in  the  hall. 

At  the  N.W.  corner  there  is  another  corkscrew  stair 
leading  to  sleeping  rooms  on  the  second  story,  and  at  this 
point  there  is  a  passage  through  to  the  usual  parlour  or 
withdrawing  room  of  the  Tudor  period.  The  floor  of  the 
hall  is  paved  with  squared  flagstones  set  diagonally,  and 
the  flat  ceiling  is  supported  by  three  oak  moulded  beams 
resting  on  stone  corbels. 

The  withdrawing  room,  which  adjoins  the  hall  on  the 
same  level,  presents  now  nothing  peculiar. 

The  floors  on  the  upper  story  are  laid  with  oaken 
boarding,  and  the  space  is  divided  into  bedchambers  by 
partitions,  but  they  present  nothing  worthy  of  notice. 

Now  this  central  block  seems  to  have  served  the  re- 
quirements of  the  family  for  a  period  of  over  forty  years, 
when  it  was  probabl}'  found  that  the  accommodation  on 
the  basement  was  insufficient  and  inconvenient  for  the  re- 
quirements of  kitchen  and  offices.  Hence  we  find  that  one 
of  the  last  of  the Musgraves  who  resided  here  set  to  work 
to  build  a  low,  two-storied  wing,  as  an  extension,  at  the 
W.  side  of  the  courtvard. 




This  range  of  buildings  presents  the  horizontal,  labelled, 
and  bevilled  mullioned  windows  of  the  period.  The  base- 
ment now  partly  used  as  kennels  and  boiling-house  con- 
tained the  new  kitchen.  It  has  a  doorway  with  the  obtusely 
angled  recess  in  the  lintel  of  the  Jacobean  date,  with  a 
moulded  square  frame  over  it,  of  which  the  panel  is 
gone.  The  access  to  the  first  floor  which  contains  three 
small  rooms,  lighted  back  and  front  with  mullioned  win- 
dows, is  by  an  outside  stair,  and  over  the  entrance  there 
is,  within  a  corbelled  label,  in  raised  letters  : — 

W  M     I      CM 


On  one  of  the  outbuildings  there  is  a  tablet,  with  letters 
in  relief : — 


W  :  B         t 


And  over  the  old  garden  door  in  graven  letters: — 

D.H.     D.W.     1687.  t 

The  arrangements  at  Johnby  Hall  exhibit  exclusively 
the  style  and  feeling  predominant  in  the  new  houses  of  the 
northern  country  gentry  during  the  middle  third  of  Eliza- 

*  William  Musgrave  married  Catherine  Sherburne,  daughter  of  Sir  Nicholas 
Sherburne. — W'helan's  Cumlerland,  p.  207. 

t  William  Williams,  Steward  of  Greystoke,  married  Barbary  Halton  of  Green- 
thwaite,  June  6th,  1666. 

*  These  I  think  are  the  initials  of  Dorothy  Halton  (widow  of  Miles  Halton  of 
Greenthwaite),  who  died  at  Johnby  Hall  in  1719,  and  her  grandaughter  Dorothy 
Williams,  who  in  1696  married  Edward  Hasell.     Thomas  Lees. 



beth's  reign.  It  was  about  this  time  that  the  new  fashion 
of  house-building  crept  up  to  the  north.  In  this  part  of  the 
countr}'  there  had  been  for  a  long  period  a  great  gap  in  the 
way  of  house-building;  comparatively  little  had  been  done 
for  a  hundred  years  to  supersede  the  dark,  stinted  domestic 
inconveniences  of  mediaeval  structures.  In  the  southern 
counties  under  the  early  Tudor  kings,  a  great  impetus  had 
been  given  towards  the  erection  of  mansions  and  residences 
in  the  palatial  style,  exhibiting  the  prevailing  Italian  in- 
fluences. The  domestic  peace  enjoyed  by  the  countr}',  the 
enlargement  of  agriculture,  the  flourishing  state  of  the 
trade  in  wool,  and  above  all  the  effect  of  the  Reformation 
in  secularizing  Church  lands  enriched  the  new  nobility 
and  gentry  who  had  sprung  up,  and  supplied  funds  for  the 
great  development  of  domestic  architecture.  But  the  old 
squirearchy  of  the  Lancastrian  north  continued  to  suffer 
too  direly  from  the  exhaustion  caused  by  the  contentions 
of  the  Roses,  and  the  subsequent  strifes  of  border  warfare, 
to  be  rich  enough,  even  if  they  had  the  desire,  to  substitute 
for  their  moated  fortalice  or  grimy  pele,  a  new  order  of 

When  the  impetus  of  the  new  style  did  approach  Cum- 
berland and  Westmorland  in  the  early  period  of  Elizabeth, 
a  great  building  epoch  was  developed,  which  continued 
throughout  the  greater  part  of  her  reign,  not  only  as 
applied  to  castles  and  manor-houses,  but  to  the  residences 
of  "  statesmen  "  and  farmers,  and  to  the  habitations  of 
the  commonalty  both  in  country  and  in  towns. 

As  has  been  observed  in  the  pursuit  of  the  work  of  this 
Society,  in  almost  every  pele  tower,  the  lord  had  been  en- 
gaged about  this  period  in  making  extensions  and  amelio- 
rating the  condition  of  his  place  to  the  altered  require- 
ments of  the  times.  In  this  immediate  neighbourhood 
Vaux  was  busy  at  Catterlen,  Hudlestone  at  Hutton  John, 
Blencow  at  Blencow,  Mawson  at  Tymparon,  and  others 
built  new  houses  on  fresh  lines,  and  amongst  these  was 
Musgrave  of  Hayton,  who  reared  his  mansion  at  Johnby. 



The  William  Musgrave  who  built  this  house  was  the 
grandson  of  Nicolas,  the  third  son  of  the  famous  Thomas 
de  Musgrave,  of  Harcla  Castle,  who  fell  on  the  scaffold, 
1464,  and  whose  tomb  is  in  Kirkby  Stephen  Church.  It 
was  by  the  marriage  of  this  Thomas  with  Johanna,  one  of 
the  two  daughters  and  co-heirs  of  Sir  William  Stapleton, 
of  Edenhall,  that  the  manor  of  Edenhall  was  transferred  to 
the  jNIusgraves,  and  by  reason  of  which  alliance  you  find 
the  4th  quarter  of  the  shield  charged  with  the  arms  of 
Stapleton.  The  second  and  third  sons  of  Thomas  de 
Musgrave  married  two  sisters,  co-heirs  of  the  name  of 
Colville,  but  who  were  nevertheless  the  direc^.  representa- 
tives in  the  female  line  of  the  once  great  family  of  Til- 
]iol.  With  Margaret,  the  younger  sister,  came  to  Nicolas 
Musgrave  her  moiety  of  the  Tilliol  lands,  embracing 
the  heritages  of  Scaleby,  of  Hayton  near  Aspatria,  and 
Johnb}".  Nicolas  Musgrave  d3ang  in  the  year  1500,  was 
succeeded  by  his  son  Thomas,  who  married  Elizabeth,*  a 
daughter  of  the  Lord  Dacre  of  Gilsland,  and  their  son 
William  succeeded  in  1532.  This  William  Musgrave  of 
Hayton  and  Johnby,  married  Isabel,  daughter  and  co-heir 
of  Martindale,  the  last  of  the  name  as  lord  of  Newton  in 
AUerdale,  whereby  other  ancient  lands  in  the  west  of  Cum- 
berland devolvedto  the  family.  William,  with  whom  we  are 
concerned  as  the  builder  of  this  house,  died  in  the  year  1597. 
Subsequently  the  small  demesne  and  manor  of  Johnby  was 
.apportioned  to  one  of  the  younger  sons  of  the  Musgraves 
of  Hayton,  whose  heir,  female,  married  Mr.  Wyville  of  the 
county  of  York.  Johnby  was  afterwards  sold  by  one  of  the 
Wyvilles  to  Mr.  W^illiam  Williams,  who  came  from  the 
county  Glamorgan,  and  settled  at  Greystoke  ;  he  died  in 
1679,  and  lies  interred  in  Greystoke  Church. t     The  family 

*  In  the  pedigree  of  Laton,  1  illiol  and  Musgrave,  owners  of  Hetton,  given  at  p. 
215,  of  vol.  i,  of  Surtee's  History  of  Durham,  this  Elizabeth  is  stated  to  be  "  base 
daur.  of  Lord  Dacre,  sister  to  Thomas  Dacre  of  Lanercost."  She  would  also  be 
sister  to  John  Dacre  the  last  Provost  of  Greystoke  and  first  of  the  new  line  of 
Rectors.    Thomas  Leks. 

fSee  monumental  tablet  in  Greystoke  Church. 



of  Mv.  Williams  consisted  of  three  daughters,  the  eldest  of 
whom,  Dorothy,  married  Sir  Edward  Hasell  of  Dalemain 
and  for  her  portion  had  Johnby  Hall  and  the  neighbouring 
manor  of  Thwaite  Hall."  The  property  seems  to  have  con- 
tinued in  the  Hasell  family  for  a  century  until  it  was  sold, 
in  1783,  to  Charles,  loth  Duke  of  Norfolk,  who  then  held 
the  Greystoke  estates. 

You  will  notice  that  it  is  fairly  set  forth  on  the  tablet 
over  the  doorway  that  Nicolas  Musgrave  married  Margaret 
Tillinl.  The  Tilliols  or  Tilliolfs  were  a  very  ancient 
family,  and  distinguished  in  the  early  history  of  the  county. 
Their  great  ancestor,  "  Richard  the  Rider,"  whose  name 
was  Tilliol,  having  received  the  lordship  of  Carlisle  from 
Henry  I.  settled  himself  at  Richardby  or  Rickerby,  and  had 
granted  to  him  most  of  the  lands  now  occupied  by  the  sub- 
urbs of  the  city,  Harraby,  Etterby,  Botchardby,  &c.  By 
royal  grants  and  profitable  marriages  the  possessions  of  the 
family  became  augmented  in  successive  generations,  in- 
cluding Scaleby,  Threapland,  Blennerhasset,  and  many 
other  manors.  So  much  importance  had  the  family  attained 
in  the  county  that,  after  Edward  I.  consummated  his  wise 
and  fruitful  scheme  of  a  regular  summons  of  the  lesser 
baronage,  as  representatives  of  counties  to  a  great  council 
of  the  realm  at  Westminster,  we  find  the  first  on  the  list, 
as  the  two  knights  of  the  shire,  in  the  twenty-ninth  year  of 
his  reign,  the  names  of  John  de  Wiggeton  and  Robert  de 
Tilliol.  In  almost  every  successive  parliament  which  was 
called,  up  to  the  ninth  of  Henry  V.,  a  period  of  a  hundred 
years,  are  to  be  found  the  names  of  Robert,  Peter,  Richard, 

*  Thwaite  Hall,  another  old  manor  house  held  under  the  barony  of  Greystoke, 
is  situated  about  four  miles  to  the  N.W.  of  this  place,  in  the  township  of  Hutton 
Roof.  The  modern  renovation  of  the  place,  as  the  residence  tu  a  large  farm,  has 
destroyed  its  character  as  a  i6th  century  building,  which  it  presented  formerly. 
There  are  still  remaining  some  low  horizontal  windows  with  chamfered  mullions, 
and  in  what  was  the  old  hall  or  dining-place,  a  fine  old  chimney-piece,  bevelled 
on  the  edge,  stretching  across  at  one  end  of  it.  Sandford  in  his  MS.  says  : — 
"  This  place  was  anciently  called  Ilultan  Rolf,  a  younger  branch  of  Hutton  John." 
From  the  Huttons  it  passed  by  marriage  to  the  Ualstons,  who  said  the  estate  about 
the  year  iGSo  to  Mr.  Williams  of  Johnby. 



and  Geoffrey  de  Tilliol  constantly  recurrinj^.  By  the  mar- 
riage of  one  of  these  Tilliols,  Piers,  in  the  time  of  Henry 
VI.  with  the  heiress  of  a  Mulcastre  of  Hayton,  the  posses- 
sions near  Aspatria  were  acquired.  Some  years  after  this 
the  family  of  the  Tilliols  ended  in  two  daughters,  which 
caused  a  division  of  the  inheritance;  one  of  them  married 
a  Colville,  which  famil}-  also,  in  the  second  generation, 
ended  again  in  two  daughters,  co-heirs,  causing  a  further 
division  of  the  Tilliol  lands.  Margaret  Colville,  with  whom 
went  the  heritages  of  Hayton  and  Johnb}',  married  Nicolas 
Musgrave,  the  cadet  of  Edenhall,  to  whom  we  have  re- 
ferred, and  whose  name  appears  over  the  doorway.  The 
grandson  William,  who  erected  the  tablet,  had  good  reason 
to  advertise  his  grand-mother  as  bearing  the  name  of 
Tilliol,  she  being  really  a  Colville,  seeing  that  the  Colvilles 
had  been  enjoined  to  assume  the  patronymic  of  Tilliol  in 
order  to  maintain  their  title  against  claims  set  up  by  a  col- 
lateral male  heir.  When  or  how  the  demesne  of  Johnby 
iirst  became  vested  in  the  Tilliols  I  cannot  tell,  or  who  the 
original  holder  was  I  fail  to  discover,  any  further  than  in 
the  30th  of  Edward  I.  one  Robert  de  Joneby  appears  as 
one  of  the  representatives  of  the  shire  in  parliament.  But 
it  may  be  that  the  Robert  de  Tilliol,  who  had  been 
chosen  by  the  gentry  and  freeholders  as  their  repre- 
sentative in  1301,  might  have  been  the  same  individual 
who  was  returned  as  member  the  following  year,  as 
Robert  de  Joneby,  using  the  title  of  his  estate  instead  of 
his  surname  of  Tilliol. 

ni. — Greenthwaite  Hall. 
'^PHIS  perfect  little  example  of  its  period  is  situated  about 
a  mile  from  Greystoke  Castle  on  the  edge  of  the  park 
on  its  S.  side,  and  the  great  wall  built  by  the  Duke  of  Nor- 
folk skirts  its  enclosures.       This  place  was  the  seat  of  the 



ancient  family-  of  Halton.  There  was  a  Halton  of  Green- 
thwaite  Hall  and  Manor  in  the  time  of  Richard  II.,  but  I 
cannot  ascertain  that  any  remains  exist  in  the  vicinity  to 
indicate  the  site  of  their  early  dwelling  place  :  certainly 
nothing  of  an  early  structure  can  be  found  incorporated 
in  the  building  under  view.  This  little  mansion  was  the 
last  work  of  the  Haltons,  about  1650.  The  original  home 
of  the  Haltons  was  in  Tynedale,  in  Northumberland,  and 
the  consequence  of  the  family  in  Cumberland  may  probably 
be  traced  to  the  famous  John,  Bishop  of  Carlisle,  in  the 
time  of  Edward  I.,  who  had  a  long  and  distinguished  epis- 
copal reign,  from  1293  to  1324,  besides  being  a  busy  man 
in  political  and  secular  concerns. 

The  Haltons  continued  their  residence  and  interest  in 
Greenthwaite  until  after  their  migration  into  Derbyshire, 
which  occurred  in  1678,  but  finally  the  Greenthwaite  lands 
were  sold  to  the  Duke  of  Norfolk  in  1785,  and  a  con- 
siderable area  was  absorbed  into  Greystock  Park.  The 
cause  of  the  removal  of  the  family  came  about  in  this  way. 
Immanuel  Halton,  in  whose  time  the  present  hall  was 
built,  was  born  at  Greenthwaite,  and  was  educated  at  the 
Grammar  School  of  Blencow,  and  was  afterwards  a  student 
in  Gray's  Inn,  whence  he  was  called  by  the  then  Duke  of 
Norfolk  to  his  service  as  steward.  Halton  seems  to  have 
been  transferred  to  the  charge  over  the  Duke's  Derbyshire 
estate  of  Winfield.  This  Winfield  property  only  came  to 
the  Howard  family  in  1616,  by  the  marriage  of  Lord 
Arundel  with  one  of  the  co-heirs  of  the  7th  Earl  of 
Shrewsbury.  Finally,  Immanuel  Halton  in  1678  purchased 
from  the  Duke  of  Norfolk  the  famous  old  manor  house  of 
Winfield,  and  the  Duke's  share  of  the  Winfield  property. 

*The  derivation  of  the  place  name  Greenthwaite  is  simply  from  Greena  A.S. 
green  ;  we  have  the  old  pronunciation  of  the  word  retained  in  the  neighbourinor 
pasture  farm  of  Greena  Crag.  Thwaite  (M.  thveitr)  denotes  a  piece  of  ground 
stubbed  free  from  roots  of  trees,  and  separated.  The  sufKx  Thwaite  is  common 
in  Cumberland  and  Westmorland,  and  is  very  frequent  in  Greystoke  parish,  and 
adjoining  parts,  as  in  Thackthwaite,  Brackenthwaite,  South waite,  Smathwaite, 
Micklethwaite,  Calthwaite,  &c. 



Immanuel  Halton  died  at  Winfield  in  1699  ;  it  is  said  that 
"  the  last  years  of  his  Hfe  were  spent  in  the  studies  of 
music  and  mathematics,  in  which  noble  sciences  he  attained 
great  perfection.'""'  In  the  meantime  the  family  still  re- 
tained possession  of  Greenthwaite  Hall  until  the  repre- 
sentative descendant,  Wingfield  Halton,  Esq.,  of  Winfield 
Manor,  in  17S5,  sold  to  the  Duke  of  Norfolk  the  old 
ancestral  Cumberland  home. 

We  have  presented  to  us  here  an  edifice  which  has  been 
erected  all  at  one  time,  in  which  the  lines  follow  an 
original  design,  and  which,  at  the  present  time,  is  really 
very  much  the  same  as  when  it  was  first  built.  It  is  on 
the  L  shaped  plan.  An  oblong  block  of  two  stories  pre- 
sents a  frontage  to  the  S.  of  82  ft.,  with  a  small  wing 
attached  to  the  W.  side,  which  with  a  range  of  farm 
buildings  to  the  N.,  inclose  three  sides  of  a  quadrangular 
courtyard.  Within  this  court  is  the  main  entrance  through 
a  porch  which  has  been  projected  9  ft.  from  the  main  wall, 
at  about  the  centre  of  the  building,  and  carried  up  rather 
higher  than  the  building  itself.  The  plan  and  elevation 
present  a  design  and  features  which  prevailed  long  anterior 
to  the  date  of  1650,  which  is  given  on  various  parts  of  the 
edifice.  In  fact,  the  whole  structure  exhibits  a  thorough 
Elizabethan  feeling,  and  some  of  the  details  are  well  worth 
examination,  particularly  the  carved  stone  horizontal 
panels  over  the  windows,  which  may  be  regarded  as  a  sur- 
vival of  a  favourite  form  of  Tudor  ornamentation  into 
the  late  Jacobean  period.  The  principal  windows  are 
low,  wide,  horizontal  openings,  under  a  dripstone,  divided 
by  one,  two,  or  three  chamfered  muUions.  Above  the 
line  of  the  windows  both  of    the  ground  and  first  floor, 

*  Some  of  his  mathematical  treatises  are  printed  in  the  Appendix  of  Foster's 
Mathematical  Miscellanies,  and  an  "  Account  of  the  Eclipse  of  the  Sun  observed 
at  Winfield,"  in  Phil.  Trans,  for  1676.  In  the  parish  church  of  Winfield  there  are 
some  monuments  to  the  Halton  family.  Immanuel  Halton,  who  died  in  1699, 
married  Mary  dau.sfhter  of  Mr.  John  Xewton  of  Oakerthorpe;  Immanuel  Halton 
Esq.  17S4:  .Miles  Halton  M..A.  1732. — Lyson's  Derbyshire,  p.  292. 


a.  Doorway  Coat  of  Arms. 

b.  Window  con\/erted i/nc  doer 


Court  Yard 


5        J       IS       20      25     30  feet 


Ground  Plan. 


CiRi;i;.MII\V.\II  K    HAI.l. 


there  is  projected  along  the  face  of  the  building  a 
horizontal  string  course,  boldly  rounded  on  the  upper 
surface  and  coved  beneath.  Over  the  large  window  in 
the  porch  tower,  and  over  two  of  the  principal  windows 
on  the  ground  floor,  above  the  lines  of  the  string  course 
there  is  extended  a  square  frame  or  hood  moulding 
so  as  to  inclose  a  long  horizontal  panel  containing 
ornamental  carvings.  The  patterns  wrought  on  these  slabs 
are  all  different.  One  has  the  design  so  well  known  in 
Elizabethan  wood-work,  the  alternating  circle  and  lozenge, 
connected  by  a  short,  straight  band.  In  the  panel  over 
the  window  in  the  tower  the  space  is  divided  into  two 
stages  of  six  square  compartments.  In  the  upper  line  these 
are  pierced  into  circles,  with  bosses  in  the  centre,  variously 
treated,  and  below  the  square  spaces  are  filled  in  with  a 
variety  of  foliage.  All  this  embellishment  shews  a  laud- 
able pride  in  the  builder,  Miles,  the  predecessor  of 
Immanuel  Halton,  in  the  consummation  of  his  edifice, 
neither  did  he  neglect  to  follow  the  prevailing  custom 
of  the  age  of  setting  up,  over  the  entrance,  his  coat 
of  arms  and  a  sententious  legend.  The  main  doorway 
has  bevelled  jambs,  and  bears  a  heavy  square-headed 
lintel  stone  recessed  to  the  breadth  of  the  chamfer,  on 
which  appears,  in  raised  Roman  capitals,  the  following 
sentence  :  — 


REPVTAMVS     .     1650 

M    D 

'^  Here  (on  earth)  we  reckon  ourselves  pilgrims.'' 

*  These  are  the  initials  and  arms  of  Miles  Halton  and  his  wife  Dorothy, 
daughter  of  —  Wybergh  of  Clifton.  Miles  was  born  in  1599,  was  Sheriff  of 
Cumberland,  and  died  in  1652.  A  cross  to  his  memory  is  placed  in  the  middle 
of  the  S.  aisle  of  the  Parish  Church.  Dorothy  seems  to  have  been  a  strong- 
minded  woman,  and  a  quaint  story  has  been  handed  down  by  popular  tradition 
concerning  her — how  she  enticed  the   red  deer  from  Greystokc  I^ark  (then  unen- 



At  one  side  there  is  a  small  shield  with  a  lion  rampant 

gardant,    and   on   the   other   the    initials  M  D,  and    the 
date,  1650. 

Immediately  above  this,  ten  years  later,  there  was  set 
up  another  tablet  bearing  the  full  achievement,  a  shield, 
with  the  arms  of  Halton,  party  per  pale,  a  lion  rampant, 
and  three  bars  between  three  mullets,  two  and  one.  The 
crest: — a  demi-lion  holding  a  spear,  on  a  helmet  with 
wreath,  and  mantlings.  At  the  top  of  the  tablet  stands  out 
the  date  1660  ;  the  carving  is  well  executed,  and  in  good 
preservation,  except  the  motto  on  the  scroll,  which  has 
weathered  off. 

The  mason  work  throughout  is  of  very  good  character, 
being  of  the  fine-grained  Greystoke  sandstone,  in  well-laid 
courses  of  rubble,  with  chiselled  ashlar  at  the  openings. 

The  interior  of  the  porch  forms  the  vestibule  to  the 
house  ;  it  is  well  lighted  by  a  double  mullioned  window  on 
a  level  with  the  first  floor,  and  by  a  little  square  look-out 
on  each  side  near  the  door.  Originally,  it  contained  the 
principal  staircase  of  the  mansion  giving  access  to  the 
upper  floor  ;  the  stair  is  now  gone,  but  the  rising  of  a 
straight  flight  of  steps  may  be  noted  on  the  right  hand 

On  the  ground  floor  the  main  block  contained  the  hall, 
a  small  parlour,  and  the  withdrawing  room.      The  dimen- 

closed)  on  to  her  own  land  by  scattering  of  green  oats,  and  then  shot  them  with  a 
cross-bow  for  food  for  her  domestics,  who  in  consequence  protested  against  being 
fed  en  what  they  called  "black  mutton"  for  more  than  four  days  in  the  week. 
The  story  goes  on  to  say  how  she  was  summoned  at  the  Assizes  at  Cockermouth, 
to  answer  for  her  poaching  proclivities.  When  she  entered  the  court  the  counsel 
for  the  prosecution,  one  of  the  well-known  Fletcher  family,  exclaimed,  "  Here 
comes  Madam  Halton  with  her  traps  and  her  gins!  "  and  she  promptly  replied, 
"  There  sits  Counsellor  Fletcher  with  his  packs  and  his  pins,"  alluding  sarcas- 
tically to  the  commercial  pursuits  by  which  the  Fletchers  had  risen  to  eminence. 
How  the  case  ended  is  not  related. 

Miles  and  Dorothy  Halton  had  a  numerous  offspring,  five  sons  and  five 
daughters.  An  interesting  article  on  the  family  will  be  found  in  "  The  Reliquar)', 
October,  1S64,"  contributed  bj'  C.  H.  &  Thompson  Cooper,  the  Historians  of 
Cambridge.— Thomas  Lees. 



sions  of  the  hall  in  its  original  state  were  29  ft.  9  in.  by 
18  ft.  6  in  ;  it  was  well  lighted  by  three  low  mullioned 
windows  to  the  S.,  and  one  with  a  6  ft.  6  in.  aperture  to- 
wards the  courtyard.  The  great  width  and  depth  of  the 
chimney  block  in  this  room  is  remarkable  ;  the  great  fire- 
place opening  embraced  by  a  segmental  arch  of  10  ft.  8  in. 
span,  and  the  reception  in  the  thickness  of  the  wall  of  a 
great  locker  or  cupboard.  But  modern  innovations  have 
entirely  destro3^ed  the  proportions  and  attributes  of  the 
apartment,  for  the  three-mullioned  window  on  the  S.  front 
has  been  cut  to  afford  an  entrance  door  on  that  aspect, 
and  the  partitioned  passage  from  it  traverses  the  breadth 
of  the  hall. 

Contiguous  to  the  hall  there  is  a  little  room,  13  ft.  by 
L^  ft. — the  lord's  little  parlour  or  private  room,  and 
beyond,  at  the  E.  end  of  the  block,  there  is  an  apartment, 
18  ft.  6  in.  by  15  ft.  6  in.,  which  is  now  used  as  a  dairy. 
This  was  the  withdrawing  room  of  the  old  mansion  :  it  is 
well  lighted  back  and  front  by  mullioned  windows,  and  is 
furnished  with  a  Tudor  fireplace.  The  short  wing  on  the 
W.  aspect,  which  forms  the  limb  of  the  L  on  the  plan,  is 
occupied  by  the  kitchen  and  its  appurtenances,  from  which 
there  is  a  communication  with  the  low  end  of  the  hall ;  at 
this  point  there  is  a  corkscrew  stair  for  service  to  the 
apartments  on  the  next  story.  On  the  upper  floor  there 
is  a  long  passage  partitioned  off  on  the  N.  side,  giving 
access  to  the  bedrooms,  five  in  number,  very  much  as  in 
a  modern  house  ;  over  the  wing  there  are  dormitories  for 
the  domestics. 

At  the  top  of  the  porch  tower  there  is  an  additional 
story  containing  a  little  square  chamber,  with  a  single 
mullioned  light  into  the  courtyard,  in  which  may  be  noted 
a  square  ambry  in  the  wall  on  the  E.  side.  In  the  porch- 
tower  houses  of  the  time  of  Queen  Elizabeth  the  room  thus 
situated  was  usually  dedicated  to  the  use  of  a  chapel ;  we 
have  seen  it  at  Hornby  Hall  and  other  places  ;  there  is 
nothing  however  here  to  indicate  devotional  purposes. 



About  this  pcriuJ,  and  indeed  for  a  hundred  years  be- 
fore, in  this  part  of  the  country,  in  making  a  floor  in  the 
upper  stories,  instead  of  laying  down  naked  boarding  on 
the  joists  it  was  a  very  common  practice  to  use  laths,  and 
to  cover  them  with  a  layer  of  alabaster,  or  hall-plaster,  as 
it  is  called  in  the  north.  You  may  see  this  application  of 
plaster  adopted  in  the  flooring  of  the  passages  and  rooms 
in  the  upper  part  of  this  house.  The  practice  is  a  local 
one,  and  may  have  originated  in  the  facility  of  procuring 
the  material,  as  numerous  deposits  and  pockets  of  native 
alabaster  or  gypsum  occur  in  the  Eden  valley  not  very  far 
off,  \vhere  the  mineral  has  been  worked  from  distant  times. 

IV.— Greystoke  Mid-Farm. 

This  is  a  quaint  little  mansion  situated  at  Greystokehead 
on  the  road  leading  to  Greenthwaite  Hall.  This  residence 
seems  in  some  way  to  have  been  connected  with  the  Halton 
family,  whether  as  a  dower  house  or  not  I  cannot  tell ;  it  is 
very  characteristic  of  the  period  at  which  it  was  built,  lC^g, 
and  is  worthy  of  notice  on  account  of  the  arms  over  the 
doorway.  It  consists  of  a  long  low  single  tenement  of  two 
lloors,  with  a  wing  projected  from  the  W.  side  giving  the 
|_  plan.  The  entrance  is  on  the  N.  side  facing  the  road, 
at  the  re-entering  angle  from  a  little  court  formed  by  the 
wing,  through  a  square-headed  widely  chamfered  doorway. 
Over  the  door  there  is  imposed  a  very  ornate  and  well- 
carved  heraldic  tablet  on  a  stone  which  is  supported  by 
two  spirally  fluted  columns  with  Ionic  volutes  on  the  capi- 
tals, and  carrying  a  classic  cornice.  The  shield  is  sur- 
rounded with  the  full  ornaments  of  mantling,  wreath, 
esquire's  helmet,  and  scroll,  and  bears  on  a  bend  three 
escallops  with  an  annulet  for  difference,  {New  Layton  of 
Dalcmain),  impaling  a  fesse  between   six  cross  crosslets 



fitchy  (old  Layton).  Crest : — A  lion's  head  gorged  with  a 
collar,  charged  with  three  bezants.  The  scroll  below  the 
shield  is  so  much  weathered  that  the  motto  is  effaced,  but 
it  has  been  given  by  Jefferson  as  :  "  Tarn  pace  quam  bello.''* 
On  the  upper  part  of  the  tablet  is  the  date  1649. 

The  door  enters  directly  into  the  old  dining  place  or  hall, 
originally  18  ft.  by  16  ft.  8  in.,  but  the  space  is  now  split  by 
a  partition.  This  constituted  the  living  room  of  the  resi- 
dence, and  it  is  noticeable  chiefly  as  containing  a  large 
fireplace  recess,  with  a  little  square-headed  look-out  in  the 
ingle-nook,  with  an  elliptic  chimney  arch  of  g  ft.  span  with 
a  bold  round  and  hollow  moulding.  It  is  well  lighted  on 
both  sides  with  low  horizontal  windows  with  moulded 
mullions,  one  being  high  in  the  wall.  As  usual,  adjoining 
there  is  a  parlour  of  very  small  dimensions;  the  wing 
would  contain  the  kitchen,  and  the  upper  floor  would  be 
devoted  to  bedrooms.  There  are  heavy  moulded  drip- 
stones to  all  the  windows.  The  place  has  been  converted 
into  two  cottage  houses. 

*  Jefferson's  Leath  Ward,  p.  369. 


Art.  VII. — Gold  Armlet  found  in  Westmorland. 

By  Ellkn  K.  Ware. 
Read  at  Penrith,  Jidy  4th,  iSSg. 

^PHE  gold  bracelet  I  exhibit  was  found  early  in  1889 
■-  by  a  labourer,  on  a  piece  of  moorland  in  or  near 
Winton,  a  hamlet  of  Kirkby  Stephen.  It  was  lying  on 
a  ledge  of  rock  covered  with  soil.  The  ends  seem  at 
sometime  to  have  been  cut  or  broken  off.  It  weighs 
I  oz.  4  dwts.  6  gr.  It  appears  to  be  part  of  an  armlet 
of  the  ancient  British  or  prehistoric  period,  certainly 
anterior  to  the  Roman  Invasion.  The  armlet,  of  which 
is  a  fragment,  probably  had  five  or  six  twists  and 
possibly  a  hook  at  either  end.  Several  have  been  found 
in  various  parts  of  England,  and  Canon  Greenwell  has  a 
very  fine  one  in  his  collection.  This  armlet  was  probably 
made  by  twisting  together  two  hollowed-out  pieces  of 
gold,  having  a  section  of  the  shape  of  a  cross.  It  might 
have  been  used  for  bullion,  and  this  may  account  for  its 
being  chopped  up. 

Note. — The  armlet  was  exhibited  to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of 
London,  on  February  29,  1S89,  when  Chancellor  Ferguson  made  the 
following  remarks  : — "■■ 

I  have  the  honour  to  exhibit  a  gold  armlet  which  was  found  re- 
cently upon  the  Higher  Winton  Common,  just  under  the  fell  of  that 
name,  which  is  situated  near  the  town  of  Kirkby  Stephen,  in  the 
county  of  Westmorland.  The  armlet  was  found  three  feet  below  the 
surface  of  the  ground  in  a  cleft  of  the  rock,  and  had  apparently  been 
lost  and  fallen  into  the  situation  in  which  it  was  found  ;  there  was  no 
trace  of  box  or  wrapper,  nor  was  anything  else  found  with  it.  This 
therefore,  is  a  case  not  of  treasure  trove,  but  of  bona  vacantia,  a  lost 
article,  which  belongs  to  the  finder  and  to  no  one  else.f 

*  See  Proc  S.A.  2nd  Series,  vol.  xii.,  pp.  322-323. 

f  See  Presidential  Address  by  John    Evans,  F.S.A.,  St.  George's  Day,  1SS7, 
Proc.  S.A.  2nd  Series,  vol.  xi.,  pp.  3S0-3S1. 



The  armlet  is  of  fine  gold,  and  weighs  i  oz.  4  dvvts ;  it  has  been 
made  by  twisting  into  a  spiral  a  rod  of  gold,  S^j '.inches  in  length, 
whose  section  is  a  quatrefoil  with  flattened  lobes,  measuring  some- 
thing under  a  quarter  of  an  inch  in  extreme  diameter:  the  spiral  so 
formed  measures  about  yf  inches  in  length,  and  has  been  bent  into  a 
rough  circle  of  about  2%  inches  in  diameter;  one  of  the  end>  is 
rough,  as  if  the  rod  had  been  broken  off  from  a  longer  rod  ;  the  other 
end  seems  to  have  been  recently  cut  with  a  knife,  probably  by  the 
labourer  who  found  it.""  There  is  no  provision  for  clasping  together 
the  ends  of  the  armlet,  and  it  has  been  intended  to  retain  its  position, 
when  worn,  by  its  elasticity. 

It  thus  differs  from  the  armlets  formed  by  twisting  into  a  spiral 
a  flat  strip  of  gold  or  a  square  or  prismatic  rod  of  that  metal,  or  bj- 
twisting  together  three  or  four  rods  or  wires.  I  have  not  been  able 
to  find  a  similar  armlet  in  the  books  and  should  be  glad  to  know  of 
one.  The  armlets  formed  of  wires  twisted  together  are  generally 
assigned  to  a  later  period  than  the  plain  ones  with  expanding  ends. 
The  present  instance  is  I  suggest,  with  hesitation,  Romano-British. 
The  place  where  it  was  found  is  about  three  miles  from  the  great 
Roman  camp  at  Brough-under-Stainmore  {Vetierce). 

*Dr.  Evans,  P.S.A.,  said  it  was  evident  from  the  rough  ends  that  the  armlet 
had  been  cut  from  the  middle  of  a  larjTe  torque. 


Art.  VIII. — Recent  Roman  Discoveries,  1889. 

By  the  President. 
Conuminicatcd  at  Penrith,  July  ^tk,  i88g. 

1  AGAIN  regret  that  I  have  no  new  Roman  inscriptions 
to  bring  under  your  notice  :  the  objects  I  have  to 
bring  have  already  been  brought  by  me  under  the  notice 
of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  London  in  performancee 
of  my  duty  as  one  of  their  officials. 


I  have  the  honour  to  exhibit  and  present  photographs  of  a  corbel 
stone,  on  which  is  carved  a  nondescript  face  issuing  out  of  a  circular 
back  plate.     The  dimensions  of  the  stone  are  : — On  the  flat  table  on 
the  top,  18  by  6^  inches  ;  the  depth  is  13  inches  on  one  side,  by  some- 
what less  on  the  other,  the  under  surface  not  being  dressed  square, 
like  the  table  at  the  top.     The  distance  of  the  back  of  the  back  plate 
from  the  end  of  the  stone  is  12^  inches,  the  length  which  would  be 
built  into  the  wall  in  which  the  stone  was  used,  leaving  5^  inches 
projecting,  or,  allowing  for  the  projection  of  the  face  beyond  the  back 
plate,  about  7  inches  projecting.     The  sinister  side  of  the  back  plate 
has  been  worn  away  or  otherwise  destroyed.     The  diameter  of  the 
back  plate  has  been  about  9  inches.     This  corbel  stone  was  found 
in  excavations  for  buildings  immediately  contiguous  to  the  site  of  the 
new  markets  at  Carlisle,  in  made  soil  full  of  fragments  of  Roman 
pottery,  and  at  a  depth  of  9  feet.     Among  the  fragments  was  a  very 
charming  little  Roman  lamp,  presently  to  be  mentioned.     The  site  of 
these  new  markets  and  the  vicinity  have  for  long  been  productive  of 
Roman   relics,  and  several  are  enumerated   in  the  Transactions  of 
this    Society,    and    elsewhere.''       I  mention  these  facts  because    a 
difference  of  opinion  exists  as  to  whether  this  figure  is  Roman  or 
not,  and  the  circumstances  surrounding  the  find  may,  therefore,  have 
to  be  taken  into  account.     One  eminent  authority  on  Roman  matters 
writes  to  me  : — 

*  Jefferson's  History  and  Aiiti/iuilics  nj  Carlisle,  p.  326;   Proc.  S.A,  2d  S.  vol, 
xii.,  pp.  111-113,  16S,  423-425.     Tran/iaclinns  thix  Society,  vol.  x.,  pp.  275-277. 



Of  course  the  abortion  is  early  mediaeval ;  an  example  of  the  low,  inartistic 
mind  of  the  time,  though  symbolists  may  imagine  it  a  type  of  something. 

But  an  eminent  authority  on  medizeval  matters  writes  to  me : — 

I  should  say  the  corbel  is  Roman.  I  never  saw  a  mediaeval  one  with  the  cir- 
cular back  plate,  and  I  think  it  is  altogether  too  inartistic  for  early  mediaeval 
work,  and  decorated  and  perpendicular  work  would  certainly  have  somethino-  of 
the  decorated  or  perpendicular  character  which  would  have  marked  it.  It  is  as 
unlikely  to  be  mediaeval  as  the  stone  from  Chester  with  the  two  figures  about 
which  Thompson  Watkin  made  such  a  strange  blunder.  I  do  not  think  the  hair 
treatment  alone  is  sufficient  to  prove  one  way  or  the  other.  It  is  the  common 
rude  way  of  showing  it  at  all  times.  I  should  call  the  thing  Roman,  less  from  the 
presence  of  nothing  distinctly  cultivated  Roman  about  it,  than  from  the  absence 
of  anything  mediaeval. 

This  object  has  evidently  been  meant  to  be  viewed  from  below  and 
from  a  distance,  and  the  suggestion  has  been  made  that  it  is  intended 
to  represent  a  negro,  and  that  the  two  holes  are  his  nostrils.  I 
rather  incHne  to  think  that  it  represents  an  actor  wearing  a  comic 



I  have  also  the  honour  of  exhibiting  the  lamp  I  have  mentioned, 
on  which  is  the  maker's  stamp  of 


Mr.  C.  Roach  Smith  informs  me  he  has  met  with  the  following 
potters'  marks  : — 


all  probably  one  and  the  same. 


Art.  IX. — Potters'  Marks  on  Roman  Pottery  found  in  Carlisle. 
By  the  President. 

POTTERS'  marks  from  Roman  pottery  ware  found  in 
Carlisle,  and  now  in  the  collections  of  Mr.  R.  Fergu- 
son, F.S.A.,  Morton,  and  Mr.  Fisher,  Bank  Street,  and  in 
the  Carlisle  Museum.  Those  marked  thus  (*)  are  in  Mr. 
Wright's  list  {The  Celt,  the  Roman,  and  the  Saxon,  edition 
of  1875).  Those  marked  (t)  have  been  found  recently  on 
the  site  of  the  New  Markets  now  being  erected  at  Carlisle. 
On  Samian  ware  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  R.  Ferguson, 
F.S.A.,  of  Morton,  Carlisle: — 

=  BRICCI  .  M 
■■  BVRDO 
=  0F  KICIMI 


-FVS  (on  lamp) 












On  Roman  ware  (other  than  Samian)  in  the  collection 
of  Mr.  R.  Ferguson,  F.S.A.  :— 

On  mortarium —      I  On    a    fragment    of 
DOCIE  white  ware— PI  RV 

On  amphore — 
DOM    F 

On  Samian  ware  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Fisher,  Bank 
Street,  Carlisle  : — 

'  PANI  •  L  •  P 



On    an   amphora    in    collection    of    Mr.    Fisher,    Bank 
Street,  Carlisle  : — 

A  •  R  •  A 


potters'  marks. 


On  SamicDi  ware 

SAX  AM  I  •  M  (2)  1 
* CAM PAN  I  .  M      I 


"ECKIAR  ■  F        I 
*MAIOR  •  F  ! 

ANVNI  •  M  I 

*  A  /  V  /  .  M  j 

((/.  same  as  above)  t 

*MANV  j 

CAVONI  .  M         I 

in  the  Museum,  Carlisle  : — 
t*  LITTER  I    +  CAMVII  / 

+*  BIGA  •  FEC 

(very  large  on  the  side) 

(scratched  on  bottom) 
t  ///NI  •  M 

(?  ANVNI  •  M  •  ante) 

t  lOCL  •  MS 

t/IIANI  .  M 
t//  II  ■  M 
t  GLANCIV  •  M 
f  AIAIV? 
t;/  /  BI  .  MA 

On  aiupJiorcv  in  the  Museum,  Carlisle  : — 
C  .  TYC        I        P  •  L  ■  R 

On  iiwrtaria  in  the  Museum,  Carlisle  : — 

M  R  I 
M  R  I 

A  V.TM 
M  A 

On  lamp  from  New  Markets: — 


The  following  potters'  marks  are  from  some  red  ware 
recently  (in   1889)  found  in  Collier  Lane,  Carlisle : — 

*C  •  ALAVA  .  F 
*DIVIX  .  F 

MAGI  •  OF 
*MOXSI  .  M 
*LVCANI  ■  M 

*0F  •  CRESI 

/  MOR  .  M 

/  ERCA 



Art.  X. — Tlie  Siege  of  Carlisle  in  1644-5.  General  Leslie's 
Works.  By  the  Wokshipful  Chancellor  Ferguson, 
F.S.A.,  President  of  the  Society. 

Read  at  Penrith,   July  ^th,   1889.* 

11HE  first  beginning  of  "  The  Troubles,"  as  the  Great 
Civil  War  is  often  called  by  local  writers,  may  in 
Cumberland  be  reckoned  from  a  proclamation  made  by 
Charles  I.  on  the  29th  of  January  1638,  which  ordered  all 
the  nobility  and  gentry  of  Cumberland  and  other  northern 
counties,  except  those  in  attendance  on  his  majesty,  or  in 
his  service,  to  repair  on  or  before  the  ist  March  to  their 
several  houses  and  lands,  where  they  were  required  to  be 
in  readiness,  well  armed  and  provided,  for  the  defence  and 
safeguard  of  that  part  of  the  kingdom.  In  the  following 
year  a  garrison  of  500  men  was  thrown  into  Carlisle  :  it 
consisted  of  an  Irish  regiment  under  the  command  of  Sir 
Francis  Willoughby.  Sir  Nicholas  Byron  was  appointed 
governor  of  the  castle,  city  and  citydell  of  Carlisle,  with 
pay  at  the  rate  of  £^  a  day  and  power  to  proclaim 
martial  law  and  to  make  all  the  inhabitants  and  citizens 
take  up  arms.  The  accounts  of  the  Chamberlains  of  Car- 
lisle for  this  date  show  that  the  inhabitants  and  citizens 
were  preparing  to  defend  themselves  ;  they  formed  a  volun- 
teer company  and  took  to  drilling  and  hired  Corporal 
Brown's  boy  as  drummer  :  the  "  cities  muskets  &  harness  " 
were  entrusted  to  Thomas  Wilson,  spurrier,  and  Robert 
Rigge  for  repairs  ;  a  "  barrel  covered  with  leather  to  carry 
gunpowder  in  for  exercisenge  "  was  purchased  :  and  the 

*  This  paper  was  originally  given  in  a  more  much  extended  and  popular  form 
in  a  lecture  at  Carlisle,  as  an  Account  of  the  Siege.  Before  this  Society  it  has 
been  reduced  to  an  attempt  to  fix  the  positions  of  the  "  Works  "  raised  by  General 


THE    SIEGE    OF    CARLISLE,    1644-5.  IO5 

city  drum  was  repaired  and  new  drumsticks  purcliased.  A 
guard  house  was  provided  for  the  use  of  the  garrison  by 
hiring  from  Randell  Sewell  his  shop  in  the  Glover's  Row 
at  a  rent  of  2/-  a  week.  A  new  gate  was  hung  at  Botcher- 
gate  (afterwards  the  Enghsh  gate)  and  all  three  gates  had 
new  locks  which  cost  £1  14s.  £1  12s.  was  paid  by  the 
Chamberlains  for  16  pounds  of  gunpowder.  Then  40  pound 
weight  of  gunpowder,  made  up  in  papers  (cartridges)  cost 
-^4.  Somewhat  later  the  investments  in  powder  were 
very  large,  as  the  following  note  shows  : — 

The  Sth  of  October,  A  note  what  powder  is  brought 

1640.  in  and  by  whome. 

Of  Will.  Atkinson 120  12     o 

Of  Edward  James 010  01     o 

Of  Joseph  Jefferson   024  02     4 

Of  John  Thomlinson 080  08     o 

Of  John  Glaisters 060  06     o 

Of  Edmund  Dalton    050  05     o 

An  expenditure  of  over  ;ir345  in  powder.  Large  numbers 
of  hacks  and  picks  were  also  made  and  shafted. 

When  Charles  I.  went  to  Ber\vick-on-Tweed  the  trained 
bands  of  Cumberland  and  Westmorland,  under  Sir  Philip 
Musgrave  marched  into  Carlisle,  and  gs.  6d.  was  spent  by 
the  corporation  for  •'  wine  bestowed  on  baronet  Musgrave." 
The  following  proclamations  about  the  trained  bands 
have  been  kindly  copied  by  the  Rev.  W.  F.  Gilbanks,  the 
rector  of  Great  Orton,  from  originals  in  the  parish  chest  at 
Holme  Cultram  : — 

Trusty  and  wellbeloved  we  great  you  well,  being  in  our  own  reall  per- 
sons thus  far  advanced  towards  the  frontyres  of  this  kingdom  to  re- 
pell  these  rebells  of  our  Kingdom  of  Scotland  who  have  now  invaded 
us  and  our  subjects.  And  finding  in  our  good  people  of  this  countye 
of  York  great  readyness  and  resolution  for  the  which  to  attend  and 
march  along  with  us  with  all  the  trained  bands  and  forces  therein  to- 
wards the   Borders,  and   not  doubting  of  like  readyness  in  our  good 


Io6  THE    SIEGE    01-    CARLISLE,    1644-5. 

people  of  that  countye  if  we  may  with  the  more  vigour  and  strength 
both  secure  them  and  you  and  all  our  loving  subjects  in  their  persons 
and  estates  from  further  invasion  we  have  herewith  sentt  our  well- 
beloved  sen'ante  Sir  Richd.  Graeyme  willing  and  requireing  3'ou  and 
every  of  yours  immediatel}' upon  the  receipte  hereof  not  only  to  drawe 
togeither  into  a  body  all  the  trained  bands  both  horse  and  foote  within 
that  count3-e,  but  alsoe  to  raise  and  make  what  other  forces  you  pos- 
sibely  can  for  the  secureing  and  defence  of  all  the  passes  within  the 
said  countye  wherein  ye  are  to  observe  upon  all  occasions  such  orders 
and  directions  as  you  shall  receive  from  us,  or  the  cheife  Commander 
of  our  army  heerof  you  are  not  to  faile  as  you  tender  our  service  and 
your  own  safitye  and  will  answer  the  contrary  att  your  perills  given 
under  our  hand  signed  att  our  Cittie  of  York  att  our  Manor  and 
Courte  the  24  Aug.  in  the  xvi.  of  our  raigne  1640.  To  our  trusty  and 
wellbeloved  the  deputye  Leiutents  and  Justices  of  peace  within  our 
Count}'  of  Cumberland. 

In  pursuance  of  this  the  deputy  lieutenants  and  justices 
issued  the  following  : — 

Carlile,  28  Aug.  1640. 

Orders  agreed  upon  b}'  the  Consente  of  the  deput3-e  Leiuetenants 
of  the  Countj'e  of  Cumberland  to  be  observed  not  only  b}'  the  tra3'ned 
bands  but  b}'  all  those  that  are  able  to  beare  armes  for  the  defence  of 
the  same  upon  all  allarums  or  invasion  of  it  eveneing. 

The  place  of  Rendezvous  for  the  tra3'ned  bands  both  of  horse  and 
foote  are  appointed  at  Carlisle,  whither  upon  all  occasions  the3'  are 
commanded  with  all  possible  speede  to  repaire,  each  man  being  to 
bring  with  him  provisions  of  victualls  for  five  da3-es. 

The  place  of  Rendezvous  for  the  mhabitants  of  the  County  able  to 
beare  armes  in  t3^me  of  allarum  which  shall  be  given  notice  of  by 
burneinge  of  Beacons  or  publique  notice  taken  of  Invasion  of  the 
Enem3'e  is  appointed  to  be  att  the  severall  houses  of  the  severall 
Lords  of  the  Manor  and  Landlords  videlicet:  the  Tents  of  the  Earle 
of  Northumberland  Lord  Generall  att  Cockermouth  the  Earle  Mar- 
shall for  the  Barrony  of  Burgh  att  RoclifTe,  those  of  the  barrony  of 
Graystocke  att  Gra3'stocke  Castle  those  of  the  Barron3'  of  Gilsland 
att  Noward  Castle  and  soe  respectivel3'  all  Tenants  to  the  place  of 
their  Landlords  houses.  Each  man  to  bring  with  him  vij  da3-s  pro- 
vision and  ever3'  man  his  Knapsacke  with  him  and  in  the  meane  tym.e 
to  provide  themselves  with  armes  for  the  defence  of  themselves  wifes 
children  and  countrye. 


THE    SIEGE    OF    CARLISLE,    1644-5.  I07 

This  to  be  published  in  every  markett  Towne 
and  parish  Church  after  prayers  after  the 
readinge  of  the  King's  letter. 

Francis  Howard 
Pa.  Curuen 
Geo.  Dalston 
Henry  Fletcher 
Wm.  Pennington 

The  danger,  however,  passed  away. 

In  October  1641  the  garrison  of  Carlisle  was  disbanded 
in  pursuance  of  the  treaty  with  Scotland,  but  the  arms  and 
munitions  of  w'ar  were  carefully  stowed  away  in  the  Fratry, 
the  keys  of  which  appear  to  have  been  in  the  custody  of 
the  Mayor  of  Carlisle. 

How  long  it  was  before  Carlisle  again  received  a  garrison 
it  is  difficult  to  say  :  not  more  than  a  few  months.  The 
great  Civil  War  actually  commenced  in  1642.  Charles  I. 
raised  his  standard  at  Nottingham  on  the  23rd  of  August ; 
and  Edgehill  was  fought  on  Oct.  23.  For  long  the  tide  of 
battle  rolled  away  from  Carlisle,  and  many  persons  of  dis- 
tinction sought  refuge  in  it  from  the  perils  of  war.  The 
Earl  of  Nithsdale  was  forced  to  fly  from  his  castle  of 
Caerlaverock,  and  he  and  his  connection.  Lord  Harries, 
with  their  families  took  up  their  abode  in  Carlisle  :  several 
clergymen  also  came. 

An  attempt  was  made  in  1643  to  seize  Carlisle  for  the 
Parliament.  The  prime  movers  were  Sir  Wilfred  Lawson 
and  some  of  the  Barwises  of  Langrigg.  Thev  brought  in 
Sir  William  Armyne,  who  was  active  on  the  Parliamentarv 
side,  and  with  the  assistance  of  persons  named  Craister, 
Studholme,  Cholmley,  and  Langhorne  faced  Carlisle  with 
what  Tullie,  the  historian  of  the  siege,  calls  a  "  Rascall 
route  ".  However,  the  gentry  of  the  county,  their  tenants 
and  neighbours,  and  the  militia  defeated  these  persons  and 
their  following,  and  drove  them  to  Abbey-holme,  but  there 
let  them  go,  on  promise  of  keeping  quiet. 


I08  THE    SIEGE    OF    CARLISLE,    1644-5, 

The  battle  of  Marston  Moor  was  fought  on  July  i,  1644. 
York  surrendered  to  the  Parliamentary  forces  on  the  i6th 
of  that  month,  and  Sir  Thomas  Glenham,  Governor  of 
York,  and  commander-in-chief  in  the  North  for  the  King, 
took  refuge  in  Cumberland,  with  some  broken  troops. 

Michael  Studholme,  one  of  the  persons  concerned  in  the 
attempt  on  Carlisle  in  1643,  still  cherished  designs  upon 
Carlisle  :  through  Richard  Barwise,  the  Roundhead  M.P. 
for  Carlisle,  he  endeavoured  to  induce  General  David  Leslie 
to  march  with  his  cavalry  into  Cumberland.  Accordingly, 
Leslie  with  Soo  horse  marched  into  that  county  from  New- 
castle. He  expected  to  meet  with  no  opposition,  but  when 
he  got  to  Salkeld  and  was  about  to  ford  the  Eden,  he  found 
he  was  opposed  by  horse  and  foot  regiments  raised  by  the 
local  gentlemen,  with  Sir  Philip  Musgrave,  Sir  Henry 
Bellingham,  and  Sir  Henry  Fletcher  at  their  head.  Leslie 
was  for  retiring  to  Newcastle,  but  Barwise,  not  the  ^LP., 
but  Barwise  of  Ilekirk,  known  as  the  great  Barwise,  rode 
into  the  river,  whereon  Leslie  and  the  horse  followed,  and 
A  the  whole  of  the  opposing  force  promptly  ran  off  as  fast  as 
they  could  to  Carlisle,  into  which  place  Leslie  chased 
them  :  he  drew  up  his  horse  in  full  view  of  the  city  on  St. 
Nicholas  Hill,  near  the  gallows  :  Tullie  says,  "  a  place 
more  proper  for  them  he  could  not  have  chosen."*  Some 
skirmishing  took  place  between  them  and  the  garrison  on 
the  east  side  of  Carlisle,  and  next  day  Leslie  went  off  to 
Newcastle,  though,  had  he  stayed,  he  might  have  reduced 
Carlisle  in  a  very  short  time,  as  it  was  not  yet  provisioned. 
Scandal  says  he  did  this  on  purpose  :  he  wished  to  give  the 
Royalists  time  to  provision  it,  that  the  siege  might  be 
longer,  and  so  he  and  his  men  might  draw  pay  for  a  longer 

*  A  Narrative  of  the  Siege  of  Carlisle  in  1644  and  1645  :  ly  Isaac  Tullie  :  N'oic 
^rst  printed  Jrom  a  MS.  in  the  British  Museum  :  Carlisle,  Samuel  Jejf'erson,  1840. 
This  valuable  tract,  one  of  the  series  of  ten  local  tracts  known  as  "Jefferson's 
Carlisle  Tracts,"  is  now  very  scarce,  and  would  bear  reprinting-.  For  Isaac  Tullie, 
see  note  at  end  of  this  paper. 


THE    SIEGE    OF    CARLISLE,    1644-5.  lOQ 

period.     Leslie  had  served  under  Gustavus  Adolphus,  and 
had  a  good  deal  of  the  Dugald  Dalgetty  about  him. 

Steps  were  at  once  taken  by  Sir  Thomas  Glenham  to 
put  Carlisle  in  readiness  to  stand  a  siege  :  the  Cumberland 
troops  were  disbanded,  there  being,  after  their  exploits  at 
Salkeld,  some  doubt  about  their  fidelity  to  the  Royal  cause  : 
the  sum  of  ,^463  los.  was  subscribed  for  the  purposes 
of  the  siege  by  the  Royalist  gentry  and  clergy  of  the 
county:  vast  quantities  of  provisions  were  purchased, 
which  were  stowed  in  the  Fratry,  and  in  the  Citadels: 
the  arms  were  furbished  up  again,  and  drums,  drum- 
heads, and  drumsticks  appear  in  the  Chamberlains'  account 
as  being  purchased.  In  September  a  warrant  was  issued 
from  the  President  and  Council  of  War  to  the  Corporation, 
directing  them  to  raise  ;;^300  for  the  purposes  of  the  war: 
they  only  raised  £iS^)  I'epayment  of  which,  as  well  as  of  a 
sum  of  ;£'4oo  raised  afterwards,  was  guaranteed  by  the 
bonds  of  several  local  county  gentlemen  :  as  these  bonds 
are  to  this  day  in  the  possession  of  the  Corporation  it 
seems  probable  they  were  never  paid  off."  Last  entry,  or 
almost  last,  in  the  Chamberlains'  accounts,  before  they 
disappear  in  the  turmoil  of  the  siege,  is  : — 

Pd.  Thomas   Blaymire  for   the  wood  and 

workmanship  of  the  Gibbet o     6  00 

Tullie's  "  Narrative  "t  begins  about  this  point,  and 
little  information  exists  as  to  the  siege,  except  what  he 
gives,  but  his  Narrative  is  too  long  for  reproduction  in 
these  pages. 

Newcastle  having  surrendered.  General  David  Leslie, 
with  4,000  horse  and  foot,  returned  to  Carlisle  and  laid 
siege  to  the  town.     He  established  his  head-quarters  at 

*See  Carlisle  during  the  Siege  of  1644-5.  By  W.  Nanson.  These  Transactions, 
vol.  vii.,  pp.  48. 
fAntr,   p.     n. 


110  THB    SIEGE    OF    CARLISLE,    1644-5. 

Dalston  Hall,  and  he  raised  "  works,"  as  Tullie  calls 
them,  so  as  to  block  the  roads.  These  works,  four  in 
number,  were  :  —  one  near  the  village  of  Newtown,  a  second 
at  Stanwix  under  Lord  Kirkcudbright,  a  third,  under 
Colonel  Chomley  near  the  Gallows  on  Harriby  Hill,  and 
a  fourth  under  Colonel  Lawson  near  Botcherby.*  What 
these  "  works  "  w^ere  it  is  not  possible  to  ascertain,  as 
Tullie  gives  no  information  :  probably  palisadings,  or 
earthworks,  calculated  to  hold  parties  of  from  60  to  100 
horse :  these  were  relieved  every  twenty-four  hours  by 
fresh  parties  of  their  comrades,  who  must  have  been 
quartered  in  the  villages  round  Carlisle.  The  '"'  work  "  at 
Stanwix  was  in  the  churchyard, t  and  mounted  three 
sm.all  guns  :  it  does  not  appear  that  the  other  "  works  " 
had  guns.  With  this  paper  a  skeleton  map  is  given  cf 
the  countrv  round  Carlisle  :  it  shows  the  city,  the  three 
rivers  which  almost  surround  it,  the  dam-courses,  the 
main  roads  and  some  of  the  villages  around  :  the  positions 
of  General  Leslie's  works  are  marked  by  large  red 
circles.  Their  strategic  importance  is  easily  seen  by 
reference  to  the  skeleton  map:  the  u-ork  in  Stanwix  church- 
yard would  close  all  ingress  and  egress  to  and  from  Car- 
lisle on  the  north  :  the  work  at  Newton,  and  the  head- 
quarters at  Dalston  Hall  would  close  the  western  roads  : 
that  on  Gallows  Hill  would  block  the  road  to  the  south, 
while  the  work  at  Botcherby  would  block  the  eastern 
roads.  The  Eden  was  fordable  by  wMths  at  Rickerby  and 
Etterby  :  thus  communication  could  be  kept  up  between 
Leslie's  works  at  Botcherby  and  Stanwix,  and  Stanwix 
and  Newton.  The  other  rivers,  Caldew  and  Petteril, 
would  be  fordable  in  several  places. 

*  Tullie  does  not  expressly  state  where  this  fourth  work  was,  but  incidently  it 
appears  that  it  was  at  Botcherby. 

f  "  Stanwix.  The  churchyard  has  no  other  fence  than  a  mud  hedge,  which  is 
in  miserable  plight.  From  hence  the  Besiegers  played  their  ordnance  upon  the 
Citj'  of  Carlisle  in  ir>45.  Then  was  the, Vicar's  Mansion  House  demolished." 
Bishop  Nicolson's  risitutioii,  &c.,  in  1703,  p.  105. 








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THE    SIEGE    OF    CARLISLE,    1644-5.  HI 

These  works  kft  a  great  deal  of  grazing  ground 
accessible  to  the  garrison  and  inhabitants,  but  Leslie 
seems  to  have  been  in  no  hurry  over  the  siege :  he 
never  assaulted  the  walls,  hut  was  simply  content  to 
abide  his  time,  until  the  besieged  should  have  finished 
their  store  of  provisions.  The  siege  operations  mainly 
consisted  in  efforts  on  behalf  of  the  vScots  to  surprise 
the  cattle  and  horses  of  the  Ro3'alist  garrison  when 
grazing  outside  the  city,  while  the  garrison  endeavoured 
protect  them,  to  procure  more  by  sallies  into  the  country 
and  to  sleight  (or  destroy)the  various  works  by  which 
Leslie  from  time  to  time  contracted  the  grazing  ground. 
It  must  be  kept  in  mind  that  in  1644  the  countr}'  far  and 
wide  around  Carlisle  was  open  common  and  moor  land. 
Lord  George  Murray  in  1745  describes  the  country  between 
Penrith  and  Carlisle  as  "  mostly  an  open  country,  full  of 
commons."  To  the  north  of  Carlisle  the  countr}-  was  an 
almost  impenetrable  morass,  traversible  by  paths  known 
only  to  mosstroopers,  smugglers,  and  pedlars,  while  Grey- 
moor  Hill  and  Blackford  well  deserved  their  names  ;  as 
did  Blackhill  or  Bleckell  Moor,  southwards.  West  of  Car- 
lisle Cummersdale  Moor  began  at  Clem  son's  Gate  about 
the  end  of  Shaddongate,  and  continued  to  Dalston.  The 
road  to  Wigton  was  nearly  all  through  open  moor  :  east- 
wards Crosby  and  Warwick  Moors  covered  large  areas. 
Cavalry  could  thus  move  about  with  much  more  freedom 
than  in  these  days  of  hedges  and  inclosures. 

The  garrison  of  Carlisle  consisted  of  700  men,  including 
townsmen  in  arms.  Tullie  also  says  it  included  200  (!) 
reformadoes,  or  officers  whom  Cromwell  and  Lord  Fairfax 
had  discharged  when  they  remodelled  the  army  :  some  of 
them  men  of  "great  prudence  and  pronenesse  in  arms.'' 
•So  soon  as  Leslie  had  taken  up  his  quarters  at  Dalston 
Hall  a  party  of  these  reformadoes  sallied  out  to  surprise 
him  there,  but  being  all  officers  they  could  not  agree 
upon  a  leader,  and  were  put  to  rout  and  several  of  them 


112  THE    SIEGE    OF    CARLISLE,    1644-5. 

To  Tullie's  pages  our  readers  must  refer  to  for  the 
history  of  the  siege  and  the  hardships  endured  by  the 
garrison.  It  went  on  leisurely,  with  no  great  expenditure 
of  life.''  In  April  Leslie  considered  the  time  had  come 
for  him  to  contract  his  lines  round  the  city  :  accordingly 
he  established  a  work  at  Etterby,  which  commanded  the 
wath  there  over  Eden  :  by  this  wath  the  garrison  had 
in  a  sally  succeeded  in  carrying  off  a  large  number  of 
cattle  from  Cargoholmes  :  an  exploit  the  new  work  pre- 
vented them  from  repeating.  Another  new  work  was 
made  on  the  top  of  Catcoats  Bank,  which  commanded 
the  Willowholme,  and  rendered  it  useless  to  the  garrison 
as  a  grazing  ground.  The  cattle  were  then  grazed  south 
of  the  citadels,  but  Leslie  put  a  stop  to  this  by  raising 
a  work  or  fort  at  Fusehill.  The  Swifts  were  then  resorted 
to  :  on  the  28th  or  29th  the  besiegers  made*  a  determined 
attempt  to  get  the  cattle  grazed  there  :  at  a  signal  from 
Stanwix  800  Scotch  horse  from  Stanwix,  Rickerby,  Botch- 
erby,  and  St.  Nicholas  galloped  down  on  the  cattle  as 
hard  as  they  could.  Luckily,  Glenham  had  observed 
some  sign  of  preparation  at  Stanwix,  and  had  ordered  the 
cattle  guard  to  move  their  charge  close  to  the  towm,  so 
that  they  succeeded  in  bringing  them  in,  but  with  a  loss 
of  6  cows  and  15  horses,  and  a  couple  of  men  killed  and 
others  wounded. 

The  month  of  May  was  similarly  occupied  with  sallies 
and  skirmishes  into  whose  details  we  cannot  go.  Leslie 
continued  to  contract  his  lines  round  the  doomed  city  : 
and  in  addition  to  his  four  original  works  or  forts  at 
Stanwix,  Newtown,  Gallows  Hill,  and  Botcherby,  and  the 
small  ones  at  Etterby,  Catcoats,  and  Fusehill,  he  raised 

*  One  or  two  points  are  worth  notice — tlie  abundance  of  beer  and  the  way  every 
one  crot  drunk  ;  the  apparition  of  Captain  Forrester's  ghost  at  the  head  of  a 
g-hostly  army  of  horse  and  foot;  and  the  torture  of  two  spies  on  the  rack.  The 
siege  pieces  struck  during  the  siege  are  engraved  and  described,  these  Transac- 
tions, vol.  vii.,  pp.  4S-54. 


THE    SIEGE    OF    CARLISLE,  1644-5.  II3 

others  at  Murrell  Hill,  on  the  Swifts,*  and  one  opposite 
the  Sally  F*ort,  see  the  map.  He  also  cut  the  dam-courses 
so  as  to  stop  the  mills.  This  last  work  Glenham  de- 
molished after  a  tremendous  fight  :  he  erected  one  himself, 
(map)  and  restored  the  dam -courses. 

Buoyed  up  by  false  hopes  of  relief  the  garrison  managed 
to  hold  out,  amid  terrible  suffering  to  the  wretched  in- 
habitants, until  June  25th,  when  they  surrendered  .upon 
honourable  terms,  which  are  printed  in  most  of  the  local 


Isaac  Tullie,  the  historian  of  the  siege,  was  son  of  George  Tullie 
of  Carlisle,  who  is  described  in  1619  in  several  deeds  in  possession 
of  the  Corporation  of  Carlisle,  as  "  Gent  ".  He  married  at  Cros- 
thwaite  on  April  22  "Mrs.  Thomazine  Heckstetter  of  Keswick", 
and  their  son  Timothy  was  baptised  there  on  March  20th,  1614.+ 
The  titles  "  Gent."  and  "  Mrs."  shew  that  both  bride  and  bride- 
groom were  persons  of  position.  She  is  mentioned  as  a  widow  in 
a  deed  of  1646  in  possession  of  the  Corporation. 

Isaac  was  probably  a  grandson  of  Thomas  Tullie  of  Blindcrake,  in 
the  parish  of  Isell,  some  ten  miles  from  Keswick,  whose  will  we  give. 

In  Dei  noie  Amn  the  4  daye  of  September  ano  Christ!  remtionis  1567  I  Thomas 
Tullie  of  Blindcraick  w'hin  the  pochinge  of  Isell  syck  in  bodye  but  neverthelesse 
whoyll  and  of  pfectc  remembrance  do  maik  contribute  &  set  forth  this  my  pnte 
Testament  whearin  ys  coteyned  my  last  will  in  maner  &  forme  followyd  ffirst  I 
gyve  &  bequeth  my  sowU  to  Almightye  God  my  creatr  and  Redeemer  and  my 
bodye  to  be  Inhumated  &  buryed  wt'hin  the  church  yarde  of  Isell  wth  all  my 
mortuaryes  and  deutyes  to  be  paid  accordinij  to  the  use  of  the  pochinge  Itm  to  my 
Dawghter  Mrgrett  one  black  cowe  wth  a  calve  and  one  meare  &  two  yewes  Itm  I 
gyve  to  Mrs.  Jane  Watsone  one  .    .  two  bushells  of  oytts  one  bushel!  of  berye(?) 

*  The  following  letter,  which  I  received  a  day  or  two  after  lecturing  in  Carlisle, 
on  "The  Siege  of  1644-5,"  's  interesting,  but  I  have  not  been  able  to  identify 
the  particular  furrow. 

March  21,   iSSS. 
Dear  Sir, — Excuse  me.     I  was  sorry  I  did  not  see  you  ;  perhaps  the  informa- 
tion I  give  is  already  known  to  you,  viz:  On  the  Swifts,  near  the  footpath  across 
the  same,  may  be  seen  a  deeper  furrow  than  others — this  was  where  the  besiesrers 
of  the  city  made  a  trench  to  take  the  citadel.     I  had  it  from  one  Millbourn    a 

tailor,  who  had  it  from  his  grandmother He  died  in  London  some 

10  years  ago. — Yours  respectfully, 

John  Fisher. 
fCrosthwaite  Parish  Registers,  cited  in  these  Transactions,  vol.  ii.,  pp.  231 

114  THE    SIEGE    OF    CARLISLE,    1644-5. 

and  iiij  yeards  of  whitclothe  and  one  coytand  one  lynning  sheet.  The  ...  of  my 
goods  moveahle  &  Immoveable  my  Debts  payed  my  lejaces  fulfilled  &  funeealls 
discharged  I  g'yve  to  my  wife  and  my  daughter  Mgareth  whome  I  do  order  and 
makye  my  lawful  executrices  of  all  my  goods  not  bcquethed  Supvisoares  hereof 
Mr.  Leigh   my    Mr.    Peter  Wynder  of    Lorton  who    I    beseecli  go   ad    ...  my 

said  wife  &  dowghter  tlies  being  witnesse-;  John   Swynborne  Ric ar,  & 

others.  Pme. 

Endorsed  Testament  et  InventorThomi  Tullie  de  Isell  pbatum  apud  Wigton  second 

die  Menst's  Octbris  Ao  dm  1561). 

Thomasine  Heckstetter  was  a  member  of  the  Dutch  or  German 
family  of  miners  of  that  name,  who  settled  in  the  parish  of  Cros- 
thwaite  in  the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth. 

The  followini;  notices  of  Isaac  Tullie  are  interesting  :  — 

Low  Sunday  Quarter  igth  day  of  Aprill  1651. 
Isaac  lullye  ye  sonne  of  Gsorge  I'uUye  of  ye  Citty  of  Carlile  Gentleman,  late 
Apprentyce  to  Mr.  John  Langh orni  is  admitted  a  brother  of  this  trade  by  ye 
general  consent  of  this  occupation  and  has  payd  vi  viijd  for  his  entrie. 
1651.  It  ii  ordered  this  quarter  day  at  our  next  quarter  Isaack  Tully  shall  sub- 
mit himself  1 1  pay  a  fine  to  this  trade  if  they  shall  think  it  fitting  for  taking  his 
sister  to  keep  &  sell  waires  for  him  contrary  to  our  order  and  soe  referre  him  to 
this  occupation. 

It  is  ordeied  this  Michaelmas  quarter  i65i  yt  Isaack  Tully  shall  pay  ye  next 
quarter  day  xls  for  his  offence  to  the  trade.  Candlemas  quarter  the  first  of 
February  1655.  It  is  ordered  by  the  Company  of  marchants  then  present  that 
Mr.  Isaac  Tullys  business  concerning  the  payment  of  forty  shillings  for  keeping 
his  sister  in  his  shop  contrary  to  order  to  be  deferred  to  be  fully  determined  and 
ended  upon  S.  John  quarter  next  following.* 

The  result  is  not  on  record,  but  Tullie  was  in  fresh  trouble  in  1655, 
as  the  following  extract  shows  : — 

24th  October  1655 
We  present  Mr.  Isaack  Tully  for  not  accompening  Mr.  Maior  upon  notice  given 
by  the  Sariant  contrary  to  an  ancient  order  made  as  may  appeare  therefore  we 
amearcy  him  iiis.  iiiid. 

Court  Leet  Rolls,  Carlisle. f 

Isaac  Tully  was  a  strong  Cavalier,  and  probably  objected  to  swell 
the  train  of  a  Puritan  mayor.     He  was  mayor  of  Carlisle  in  1660. 

We  give  his  will  :  he  evidently  died  young,  but  we  have  not  found 
the  register  of  his  burial. 

February  4th   1660 
Being   in    much    weakeness   of  body  though    in    very  pfect  and  sound  memory  I 
thought  fytt  to  make  my  Will  concernyng  the  dysposyn  of  my  Estaite  after  my 

*  From  the  books  of  the  Merchants  Guild,  Carlisle.       See  Miniicipa!  Records  of 
llie  i'i/i/  (if  i'liiiislr,  published  for  this  Society,  p.  no. 
t  //■/'(/,  p.  292. 


THE   SIEGE   OF   CARLISLE,    1644-5.  II5 

decease.  Now  I  declare  that  in  July  1659  I  cast  up  my  shop  computed  what  all 
my  shop  goodes  debts  Etc  :  amounted  unto  as  also  what  I  was  owen  myselfe  and 
the  overpluss  of  eleject  Estaite  amounted  unto  ;^.  1135  17s.  as  may  pticularrly  ap- 
peare  by  a  Bundell  of  papers  in  my  deske  bearying  date  July  1659  as  aforesd 
synce  which  tyme  I  have  not  cast  u;)  my  shop  but  must  neadcs  suppose  that  being 
1  yeare  &  i  synce  it  cannot  but  n  jw  be  above  twelve  hundred.  However  because 
theire  are  many  desperett  debts  I  shall  sett  my  Estaite  at  no  more  than  the  sd 
twelve  hundred  pounds,  none  of  ye  goodes  within  my  house  being  at  all  accounted 
applyyed  or  reckoned  in  that  summe  Now  concernying  the  disposying  hereof  my 
Will  is  as  followeth.  Imprymys  :  I  do  hereby  this  my  last  Wyll  and  Testament 
make  my  wife  my  sole  Executrix.  2dly  out  of  ye  sd  Estaite  my  Will  is  that  my 
wife  havve  three  hundred  po  inds  and  all  the  goodes  she  brought  with  her  when 
we  were  marryed  and  onely  thej'.  I  leave  also  unto  my  sonne  George  all  my 
whole  and  entyre  house,  lofts,  shop^,  shop  chests,  Chestes  of  Boxes  situate  and 
being  in  a  place  called  Bukying  together  with  all  j-e  appurtenances  and  whatso- 
ever is  nayle  fast  or  otherwise  fastened  :  together  with  all  tables,  cupboards, 
chayres,  stools  and  bedsteads  with  beds  in  any  pt  of  ye  house  aforesd  to  hym  and 
his  heires  for  ever.  It.  I  leave  unto  my  sd  sonne  my  Shop  in  St.  Albons  Rowe  to- 
ga ..  .  wh  with  my  whole  garden  in  ye  Abbey.  It.  I  leave  unto  my  sd  Sonne 
in  monyes  to  be  pd  hym  by  his  mother  at  ye  age  of  31  yeare  .  .  .  dred  and  fifty 
pounds  in  mone  .  .  together  with  one  .Sylver  Tankett,  i  Sylver  Litle  Cup,  and  1 
Dozen  Sylver  Spoones.  It.  I  leave  unto  .  ,  .  danghter  Dorothy  two  hundred 
pounds  to  be  pd  to  her  by  her  mother  at  her  accomplyshyng  ye  age  of  21  yeares 
together  with  one  furnished  bsd  and  a  chest  of  Drawers.  It.  I  leave  unto  my 
Sonne  Isaac  two  hundred  pounds  to  be  pd  to  hym  by  his  mother  at  ye  age  of  21 
yeares.  It.  I  leave  unto  my  Sonne  Francis  one  hundred  fifty  pounds  to  be  pd  by 
his  Mother  he  accomplyshing  ye  age  of  2t  yeares.  My  Will  further  is  that  my 
wife  have  the  tution  of  all  my  chyldren  and  ye  use  of  theire  respective  portyons 
tyll  they  become  due  as  aforesd  :  she  giveing  goode  security  accordj-ing  to  Lawe 
and  maintaine  them  in  goode  ranke  out  of  the  use  of  theire  scverall  portyons  : 
Furthermore  my  wyll  is  that  my  wife  enjoy  my  whole  house  shops  gardens  and 
goodes  left  to  my  sonne  George  tyll  he  or  his  heires  at  Lawe  accomplish  the  age 
of  21  yeares  and  then  wholy  to  goe  to  hym  or  the  next  heires  forever.  Lastly,  if 
all  my  children  dye  in  mynoryty  and  leave  no  Issue,  then  my  wyll  is  that  my  wife 
enjoy  all  my  house  lofts  gardens  and  theire  apurteninces  durying  her  life  natural! 
and  then  to  discend  to  the  heires  at  Lawe  of  the  last  survyvying  chylde  Where- 
unto  I  have  sett  my  hand  and  seale  the  day  and  yeare  abovesd  in  the  presence  of 

Eras  :  Towerson  Isaac  Tullie 

Anthony  Simpson 

.March  4th  1660 
Upon  the  review  of  my  last  Will  and  Testament  made  signed  and  sealed  Febr.  4th 
1660  I  Isaac  Tullie  of  Carlisle  doe  here  annex  these  following  clauses  and  supple- 
ments thereunto  to  be  as  firme  in  law  as  any  part  of  tbe  sd  Will.  Impr  :  My  will 
is  that  my  wife  Dorothie  Tullie  shall  enjoy  her  thirds  of  my  House  during  her 
whole  life  naturall  and  all  the  Houses  till  George  Tullie  come  to  age  :  It.  Instead 
of  twelve  silver  Spoones  left  by  the  aforesd  Will  unto  my  son  George  Tullie  I  leave 
him    onely  Six  silver  spoones  :     It.  My  will  is  that  whatsoever  I  have  bequeathed 


2l6  THE    SIEGE    OF    CARLISLE,    1644-5. 

and  le(t  unto  any  of  my  Children  to  be  pd  them  or  any  of  them  at  any  time  or 
upon  any  condition  shall  if  they  or  any  of  them  dye  before  they  attain  to.  the  age 
of  31  yeares  fall  and  come  to  the  other  surviving  children  equally  amongst  them  or 
to  theire  heires  in  law.  It.  My  will  is  that  what  debts  now  due  to  raee  shall  not 
be  pd  unto  my  sd  wife  or  her  asses  my  children  shall  bear  a  proportionable  deduc- 
tion with  her.  It.  .Vly  will  is  that  my  sd  wife  shall  put  my  sons  to  such  trades  cr 
other  callings  as  they  shall  be  thought  fitt  for  according  to  their  severall  capacities 
and  sd  portions  when  they  attain  the  age  of  sixteen  yeares  respectively  according 
as  shall  bs  rationally  devised  and  advised  by  the  supervisoners  to  this  my  Will  be- 
neath named  and  what  shee  then  layeth  out  to  that  use  shall  be  deducted  from 
the  whole  sum-ne  bequeathed  them.  It.  My  will  is  that  if  my  son  George  Tullie 
attaici  to  the  age  of  twenty  one  yeares  that  then  upon  his  possession  of  my  part 
of  the  m  jyety  of  Castlefields  Tythe  and  of  the  close  near  the  Walls  of  Carlisle  late 
in  the  possession  of  Nicholas  Orbell  he  shall  pay  unto  my  sd  wife  the  full  summe 
of  thirt)'  pounds  or  upon  default  of  such  payment  by  him  or  his  asses  my  sd  wife 
shall  continue  the  sd  Lease  in  her  hands  untill  the  sd  thirty  pounds  be  pd  by  him 
or  his  asses  or  the  Lease  run  out  the  sd  summes.  Lastly  I  appoynt  &  constitute 
my  brother  Timothie  Tullie  clerk  and  Erasmus  Towerson  gent,  supvisors  unto  this 
my  last  Will  and  Testament  to  see  it  pformed  according  to  the  true  intent  and 
meaning  thereof. 

Isaac  Tullie 
Witnesses  to   this  Codicill 

Eras :  Towerson 

Antho :  Simpson 

Proved  4th   May   1O61. 

Isaac  TuUie's  seal,  affixed  to  his  will,  bears  a  lion  passant  in  chief, 
and  a  chevron  charged  with  three  escallops. 

We  give  a  skeleton  pedigree  to  show  the  connection  between  Isaac 
Tullie  and  various  of  his  connections,  who  rose  to  high  places  in  the 
Church.  For  much  of  the  information  we  are  indebted  to  Mrs.  Lam- 
bert of  Ch  :  Ch  :  Vicarage,  Bradford-on-Avon,  a  niece  of  the  Rev. 
Tullie  Cornthwaite. 

^ftitgrfc  of  ^viliu  of  Carlisle. 

of  Carlisle,  ofent.,  so  d 
deeds  of  1619  in  po 
Corporation  of  Carlisle. 

I  I 
born  at  Crosthwaitc,  March  20th,  1614,  mentioned 
as  a  son  of  Georpfc  in  a  deed  of  1646  in  possession 
of  Corporation  of  Carlisle,  incumbent  of  a  elm  rch  in 
Carlisle,  1655  to  1660;  rector  of  Middleton-in- 
Teasdale.      See   these  Transactions,   vol.   vii.    p. 


b.  22  July, 
Ripon,  167c 
1676.  See 
lisle,  p.  416 

I  I 

.•\nne  Irving. 

Thomas,  LL.D. 
chancc-Iior  and  prebendary 
of  Carlisle:  Dean  of  Carlisle, 
1716,  d.  1726,  buried  in 


Judith  in  a  deed  of 
1707  with  the  Cor- 
poration of  Carlisle. 

Timothy.  = 

Jerome.  =  M.  Lennard. 
Sheriff  of  Cumber- 
land, 17  Geo.  2. 


Prebendary  of 

Anne.  =  Will 

A  numerous  progeny,  of  whom  the  Rev.  TuUie  Cornthwaite,  in  1S46, 
was  the  heir  of  the  TuUie  family.  See  preface  to  Mounsey's  Carlisle 
in  1745.     He  was  living  1859. 

lly,  =  Mrs.  Thomasin'e  Heckstetter, 



at  Crosthwaitc,  April  22,  1613,  mentioned 
as  a  widow  in  deed  of  164.6  in  possession  of 
Corporation  of  Carlisle. 

AS,  D.D.,        A  Sister.  ITctTtrr   =Dorothy. 

Dean  of         See  Merchant  Guild  SihUtil,  ,  ^g^  j^jg  „ji] 

January,         Books,  Carlisle.  Author   of  the   Narrative  of  the 

on's  Car-  Sieg^e  of  Carlisle  in   1644-5,  born 

1627  (see  the  Narrative,  p.   14), 
Mayor  of  Carlisle  1660,  died  be-  1 
fore  4th  May,  1 66 1.     Will.  | 

o        15                                                                ^1  111 

Philip.=  George,= Isaac.     Franxis.     Dorothy. 

I      b.    1653,    B.A.   Oxen.  Feb.  6th,  1674-5, 

4-      Prebendary  of  Ripen,  Sub-Dean  of  York, 
died  1695,  Rector  of  Gateshead. 

drnthwaite.        Isabella. =John  Wacgh, 

Rector  of  Caldbeck,  Prebendary  and  Chancellor  of  Car- 
lisle 1727,  Dean  of  \\'orcester,  d.  1765.  He  was  son  of 
John  Waugh,  Bishop  of  Carlisle  1723   to  1734. 

I  i  1  I  2  I  3  I  4  \  5 

John',  Judith.        Isabella.        Elizabeth.        Mary.        Margaret. 

of  Bromsgrove,  All  died  unmarried  :  they  resided  in  Tullie  House,   Abbey  Street, 

d.  s.p.  Carlisle,  and  were  known  as  "  the  five  celebratjd    Miss  Waughs  of 



Art.  XI. — The    Seal    of   the  Statute  Merchant  of   Carlisle. 

By  the  Worshipful  Chancellor  Ferguson,  F.S.A., 

President  of  the   Society. 
Read  at  Ambleside,  Sept.  ^th,   i88g. 

T   HAVE  the  honour  to  exhihit  one-half  of  the  matrix  of 
-'-      a  Statute  Merchant  seal  for  Carlisle. 

IMPRESSION,    AND    FRON'T    AND    SIDE    VIEW    OF   THE    MATRIX,    OF    A 
STATUTE    MERCHANT    SEAL    FOR    CARLISLE,    167O    (full   size). 

The  late  much  lamented  treasurer  of  the  Society  of 
Antiquaries  of  London,  Mr.  Perceval,  on  two  occasions'^' 
contributed  to  that  Society  some  account  of  the  seals  pro- 
vided for  recognizances  of  debtors  under  the  statute  of 
Acton  Burnell  de  Mercatoribus,  ii  Edward  L,  and  the 
statute  of  Westminster  of  the  thirteenth  year  of  the  same 

"These  seals,"  Mr.  Perceval  said,  "  were  to  be  'of  two 
pieces,'  the  king's  seal,  to  be  kept  by  the  mayor  or  some 
other  person  of  trust  in  the  town   to  which  the  seal  was 

*  Froc,  S.A.L.,  2d,  S.,  vii.  107,  and  ix.  553. 

granted  ; 


granted  ;  the  other,  the  smaller  piece,  or  the  clerk's  seal, 
was  to  be  in  the  custody  of  a  clerk  named  by  the  king." 

These  seals  were  originally  made  as  seal  and  counterseal 
and  of  both  seal  and  counterseal  Mr.  Perceval  gives  several 
examples  of  early  date  ;  he  also  gives  four  of  date  of  the 
seventeenth  century,  namely,  three  circular  seals,  and  one 
semicircular,  which  he  thus  describes  : — "  There  is  a  seal 
for  Carlisle,  of  wliich  I  do  not  know  the  history.  It  is  half 
a  circular  seal,  as  if  from  a  matrix  purposely  cut  in  two. 
The  device  is  (half  of)  the  cross  patee,  cantoned  with 
roses,  which  appears  on  the  town  seal.  The  legend  : 
S[igillvm  Statuti  MeJRCATORIS  CARLILE  1670." 

Mr.  Perceval's  knowledge  of  this  seal  was  derived  from 
sundry  gutta-percha  casts  made  from  the  half-matrix  in 
1859,  when  the  Royal  Archaeological  Institute  visited 
Carlisle,  and  formed  a  temporary  museum.  In  the  cata- 
logue the  half-matrix  is  included,  and  stated  to  be  of  silver. 
From  that  time  to  a  few  days  ago  the  half-matrix  has  been 
missing.  It  turned  up  recently  in  a  box  of  old  keys,  and 
I  have  now  the  honour,  by  permission  of  the  Mayor  and 
Corporation  of  Carlisle,  of  exhibiting  it  to  the  Society. 

It  is  of  white  metal,  not  silver,  and  is  the  moiety  or  half 
part  of  a  circular  seal  with  conically-shaped  handle,  which 
at  the  top  swells  into  a  collar  and  head.  The  seal  has 
been  turned  in  the  lathe,  and  when  finished  carefully  cut 
into  two  moieties  down  the  central  axis.  The  arrange- 
ments for  joining  the  two  moieties  when  required  for  use 
are  as  follows  :  a  projection  on  the  head  of  the  lost  moiety 
fits  into  a  square  hole  in  the  head  of  the  moiety  now  on 
the  table,  and  is  secured  by  a  pin,  now  missing;  a  screw, 
which  is  preserved,  runs  through  the  lower  part  of  the 
matrix,  and  by  these  means  a  firm  joint  was  secured. 

The  governing  charter  of  the  city  of  Carlisle,  13  Charles 
I.,  says : — 



Et  ulterius  volumus  ac  per  prsesentes  pro  nobis  heredibus  et  suc- 
cessoribus  nostris  concedimus  prasfatis  Maiori  Aldermannis  Ballivis 
et  Civibus  Civitatis  prasdictae  et  successoribus  suis  quod  praedictus 
Maior  qui  pro  tempore  fuerit  habeat  plenam  potestatem  et  authorita- 
tem  recipiendas  quascunque  Kecogniciones  inter  Mercatorem  et 
Mercatorem  et  execuciones  inde  faciendas  juxta  formam  Statute 
Mercatorum  et  Statutas  de  Acton  Burnell  nuper  editaa  et  provisse  et 
quod  Communis  Clericus  Civitatis  prasdictse  pro  tempore  existens  erit 
Clericus  noster  iieredum  et  successorum  nostrorum  ad  scribendas 
Recogniciones  prasdictas  ac  ad  omnia  alia  faciendaet  exequenda  quae 
ad  dictum  officium  secundum  formam  statutes  pradictae  spectant  et 

The  maycn-  would  thus  have  one  moiety  of  the  seal  in 
his  custody,  and  the  common  or  town  clerk  would  have 
the  other  as  clerk  of  the  king.* 

*The  substance  of  the  above  account  was  read  to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of 
London,  as  a  report,  on  May  i6,  iSSg.  We  are  indebted  to  the  kindness  of  that 
Society  for  an  electro  of  the  wood  work.     See  Proc.  S.A.L.,  2  S.  xii.  40S. 


Akt.  XII. — Fragments  of  a  British  Cross  and  many  Early 
English  and  other  Grave  Covers  found  in  Bromfield  Church- 
yard.    By  the  Rev.  W.  S.  Calverley,  F.S.A. 

Read  at  Carlisle,  Sept.  i^th,  1888. 

ON  the  south  side  of  the  church  of  St.  Mungo,  in  Brom- 
field churchyard,  is  a  raised  quadrangular  platform, 
ascended  by  four  red  sandstone  steps.  There  is  no  cross- 
shaft,  dial-pillar,  or  any  other  erection  upon  the  platform, 
which  was  in  the  last  century  used  for  crying  sales,  things 
stolen  or  lost,  &c.,  and  giving  notice  of  local  and  parish 

Three  of  the  steps  were  above  ground  ;  one  step  was 
covered  by  the  churchyard  sod.  The  top  of  the  platform 
was  covered  with  a  turf,  the  growth  of  many  years.  At 
the  south-west  corner  and  in  the  south  side  of  the  second 
step  had  been  cut  a  rectangular  hole,  into  which  had  been 
fixed  the  stem  of  what  seemed  to  have  been  a  hoi}'  water 
stoup.  This  remains  in  situ.  The  fragment,  sometimes 
locally  called  "  the  chair,"  stands  eleven  inches  high,  and 
consists  of  what  appears  to  be  the  base  of  a  circular  bowl, 
whose  rim  has  been  entirely  demolished,  supported  by  a 
rectangular  pediment  (sides,  7  in.  by  8  in.)  with  a  bead  at 
the  corners.  Possibly,  a  lower  portion  of  the  original 
pedestal  has  at  some  time  been  broken  away.  Hutchinson's 
History  mentions  the  platform  "  of  four  or  five  quad- 
rangular steps  of  stone  that  formed  the  base  of  the  cross, 
long  since  destroyed,"  and  also  notices  the  "  stone  stool 
heretofore  used  and  probably  put  up  that  public  notices 
and  proclamations  might  thence  be  given  with  more 

The  Rev.  T.  Lees,  F.S.A.,  suggests  that  in  earlier 
times,   when    the  cross  stood    in   its  place,  the  reliquary 



might  be  placed  upon  this  stone  during  the  ceremonies 
which  took  place  on  the  Sunday  before  Palm  Sunda}',  or 
other  processionals  of  the  cross,  when  the  children  sang 
hymns,  and  a  halt  was  made  at  different  stations  around 
the  church. 

There  is  a  similar  fragment  lixed  in  an  isolated  red 
sandstone  block  lying  in  the  churchyard  of  St.  Kentigern, 
Aspatria.  I  have  looked  upon  these  remains  as  being 
Holy  water  stoups,  for  use  at  early  mission  preaching 
stations,  where  crosses  had  been  erected.  In  Cutts' 
"  Sepulchral  Slabs  and  Crosses,"  plate  V.,  fig.  2,  is  en- 
graved a  slab  from  Marisk,  Richmondshire  (date  given  as 
twelfth  century)  having  four  symbols ;  on  the  right  hand 
beneath  the  cross  head,  the  Textus  or  Gospels  ;  on  the 
left  hand  the  chalice.  Beneath  the  Book  is  a  symbol 
which  Cutts  says  "  may  be  the  Corporas  case."  "  The 
remaining  symbol,"  i.e.,  the  one  beneath  the  chalice,  he 
says,  •'  is  unexplained  ;  it  ma}-,  perhaps,  be  a  pyx."  Now 
this  figure  is  not  as  the  others  are,  complete  in  itself,  but 
it  appears  to  be  a  square  ornamented  case,  perhaps 
leather,  with  a  curved  loop  on  one  side,  by  which  it  might 
be  carried,  and  it  is  fixed  upon  a  thin  upright  staff  by 
which,  as  by  a  handle,  it  might  be  borne  aloft  in  proces- 
sions. This  staff  is  placed  in  a  square,  unornamented, 
pediment,  apparently  resting  upon  the  second  step  of  the 
Calvary  and  rising  a  little  above  the  highest  step,  thus 
well  elevating  the  "pyx"  or  the  reliquary,  whichever  it 
it  may  be,  in  a  position  possibly  alongside  the  Holy  water 
stoup,  beneath  the  churchyard  cross. 

This  memorial  slab  of  a  Richmondshire  priest  of  the 
twelfth  century,  seems  to  illustrate  very  clearly  the  uses 
of  the  fragments  still  preserved  near  the  crosses  which 
marked  the  sites  of  Christian  mission  stations  of  the  time 
of  S.S.  Ninian,  Patrick,  and  Kentigern  at  Bromfield  and 
at  Aspatrick,  now  euphonized  into  Aspatria.  Thinking 
that  some  of  the  stones  used  in  the  formation  of  the  steps 



of  this  platform  might  prove  to  be  portions  of  the  ancient 
cross,  and  might  still  bear  sculptures,  the  Vicar  of  Brom- 
field,  the  Rev.  R.  Taylor,  and  I  determined  to  examine 
them  and  did  so  on  June  4th,  1888.  For  this  purpose  we 
pared  off  the  sod  lying  upon  the  top  and  raised  the  upper 
steps  which  we  were  surprised  to  find  presented  the  cham- 
fered edges  of  old  grave  covers,  and  bore  crosses  incised 
and  in  relief,  of  a  plain  or  decorated  character,  with  Cal- 
vary steps  or  window  tracer}',  or  both,  and  having  the 
sword,  the  shears,  the  arrow,  or  parts  of  inscriptions 
appearing  alongside. 

These  upper  layers  of  stones  were  all  grave  slabs, 
generally  lying  face  downwards,  but  as  each  stone  has  a 
broad  end  and  a  narrow  one,  and  as  one  side  only  of  each 
is  square  with  the  ends,  the  other  side  making  at  the  head 
an  acute  angle  with  the  end,  and  an  obtuse  angle  at  the 
foot,  some  ingenuity'  was  needed  in  fitting  together  the 
material  as  a  stepped  platform,  and  so  the  stones  were 
sometimes  placed  with  the  figured  surface  uppermost,  in 
which  cases  the  chamfers  and  carvings  were  general!}' 
almost  worn  away  or  were  hidden  under  the  superincum- 
bent step.  We  thought  that  some  of  the  lower  steps,  the 
long  stones  of  which  were  hollow  with  foot  wear,  and 
especially  those  of  the  south  side  where  stood  the  stoup, 
might  prove  to  be  other  than  old  grave  covers  used  up 
again,  but  inspection  shewed  that  the  socket  into  which 
the  stoup  was  fitted  had  been  worked  in  an  ancient  grave 
cover,  six  feet  eight  inches  long,  placed  as  the  second  step 
from  the  ground.  The  whole  platform  was  formed  around 
a  core  of  earth  and  stone  fragments.  There  were  twenty- 
three  covers  of  different  sizes,  designs,  and  dates,  ranging 
from  two  to  nearly  seven  feet  in  length,  and  from  the 
eleventh  or  early  twelfth  to  the  end  of  the  fourteenth 
century  in  date.  The  best  of  these  were  fixed  erect  against 
the  west  wall  within  the  church  by  the  Vicar;  the  others 
were  re-arranged  as  a  platform  as  before. 


>  '» 


111        K.'-A4jJ^"^-r.' 



We  give  drawings  of  eight  fragments  prepared  from 
photographs  very  kindly  taken  for  us  by  W.  L.  Fletcher, 
Esq.,  of  Stoneleigh,  Workington.  Fig.  I.,  moulded  edge  ; 
head  of  cross  in  low  relief  formed  by  simply  cutting  away 
the  remaining  surface  within  the  circle;  stem  and  calvary 
steps  merely  incised  ;  no  symbols.  Fig,  II.,  plain  cham- 
fered edge  ;  head  in  relief  as  in  I.,  stem  incised  ;  beneath 
the  circle  two  fleur-de-lis  shaped  foliations  ;  trefoil  window 
head  takes  place  of  Calvary;  symbols,  a  pair  of  pointed 
shears  on  the  left  hand.  I  think  we  counted  five  pairs  of 
shears  broad  and  narrow  during  this  find  ;  some  of  them 
probably  denoting  the  burial  of  women.  None  of  these 
appeared  with  Gospels  and  chalice,  emblems  of  the  priest- 
hood, and  therefore  may  not  commemorate  archdeacons  or 
deans  one  duty  of  whom,  Mr.  Lees  tells  us,  was  thus  ex- 
pressed at  a  council  at  York,  A.D.  1195  : — '"'Let  clerks 
who  despise  the  crown  (i.e.,  the  tonsure)  if  beneficed,  be 
deprived,  if  not  let  them  be  shaved  against  their  will  by  the 
archdeacon  or  dean." 

The  visitor  to  Bromfield  Church  may  now  see  two 
tonsured  heads  on  either  side  of  the  chancel  arch  acting 
as  corbels  bearing  the  widened  arch.  This  arch  took  the 
place  of  the  old  Norman  arch,  whose  carved  stonework  was 
mutilated  and  used  up  again  by  the  enlargers,  it  may  be 
of  the  time  when  the  tombstones  were  removed  and  built 
up  round  the  place  of  the  Cross  outside.  Fig.  III.,  plain 
chamfered  edge;  the  whole  cross  in  relief;  symbol,  an 
arrow  also  in  relief ;  within  the  Calvary  a  pointed  early 
English  arch.  Fig.  IV.  is  the  gem  of  the  collection,  a 
triumph  of  the  designer  and  the  stone-cutter  in  rendering 
simplicity,  and  elegance,  and  power ;  a  massive  stone  with 
a  plain  chamfer  ;  a  double  stemmed  cross  rises  in  rounded 
relief  from  a  circular  arch  ;  the  head  of  the  cross  becomes 
glorious  with  the  sign  of  the  Trinity  and  the  much  loved 
fleur-de-lis,  which  is  laid  in  all  its  purity  within  each  of 
the  four  circles  of  this  beautiful  piece  of  carving  ;  the  great 



sword  of  the  strong  man,  sheathed,  with  curved  guard,  lies 
alongside  on  the  right  hand. 

Fig.  V.  is  only  a  fragment ;  it  was  not  worth  building  in 
as  part  of  the  steps,  and  it  was  found  amongst  the  rubbish 
which  formed  the  core  of  the  structure,  yet  it  is  a  most  in- 
teresting relic,  for  it  tells  of  the  vanished  De  Bromfields.  A 
massive  stone  with  a  plain  chamfer  ;  a  line  appears  above 
the  letters,  which  shews  us  that  an  incised  cross  ornamented 
the  memorial;  no  doubt  the  great  sword, incised,  of  the  Lord 
of  Bromfield,  lay  alongside  to  the  right  hand  as  the  inscrip- 
tion lies  on  the  left.  The  letter  S  will  be  readily  seen  with 
the  U  above  it ;  three  stops  divide  the  words  ;  after  the  S 
appears  "  De  "  and  then  the  two  first  letters  of  the  name 
BR ^-  and  this  is  what  is  left  memorialwise  of  the  Brom- 
fields, who  vanished  at  an  early  date  from  the  parish. 
Whether  this  word  ending  in  S  was  Gulielmus,  or  Ricardus, 
or  Dominus  is  not  know^n. 

Bromfield  and  Scalesmere  were  granted  by  Waldieve, 
first  Lord  of  xA.llerdale,  to  Melbeth,  his  physician,  whose 
posterity  took  the  name  of  Bromfield.  In  39,  Ed.  IIL 
Jones  de  Bromfield  and  Thomas  de  Lowther  held  land  at 
Langrigg  valent  per  annum  £j.  The  same  John  had  other 
lands  at  Bromfield.  In  42,  Ed.  III.  (1469)  from  the 
registers  of  Holme  Cultram  it  appears  "  that  soon  after 
the  foundation  of  Holme  Cultram,  Adam,  son  of  Thomas 
de  Bromfield,  granted  to  the  said  x\bbey  the  manor  of 
Bromfield."  Melbeth  had  granted  the  church  to  the  Abbey 
of  S.  Mary,  York. 

Fig.  VII.  is  a  very  simple  early  slab  with  plain  cham- 
fered edge,  incised  cross  with  plain  circle  and  calvar}-,  a  pair 
of  narrow  shears  on  the  left  hand.  There  are  several  of 
this  type,  one  with  chalice  of  priest,  fixed  in  the  church. 
Fig.  VII.  is  the  upper  part  of  a  slab  with  moulding  and 
chamfer.  The  cross  head  is  in  partial  relief,  and  shews 
two  foliations  in  the  upper  part  of  the  stem.  Fig.  VIII. 
is  much  like  VII.     There  is  a  chamfer  without  moulding 


.^r^CI^  ^'^^^%i  ^Vxt  '■■' 



While  /^an^sloTte     Cross  h'ead. 



and  foliations.  On  the  right  hand  side  is  a  sword  with 
square  guard  ;  on  the  left,  after  the  cross  sign,  are  the  first 
two  letters  Hi  of  Hie  jacet,  the  beginning  of  an  inscription 
which  the  mason  has  never  completed. 

On  excavating  the  core  of  the  structure  we  found  several 
very  small  tomb  slabs,  about  two  feet  long,  some  of  them 
bearing  lines  for  the  guide  of  the  mason,  as  though  fresh 
and  unfiaished  from  the  stone-cutter's  yard.  There  were 
also  the  two  halves  of  a  cylindrical  pillar,  split  lengthwise 
down  the  middle.  These  may  have  been  the  lower  part  of 
a  red  sandstone  pillar  cross,  or  they  may  possibly  have 
been  part  of  a  column  from  the  church.  There  were  no 
red  sandstone  sculptures  which  could  be  recognized  as 
belonging  to  such  cross.  Beneath  these  buried  fragments 
we  found  a  mass  of  harder  earth  and  white  sandstone 
fragments.  These  pieces  of  white  sandstone,  about  a 
dozen  in  number,  shewed  traces  of  sculpture,  and  beneath 
them  w'e  turned  up  the  complete  head  of  a  white  sand- 
stone cross  of  the  very  early  type,  with  central  boss  and 
ring,  and  a  raised  beading  round  the  edges,  the  solid  head 
and  arms  in  one  piece,  the  stone  very  much  worn  and 
weathered  before  being  buried  here. 

The  smaller  pieces  were  put  together  and  revealed  the 
shoulders  and  part  of  the  shaft  of  the  cross.  The  cross 
had  not  only  been  broken  up  but  split  down  the  middle 
sidevvise  before  burial.  One  very  small  piece,  which  will 
be  seen  under  the  arm  on  the  right  hand  in  the  drawing 
here  given  being  placed  upon  one  of  the  pieces  of  the  back 
part  of  the  cross  revealed  the  curve  beneath  the  arm  con- 
taining the  moulding.  Further  down,  a  solid  piece  of 
stone  completed  the  relics  which  we  were  able  to  fix  into 
place.  These  have  been  cemented  together  and  placed  by 
the  Vicar  in  the  church  near  the  pulpit.  The  cross,  as  we 
now  know  it,  is  thirty-one  inches  high.  The  head  is  nine 
inches  wide  at  top,  fourteen  inches  across  the  arms,  and 
six  inches  thick.      The  neck  is  nine  inches  across.      The 



shoulders  fifteen  inches.  The  greatest  thickness  is  seven- 
and-a-half  inches.  The  lower  parts  of  the  shaft  have  been 
worn  away  as  if  by  the  sharpening  upon  it  of  a  scythe  or 
other  iron  implement. 

The  whole  must  have  been  exposed  to  the  weather 
many  hundred  years  before  it  was  broken  up  and  buried. 
This  may,  indeed,  be  the  identical  cross  around  which  the 
British  were  gathered  to  listen  to  the  Gospel  and  receive 
baptism  before  any  stone  church  was  raised,  and  even 
two  hundred  years  before  S.  Kentigern,  the  Apostle  of 
Strathclyde,  whose  name  the  present  church  bears, 
journeyed  this  way  on  his  road  into  Wales  in  the  sixth 

Another  fragment  of  pre-Norman  times,  a  house-shaped 
(hog-back)  tombstone,  its  roof  ornamented  with  triangular 
tiles  has  been  built  above  the  Norman  arch  of  the  west 
doorway,  as  at  Bongate,  Cross-Canonby,  &c.,  &c.  In  the 
chapel  of  S.  George  a  floriated  grave  cover  has  Adam  of 
Crookdake  1304.  In  the  Lady  chapel  is  the  cover  of  the 
stone  coffin  of  been  used  as  a  lintel  for  a  window. 

There  are  many  scattered  hamlets  and  the  following 
townships  in  the  parish,  viz:  Allonby;  Mealrigg ;  West 
Newton,  where  was  a  manor  house  ;  Langrigg,  Crookdake, 
Bromfield,  Scales,  Blencogo,  Wheyrigg,  Moor-Row,  Dun- 
draw,  and  Kelsick,  many  of  which  still  have  their  old 
Halls.  Thomas  de  Newton  (Ed.  Ill,)  and  his  ancestors 
are  said  to  have  been  Lords  of  Newton  from  the  time  of 
King  Stephen.  To  such  local  Lords  may  many  of  these 
slabs  have  been  memorials. 


Art.  XUl.— Church  Bells  in  Leath  Ward.     Xo.  2.     By  the 

Rev.  H.  Whitehead. 
Contributed  at  Ambleside,  Sept.  ^th,  i88g. 

DACRE   {continued). 
rilHE  following  translation  of  the  Latin  elegiacs-  on  the 
-■-      Dacre  treble,  by  the  Rev.  T.  W.  Norwood,  vicar  of 
Wrenbury,  Cheshire,  has  the  merit  of  assigning  an  intelli- 
gible meaning  to  the  last  two  lines  : — 

Regard  not  shew  ;  bend  to  the  Lord  and  pray  ; 

I  call  you  to  the  Temple  God  to  praise. 
Thrice  have  I  jarred  ;  j'ou've  fallen  day  by  day  ; 

I'm  sound  ;  by  prayer  you  may  be,  mend  your  ways. 

The  Rev.  T.  F.  Owen,  vicar  of  Wood  Walton,  Peter- 
borough, renders  the  last  two  lines  thus  : — 

I  thrice  have  sounded  discordantly,  you  have  fallen  daily ; 
I  am  now  sound ;  become  you  so  by  prayer,  mend  your  ways. 

Mr.  Norwood  and  Mr.  Owen,  writing  independently  of 
each  other,  agree  in  suggesting  that  the  bell  may  have 
been  thrice  cracked  and  thrice  recast. 

The  initials  H  F  on  this  bell  are,  as  I  have  said  {ante, 
IX,  48S),  probably  those  of  the  donor;  whom  perhaps  it 
may  not    be    possible    to   identify.     It    may,  however,  be 

*For_  which  see  vol.  ix.  p.  4SS,  of  these  Transactions.     But  for  the  reader's 
convenience  I  here  repeat  them  : — 

w    □    o     + 



H    F    1G06 



worth  while  to  notice  that  Henr_v  Featherstonehaugh  of 
Kirkoswald,  who  died  in  1626,  was  both  by  descent  and 
marriage  connected  with  places  near  Dacre.* 

Referring  to  the  illustrations  of  cross  and  lettering  on  the 
2nd  Dacre  bell,  cast  at  the  end  of  the  14th  century  by  the 
York  founder  Johannes  de  Kirkham  (ante,  IX,  493),  the 
Rev.  W.  C.  Lukis,  F.S.A.,  Rector  of  Wath,  Yorkshire, 
wrote  : — 

The  initial  cross  numbered  11  and  the  letter  A  (numbered  12)  are  found 
on  the  2nd  bell  at  Scawton  in  Yorkshire,  where  there  is  the  founder's 
shield  bearing  a  pastoral  staff  between  a  candlestick,  a  bell,  and  a 
melting  pot;  an  inscription  round  the  shield  +  lOANNES  DE 
COPGRAF  ME  FECIT;  and  the  legend  -f-  CAMPANA  BEATE 

The  late  Mr.  Stahlschmidt,  to  whom  I  sent  Mr.  Lukis' 
description  of  the  Scawton  bell,  wrote  : — 

I  take  it  the  staff  indicates  that  John  de  Copgrave,  presumably  a 
native  of  the  little  village  of  that  name  near  Ripon,  was  a  bell  founder 
in  an  episcopal  city,  i.e.,  York ;  and  the  use  of  the  foundry  stamp 
indicates  to  my  mind  a  later  date  than  John  de  Kirkham.  Not  im- 
probably John  de  Copgrave  was  a  successor  of  John  de  Kirkham. 

It  is  seldom  that  we  find  a  founder's  name  or  even  his 
initials  on  a  mediaeval  bell.  John  de  Kirkham,  however, 
whose  name  occurs  in  full  on  Dacre  2d,  also  placed  his 
initials  on  one  of  the  two  bells  at  Sproatly,  near  Hull ; 
both  of  which,  as  I  have  recently  ascertained,  bear  the 
same   cross  and  lettering  as  are  found  in  the  lower  in- 

*  Thomas  Dudlev=Grace  Threlkeld 
of  Yanwath         I 

Albanv  Featherstonehaugh  =  Lucy=Gerard  Lowther 
d.  1573  I  d.  1596 

Henry  Featherstonehaugh  =  Dorothy  Wvbergh 
d.  1626  of  Clifton  Hall. 



scription  on  Dacre  2d,  but  with  a  fleur-de-lis,  as  at  Cum- 
rew  and  Threlkeld,  instead  of  three  roundlets,  as  intervening 

The  Dacre  tenor,  on  which  occur  two  lions  passant 
and  the  Adoration  of  the  MsLgi  (ante,  IX,  489),  I  formerly 
thought  might  have  been  presented  by  a  member  of  the 
Dudley  family  {ib.,  492).  But  Mr.  Norwood  has  re- 
marked that  the  lions,  if  intended  as  a  coat  of  arms, 
would  have  been  on  a  shield.  They  are  therefore  pro- 
bably a  bellfounder's  stamp. 


Edward  VI's  commissioners  found  at  "  Edynhall  "  in 

ij  litill  belles  ; 

which  were  probably  the  sanctus  and  sacring  bells.  What 
other  bells  they  found  we  cannot  learn  from  their  report, 
part  of  the  Edenhall  list  of  church  goods  having  been  torn 
off  from  the  original  MS.  [ante,  VIII,  194). 

Bishop  Nicolson,  who  was  here  on  August  19,  1703, 
says  of  the  church  tower  : — 

Within  are  two  small  Bells  ;  on  the  larger  whereof  are  ye  Stapleton's 
Arms  and  Campana  Cuthbevti  Saudi. 

This  is  one  of  the  only  three  places,  the  other  two  being 
Skelton  and  Penrith,  where  he  recorded  a  bell  inscription ; 
though  the  bells  themselves  are  often  mentioned  in  his 

The  terrier  of  1749,  signed  by  "  Christopher  Musgrave, 
Vicar,"  has  this  entry: — 

Two  Bells  with  their  frames  the  Larger  thought  to  weigh  about  two 
Hundred  weight  the  lesser  one  Hundred  and  a  half. 




No  other  terrier  at  Edenhall  has  any  mention  of  the  bells. 
There  are  now  three  bells  here,  viz  : — 








lyi  inches 




No.  2 


17  inches 






igi  inches 




The  weights  are  reckoned  from  the  diameters. 

The  tenor,  from  its  weight,  is  evidently  identical  with 
**  the  larger  "  bell  of  the  terrier  ;  also,  from  its  inscription, 
with  "the  larger"  of  the  two  bells  seen  here  b}^  Bp. 
Nicolson,  since  it  has,  round  its  shoulder,  in  Lombardic 
letters,  with  floriated  initial  cross,  and  the  Stapleton  arms 
as  intervening  stop,  this  legend  : — 

+  SANCTI    0    CAMPANA   []    CUTHBERTI. 

The  cross  (Fig.  15)*  and  lettering  (Figs.  17-20)  are  of  pre- 
cisely the  same  character  as  the  cross  and  lettering  on  the 
treble  at  Egremont,  but  do  not  as  yet  enable  us  to  identify 
the  founder.  The  bell  is  dedicated  to  the  patron  saint  of 
the  church.     The  Stapleton  arms  (Fig.  16)  are : — 

Arg.  3  swords,  pomels  in  the  nombrils  of  the  escutcheon,  points  ex- 
tended, Gules  {Lysoiis,  p.  Ixxxiii). 

Edenhall  manor  came  to  the  Stapletons  in  1327  by  the 
marriage  of  William  Stapleton  with  Julian,  heiress  of  the 
Turps.  "It  continued  to  be  held  by  the  Stapleton  family 
for  live  descents,  when  Joan,  second  daughter  and  co-heir 

*  All  the  illustrations  to  this  paper,  unless  otherwise  specified,  are  full  size. 











of  Sir  William  Stapleton  Kt,  brou^sjht  it  in  marriage  to 
Thomas  de  Musgrave  about  the  38th  Hen  VI — 1459-60  " 
(Whellan,  p.  532).  The  last  of  the  Stapletons,  as  may  be 
seen  from  his  monumental  brass  in  Edenhall  church, 
"  obiit  xxvii  die  Augusti  a  d  mcccclvii  ".  The  period 
1327-1457,  then,  is  that  within  which  the  date  of  the  bell 
must  be  placed.  But  the  period  may  be  still  further 
limited  ;  for,  whilst  the  Lombardic  lettering  indicates  that 
the  bell  is  not  later  than  the  very  beginning  of  the  15th 
century,  Mr,  Stahlschmidt  was  of  opinion  that  "  from  the 
occurrence  of  a  shield  of  arms  it  is  unlikely  to  be  earlier 
than  quite  late  in  the  14th  century  ".  Perhaps  we  shall 
not  be  far  wrong  in  contracting  the  period  to  1380-1420. 

The  treble  has  on  its  waist  a  cvoss  patce  (fig.  21),  and 
black  letter  X  reversed  (fig.  22),  each  twice  repeated  ;  also 
black  letters  R  (fig.  23)  and  V  (fig.  24),  each  reversed. 



,- nu__. 






-:^  J 




The  intervening  spaces  are  of  equal  length,  about  four 
inches,  with  nothing  to  indicate  with  which  cross  or  letter 
the  inscription  begins  :  — 

+       X       R       V       +       X 

I  am  not  able  to  make  any  suggestion  as  to  what  these 
letters  may  mean. 

No.  2  has  on  its  waist  the  following  letters  (Roman 
capitals)  and  date  : — 

S'^    P  M  1665  W  S 

The  initials  are  doubtless  those  of  William  Sellar,  a  York 
founder.  bR  P  M  is  of  course  the  famous  Sir  Philip  Mus- 
grave.  Prior  to  the  Restoration  his  life  had  been  one  of 
romantic  adventure.  But  in  1660  he  settled  down  to  a 
quiet  life  in  his  mansion  at  Edenhall,  and  became  a  great 
benefactor  to  the  parish  church  ;  to  which,  amongst  other 
gifts,  he  presented  a  massive  silver  gilt  chalice  and  cover, 
hall-marked  1667-8  {Old  Church  Plate  in  Carlisle  Diocese,  p. 
248).  It  might  therefore  be  natural  to  suppose  that  he 
also  gave  the  bell,  dated  1665,  which  bears  his  initials. 
But  this  will  presently  appear  doubtful. 

We  have  seen  that  in  1703,  and  also  in  1749,  there  were 
only  two  bells  at  Edenhall  church  ;  "  the  larger  "  of  which 
must  be  identified  with  the  present  tenor.  Whether  to 
identify  "  the  lesser  '"  with  the  present  treble  or  with  No. 
2,  as  they  differ  but  a  few  pounds  in  weight,  cannot  be 
settled  by  the  terrier.  But  I  noticed  that,  whereas  the 
treble  and  tenor  have  headstocks  very  much  alike,  and 
hang  at  the  same  level,  No.  2  hangs  above  them,  and  its 
headstock  is  of  a  different  shape.  It  has  therefore  probably 
at  some  time  since  1749  been  brought,  headstock  and  all, 
from  some  other  place.  Chancellor  Waugh,  writing  in 
1749    or  thereabouts,   says    in   his   MS  notes   to    Bishop 


134  CHURCH    BELLS    IN    LEATH    WARD. 

Nicolson's  Miscellany  Accounts  :  "  The  family  of  Edenhall 
when  in  the  County  use  their  own  Chapel  considerably 
and  seldom  go  down  to  the  Church.''  And  Hutchinson 
(vol.  I,  p.  247),  writing  of  Edenhall  in  1794,  mentions"  a 
neat  private  chapel",  apparently  then  still  in  use.  The 
bell  in  question,  then,  may  have  belonged  for  more  than  a 
century  to  the  chapel  of  the  Hall. 

The  bells  at  Edenhall  church  are  rung  for  marriages, 
and  after  as  well  as  before  a  funeral.  There  is  also  here 
the  usage  of  the  death  knell,  indicating  age  of  deceased. 


The  Greystoke  bells,  from  an  antiquarian  point  of  view, 
are  exceedingly  interesting.  Yet,  except  very  inaccurately 
in  a  terrier,  they  have  never  been  described.  Bishop 
Nicolson,  who  visited  Greystoke,  on  Feb.  26,  1704,  says  : — 

The  Tower  is  crack'd,  in  the  Xorth-West  Corner,  from  top  to  bot- 
tome ;  and  looks  Threatning.  There  are  in  it  four  pretty  Tuneable 
Bells;  and  a  Clock,  loosely  enough  managed  (Bp.  N's  Visitation,  p. 


We  may  be  sure  the  bishop  did  not  ascend  the  tower,  or 
he  would  have  noticed  the  bell  inscriptions.  Its  "  threat- 
ning" aspect  would  not  have  deterred  him  from  ascending 
it,  had  he  been  so  minded  ;  but,  seeing  that  he  took  but  a 
single  day  to  visit  Great  Salkeld,  Barton,  and  Greystoke, 
we  need  not  be  surprised  that  he  had  no  time  at  any  one 
of  the  three  churches  to  spare  for  the  belfry,  and  must 
wonder  at  the  number  of  things  he  did  contrive  to  observe. 
The  terrier  of  1749,  strangely  enough  for  one  of  Chancellor 
Waugh's  terriers,  does  not  mention  the  bells.  That  of 
1777,  signed  by  "Edward  Carlisle,  Rector",  thus  describes 
them  : — 

Four  bells  with  ropes  wheels  and  Frames  One  the  Great  Bell  has  a 
Sentence  round  its  circumference  near  the  mouth  the  Letters  parti}' 
defaced  by  Time   Another  Bell   has  the   name   Dacre  Another  two 




names  of  two  persons  its  founders  The  fourth  plain  Their  weight  un- 
known One  Church  Clock  of  the  old  construction. 

Mr.  Carlisle  may  deserve  some  credit  for  having  conceived 
the  idea  of  reporting  the  inscriptions  on  his  bells.  But  his 
inaccuracy,  as  we  shall  presently  see,  is  remarkable.  No 
subsequent  terrier  has  any  mention  of  the  bells.  Whellan, 
writing  in  i860,  says  (p.  542)  : — 

There  are  four  very  ancient  bells  with  inscriptions  round  them. 

No  notice  is  taken  of  them  in  the  other  county  histories. 
They  are : — 





30^  inches 

No.  2 


32^  inches 

No.  3 


;^^h  inches 



36  inches 

The    notes,  which  I  do  not    give  on  my  own  autiiority, 
seem  strange. 

The  treble  and  third  bell,  being  evidentl}'  from  the  same 
foundry,  may  be  conveniently  taken  together.  They  have 
the  same  cross,  stop,  and  black-letter  type,  the  only 
difference  being  that  the  third  bell  has  three  capital  ini- 
tials, whilst  there  is  no  capital  letter  on  the  treble.  The 
inscription  on  No.  3  is 

The  treble  has 

hei    ':    grarta 

xljr  + 

-}-  tici  :    0ra  i    katmna  :    ilju  ;   xpi  :   spnttsa  : 
pro  ;    nobis  i    oiljuri  ;    ora  :    t  :    aukdantr  :    iljc 


136  CHURCH    BELLS    IN    LEATH    WARD. 

The  cross  (patonce)  is  engraved  on  the  opposite  page  (fig. 
25).  A  rhomboid  with  a  roundlet  above  and  below  (fig. 
26)  serves  as  intervening  stop  throughout.  The  letters 
(figs.  27  and  28)  are  about  an  inch  high,  and  very  thick. 
The  same  cross,  stop,  and  type,  occur  on  the  Redmar- 
shall  tenor,  Durham,  on  which  is  inscribed  Cristofcrus, 
running  right  round  with  letters  more  than  two  inches 
apart  {Newcastle  Antiquarian  Proceedings,  vol.  IV,  p.  22). 
Turning  to  the  history  of  Greystoke  church,  in  search  of 
some  clue  to  the  probable  age  of  the  two  bells  now  under 
consideration,  we  find  the  church  in  1382  "  much  out  of 
repair,  the  wall  crazy,  the  belfry  fallen  in  ",  and  "the  in- 
habitants of  Threlkeld  and  Wethermelock  ",  townships  in 
the  parish,  "  threatened  with  excommunication  unless 
they  contributed  to  the  repairs  "  (ante,  I,  321-2)  ;  which 
seems  to  have  been  rather  hard  upon  the  people  of  the 
townships,  seeing  that  the  result  of  a  commission  of  in- 
quiry in  the  same  year  was  that  "the  revenues  of  the 
church  were  stated  to  be  sufficient  to  maintain  two  chap- 
lains, the  parish  priest,  and  five  other  priests  besides  ". 
A  further  result  of  the  commission  was  that  "  a  college  of 
secular  canons  was  founded  ",  and  "  at  the  same  time  six 
chantries  were  founded  in  the  church,  to  each  of  which  a 
priest  was  appointed — St.  Andrew,  St.  Mary,  St.  John 
Baptist,  St.  Thomas  the  Martyr,  St.  Katherine,  and  St. 
Peter".  Mr.  C.  J.  Ferguson,  F.S.A.,  referring  to  these 
arrangements,  says: — "  Doubtless  after  this  extension  of 
the  foundation  the  intention  of  rebuilding  the  church  in 
its  present  form  was  entertained.  I  say  in  its  present 
form,  for  although  the  church  and  tower  have  since  been 
rebuilt  they  seem  to  have  been  rebuilt  on  the  old  plan  ". 
(ib).  The  last  rebuilding  of  the  tower  was  in  1S17.  At 
what  time  after  1382  the  former  rebuilding  took  place 
seems  not  to  be  known.  But,  whatever  the  date,  the 
treble  and  third  bell,  which  bear  the  names  of  two  of  the 
chantry  saints,  St.  Andrew  being  also  the  patron  saint  of 




the  church,  were  doubtless  placed  in  the  tower,  if  not  at 
once  on  its  erection,  at  all  events  soon  afterwards.  The 
names  Robert  Edmundson  and  T.  Auckland,  which  occur 
on  these  bells,  may  be  those  of  the  donors.  The  Rev.  T. 
Lees,  F.S.A.,  vicar  of  Wreay,  formerly  curate  of  Grey- 
stoke,  writinof  to  me  about  them,  says  : — "  Edmundson  is 
an  old  Greystoke  name  ;  but  Auckland  is  not  ". 




The  tenor  or  "  great  bell  ",  as  it  is  called  in  the  terrier 
of  1777,  has  two  inscriptions,  one  on  the  shoulder,  and  the 
other  on  the  outside  of  the  soundbow,  each  running  quite 
round.  The  letters,  one  of  which  is  here  illustrated  (fig. 
30),  are  large  capitals  of  a  nondescript  character.  The 
inscription  round  the  shoulder  is 

IHHSVS      ••    BE    ••    OVKE    ••    SdED      ••     EVER 


The  letter  p  is,  as  I  have  placed  it,  upside  down  ;  x  and 
s  are  reversed,  except  the  final  s  of  ihesvs,  which  stands 
sideways.  The  stop  after  the  words  ihesvs  and  sped  seems 
intended  for  the  Dacre  escallop  (fig.  29)  ;  after  ovre  and 
the  final  b  a  wavy  bell  rope  {fig.  31)  ;  and  after  ever 
and  AME  the  ragged  staff  (fig.  32).     Of  the  bell  founder, 


CHURCH    BELLS    IN    LEATH    WARD.  139 

IHON  TORNOR,  nothing  is  yet  known.  The  second  in- 
scription, viz,  that  round  the  soundbow,  is  of  course  the 
*'  sentence  "  mentioned  in  the  terrier  account  of  the  "great 
bell  "  as  being  ''  round  the  circumference  near  the  mouth 
partly  defaced  by  time".  It  seems  odd,  by  the  way,  that 
anyone  who  took  the  trouble  so  far  to  examine  the  "  sen- 
tence "  on  the  soundbow  as  to  see  that  it  was  "  partly 
defaced  "  should  have  altogether  overlooked  the  inscription 
round  the  shoulder.  The  partial  defacement,  due  to  the 
strokes  of  the  clock  hammer,  does  not  extend  further  than 
the  first  word  on  the  soundbow,  which  is  not  hopelessly 
past  recognition,  and  is  placed  beyond  doubt  by  the  con- 
text.    The  inscription  is 

THOMAS  ••  DE  ••  DACRE  ••  DOMINVS  ••  DE  ••  GRAISOTK  •• 
ET  ••  DACRE  ••  ET  ••  MILIS  ••  GARTERII  ••  QUI  ••  OT  •• 
AND    ••    X'    ••    M  D  XXIIIl    ••    ET    ••    XXIIII   DIE  O 

Here,  as  on  the  shoulder,  the  letters  n  and  s  are  reversed, 
except  in  the  word  graisotk,  where  the  s  is  placed  side- 
ways. The  intervening  stop  throughout  is  the  wavy  bell 
rope.  The  initial  stamp  is  a  bell  hanging  from  what  re- 
sembles the  cross  pole  of  a  leaping  bar.  The  letters  ot 
between  the  words  qvi  and  ano  do  not  stand  side  by  side 
as  I  have  placed  them,  but  in  a  vertical  line,  T  above  o, 
and  are  a  contraction  of  obiit.  The  final  o  is  evidently 
all  that  there  was  room  for  of  the  word  octobris.  This 
inscription  tells  its  own  story  intelligibly  enough,  but  not 
quite  correctly,  as  Thomas  Lord  Dacre  did  not  die  till  the 
following  year.  In  vol.  IV,  p.  478,  of  these  Transactions 
occurs  the  following  note  : — 

Anno  Domini  mdxxv,  xxiv  die  mensis  Octobris,  obiit  pis  memorite 
dominus  Thomas  Dacre,  quondam  dominus  de  Dacre,  Graystok,  et 
Gillesland,  miles  nobiiissimi  ordinis  Garterii,  ac  guardianus  generalis 
marchiarum  versus  Scotiam. — Ex  Martyrologio  Novi  Monasterii;  an 
extract  printed  in  the  Publications  of  the  Surtees  Society,  vol.  66, 
app.  II,  p.  304,  from  Dugdale. 


140  CIIUKCH    BELLS    IN    LEATH    WARD. 

Baron  of  Dacre  and  Gilsland  by  inheritance,  "  dominus  de 
Graystok  "  by  marriage  with  EHzabeth  Greystoke,  Knight 
of  the  Garter,  and  warden  of  the  West  Marches,  Lord 
Thomas  Dacre  was  a  notable  man  in  the  days  of  border 
warfare,  when,  as  at  Branksome, 

To  back  and  guard  the  archer  band, 

Lord  Dacre's  bill-men  were  at  hand, 

A  hardy  race,  on  Irthing  bred, 

With  kirtles  white  and  crosses  red, 

Array'd  beneath  the  banner  tall. 

That  stream'd  o'er  Acre's  conquered  wall ; 

And  minstrels,  as  they  marched  in  order, 

Play'd  "  Xoble  Lord  Dacre,  he  dwells  on  the  Border". 

He  was  in  the  battle  of  Flodden  Field,  and  contributed 
greatly  to  the  victory.  His  tombstone  is  in  the  choir  of 
Lanercost  xAbbey.  The  Greystoke  tenor,  commemorating 
his  death,  was  perhaps  given  to  the  church  by  his  son  and 
successor.  Lord  William. 

The  2nd  bell  has  a  remarkable  inscription,  a  fac-simile 
of  which,  or  rather  of  a  rubbing  taken  from  it,  is  given 
(quarter  size)  on  the  opposite  page.  It  runs  quite  round 
the  shoulder  of  the  bell,  with  nothing  except  the  initial 
cross  to  indicate  where  any  one  of  its  words  begins  or 
ends,  and  with  its  last  two  letters  for  want  of  room  placed 
under  the  cross.  The  letter  v  (for  u)  throughout  and  w 
(which  only  once  occurs)  are  upside  down.  The  type  is 
of  a  composite  character,  some  of  the  letters  being  Lom- 
bardic  and  some  black-letter  ;  a  combination  which  seems 
indicative  of  the  period  (1400-1420)  "  when  the  two  styles 
overlapped,  or  existed  side  by  side  ".  (Stahlschmidt's 
Surrey  Church  Bells,  p.  x).  The  cross  and  lettering  are  the 
same  as  are  found  on  the  tenor  at  Egglescliffe,  Durham, 
where  the  legend  is  sanxte  marce  ora  pro  nobis  ;  also 
on  the  treble  at  Raskelf,  Yorkshire,  with  legend  sancte 
lACOBE  ora  pro  NOBIS;  and  on  the  2nd  bell  at  Dunsforth, 





r?    i§    X 

fT)     n 





(P.     S      ^x.1 

if—<  >^^  ^^^ 

> — < 

O      ::3       '^^^ 

Of      S 

> — i 




Yorkshire,  with  legend  sancta  Helena  reversed  through- 
out. The  tenor  at  Haughton-le-Skerne,  Durham,  has  in 
the  same  type  in  three  rectangular  stamps  the  letters 
BCD  PQ  RSTV,  all  reversed  and  upside  down.  The  cross, 
first  three  letters,  and  one  of  two  intervening  stops  (a  wavy 
bell  rope),  of  the  Egglescliffe  inscription,  are  thus  en- 
graved (half  size)  in  vol.  Ill,  p.  126,  of  the  Xewcastle- 
on-Tyne  Antiquarian  Proceedings  : — * 

The  other  stop  is  a  bell.  The  same  two  stops  occur  at 
Raskelf.  The  only  stop  at  Dunsforth  is  the  bell. 
Haughton-le-Skerne  tenor  has  neither  cross  nor  stop, 
but  has  the  bell  on  its  waist.  At  Greystoke  there  was 
evidently  no  room  for  any  stop.  Nothing  has  yet  come 
to  light  to  shew  where  these  bells  were  cast.  The 
chief  difficulty  in  deciphering  the  Greystoke  inscrip- 
tion arises  from  the  contraction  of  some  of  the  words,  and 
from  the  uncertainty  attaching  to  some  of  the  letters, 
especially  those  of  black-letter  type.  In  the  following 
attempt  to  group  the  letters  and  expand  the  contracted 
words  I  must  reluctantly  leave  a  gap  : — 



The  word  or  words  required  to  fill  the  gap  I  do  not  see 
how  to  extract  from  the  letters  in  the  fac-simile,  as  I  read 
them,  iNHENV.  Some  persons,  however,  who  have  ex- 
amined   the    rubbing,   read    these   letters  differently;    so 

*  For  loan  of  the  block  I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  R.  Blair,  F.S.A.,  Hon.  Sec.  of  the 
Newcastle  Society  of  Antiquaries. 


CHURCH    BELLS    IN    LEATH    WARD.  143 

differently  indeed  that  the  only  one  which  has  caused  no 
diversity  of  opinion  is  the  E.  Especially  provocative  of 
variety  of  opinion  is  that  which  I  read  as  h.  As  to  their 
meaning  no  two  persons  are  agreed.  Nor  does  any  inter- 
pretation of  them  which  I  have  yet  heard,  or  which  I  have 
myself  hazarded,  seem  to  me  to  be  satisfactory.  I  do  not 
even  feel  sure  of  the  correctness  of  the  reading  collegii 
magister;  the  letcer  immediately  preceding  the  gap  not 
looking  like  k.  But,  whatever  it  looks  like,  most  persons 
who  have  examined  it  think  it  must  have  been  intended 
for  R.  Provisionally  assuming  it  to  be  so,  let  it  be  further 
assumed  that  the  whole  of  the  sentence  preceding  wilel- 
Mvs  is  William's  designation  ;  about  which  more  pre- 
sently. Meanwhile  be  it  noticed  that  the  bell  has  a 
name  which  one  would  like  to  believe  was  derived  from 
the  most  famous  of  the  men  by  whom  it  has  been  borne- 
There  are  on  record  instances  of  bells,  even  in  remote 
times,  bearing  names  other  than  those  of  calendar  saints, 
e.g.,  at  Ely  cathedral,  where  the  treble  of  a  now  extinct 
ring,  cast  in  the  14th  century,  was  called  "  Walsynghame  " 
after  the  prior  (Raven's  Cambridgeshire  Bells,  p.  7);  and 
since  at  Greystoke  castle  there  is  a  portrait,  by  Holbein, 
of  Erasmus,  who  is  known  to  have  been  a  friend  of  Henry, 
Lord  Surrey,  ancestor  of  the  present  lord  of  Greystoke 
manor,  a  momentary  hope  arises  that  the  Greystoke 
second  bell  may  have  been  named  in  memory  of  the  great 
scholar.  But  we  have  here  a  coincidence  more  interesting 
than  important,  since  the  Howards,  who  brought  the  por- 
trait to  Greystoke  castle,  did  not  themselves  come  there, 
and  had  nothing  whatever  to  do  with  the  place  until  the 
end  of  the  i6th  century,  too  late  to  be  assigned  as  a  pos- 
sible date  for  the  bell.  What  date,  then,  may  be  assigned 
to  the  bell  ?  "  Wilelmus  ",  if  we  did  but  know  his  life  and 
times,  would  be  our  best  guide  in  this  matter.  This  much 
we  do  know  of  him,  supposing  I  have  rightly  interpreted 
the  bell    inscription,  that    he    was    "  canonicus  dominus 


144  CHURCH    BELLS    IX    LEATH    WARD. 

collegii  magister  ".  Assuming  him,  then,  to  have  been 
master  of  the  '"'  college  of  secular  canons  "  founded  at 
Greystoke  in  1382,  we  seem  to  need  nothing  but  a  re- 
ference to  a  list  of  the  masters  of  Greystoke  college  in 
order  to  identify  our  man.  But  no  such  list  has  yet 
been  found.  There  is  incidental  mention  of  some  of  the 
masters,  viz  :  Gilbert  Bowett,  appointed  as  first  master 
in  13S2;  Adam  de  Aglionby,  known  to  have  been  master 
here  in  1420,  but  when  appointed  there  is  nothing  to 
show;  Thomas  Eaglesfield,  who,  says  Jefferson  {Lcath 
Ward,  p.  357),  "  occurs  1440  "  :  Richard  Wryght,  whose 
undated  tombstone  is  in  the  church  ;  Walter  Redman, 
"  qui  obiit  ",  according  to  his  epitaph,  "  a'  dni  mccccix  "  ; 
William  Husband,  who  *'  occurs  151S  "  ;  Thomas  Bower- 
bank,  who  "  occurs  1520"  ;  John  Whelpdale,  LL.D.,  who 
died,  as  appears  from  his  epitaph,  in  1526;  and  "  Johes 
Dacre  Magister  Collegii  de  Graystok  ac  Rector  ejusdem  ", 
mentioned  in  the  "Survey  of  Ecclesiastical  Rights", 
which  was  taken  in  26  Henry  VHI,  a.d.  1535.  John 
Dacre  was  the  last  master.  William  Husband,  who  "  oc- 
curs 151S  ",  may  possibly  have  been  a  friend  or  at  least  an 
admirer  of  Erasmus.  But  if  it  was  he  who,  as  the  bell 
says,  "  me  fabricare  facit  ",  he  must  have  done  so  during 
the  lifetime  of  Erasmus,  who  died  in  1536 ;  which  seems 
unlikely.  But,  indeed,  I  have  no  sort  of  idea  that  this  bell 
was  named  after  Desiderius  Erasmus,  and  have  only  gone 
thus  far  into  the  question  for  the  satisfaction  of  any  who 
might  be  unwilling  to  have  so  interesting  an  hypothesis 
summarily  discarded.  I  believe  that  our  William,  should 
he  ever  turn  up  among  the  masters  of  Greystoke  col- 
lege, will  be  found  between  Gilbert  Bowett  and  Adam 
de  Aglionb}-,  i.e.,  in  the  period  from  1382  to  1420.  But  at 
this  stage  the  bell  itself  lifts  up  its  voice  in  a  call  to  sus- 
pense of  judgment  : — soxo  qvintvs.  How  has  it  come  to 
pass  that  a  bell  which  was  once  the  fifth  is  now  the  second  ? 
This  difficulty  starts  several  questions,  which  shall  receive 



due  consideration  when  I  presently  deal  collectively  with 
the  ring.  Meanwhile  I  must  here  propound  one  of  these 
questions,  \\z : — May  not  our  William,  no  matter  how 
many  Williams  may  have  been  masters  of  the  college  of 
Greystoke,  have  been  master  of  some  other  college,  and 
the  bell  now  under  notice  not  have  been  cast  for  Grey- 
stoke, but  transferred  thither  at  some  unknown  time  from 
the  church  to  which  it  originally  belonged  ?  This  is  pos- 
sible, and  will  have  to  be  considered.  But,  whatever  its 
history,  I  adhere  to  the  opinion  that  it  was  cast  at  about 
the  beginning  of  the  15th  century.  And  what  of  its  name  ? 
Well,  there  are  two  saints  named  Erasmus  in  the  calendar  ; 
one  of  whom,  the  most  likely  of  the  two  to  be  the  object  of 
our  search,  suffered  martyrdom  at  Formife  in  the  year  303 
during  the  persecution  under  Diocletian.  He  is  repre- 
sented as  standing  bound  to  a  tree,  whilst  his  bowels  are 
being  drawn  out  by  a  windlass.  "  This  saint  is  corruptly 
called  St.  Elmo,  for  Ermo,  the  abbreviation  of  Erasmus  ; 
and  he  was  usually  invocated  by  sailors  in  the  Mediter- 
ranean "  (Butler's  Lives  of  the  Saints,  vol.  i,  p.  724).  Dr. 
Raven,  formerly  of  Great  Yarmouth,  writes  to  me  : — 
"  Erasmus  was  a  favourite  saint  in  Norfolk.  We  have  him, 
with  his  windlass,  at  Hempstead,  St.  Michael's  at  Plea, 
Buckenham,  Sandringham,  and  Norwich  Museum  ;  and  I 
dare  say  he  was  equally  in  repute  in  other  parts  of  Eng- 
land, as  were  others  of  Diocletian's  victims.  I  never  found 
him  on  a  bell."  As  a  patron  of  sailors  St.  Erasmus  would 
naturally  be  held  in  repute  by  Englishmen  ;  and  I  incline 
to  think  that  he  has  at  last  been  found  upon  an  English 

At  Greystoke  there  are  no  old  churchwardens'  accounts, 
as  at  some  other  places,  to  enable  us  to  connect  the  story  of 
the  bells  with  that  of  the  parish.  But  in  Lord  William 
Howard's  Housebook,  published  in  1878  by  the  Surtees 
Society,  there  is  incidental  mention  of  a  peal  rung  in  Grey- 
stoke   church  tower  on  an  occasion  of  more  than  local 


146  CHURCH    BELLS   IN    LEATH    WARD. 

interest  which  is  of  value  as  helping  to  set  at  rest  a  much 
disputed  question.  It  was  long  unknown  where  Lord 
William,  Sir  Walter  Scott's  "  Belted  Will",  was  buried. 
As  he  lived  at  Naworth  Castle  it  was  taken  for  granted 
that  he  died  there;  but  his  tomb  could  nowhere  be  found. 
Sir  Walter,  by  the  way,  by  a  bold  flight  of  imagination, 
brings  Lord  William  Howard  into  personal  contact  with 
the  famous  man  whose  name  has  been  noticed  on  the 
Greystoke  tenor : — 

A  wrathful  man  was  Dacre's  lord, 
But  calmer  Howard  took  the  word. 

Ill  could  the  haughty  Dacre  brook 
His  brother-warden's  sage  rebuke  : 
And  yet  his  forward  step  he  staid, 
And  slow  and  sullenly  obeyed. 
But  ne'er  again  the  Border  side 
Did  these  two  lords  in  friendship  ride  ; 
And  this  slight  discontent,  men  say 
Cost  blood  upon  another  day. 

Which  discontent  between  those  two  lords  Sir  Walter 
should  have  been  slow  to  impute,  as  they  were  allied  by 
family  ties,  Lord  William  Howard's  wife  being  his  alleged 
comrade's  great-grand-daughter.  Let  us,  however,  wel- 
come as  a  symbol  of  reconcih'ation  the  recorded  fact  of  the 
bell  cast  in  memory  of  Thomas  de  Dacre  being  rung  for 
the  funeral  of  Belted  Will  :  — 

1640,  October  8,  To  five  menne  for  ringinge  the  bells  in  Graystock 
Church  at  my  Lord's  buriall  \xs  (Ld  Wm.  Howard's  Housebook,  p. 

Thus,  as  the  editor  of  the  housebook  says  (Introduction, 
p.  Ixiv),  "  all  doubt  is  removed  as  to  the  place  of  his 
sepulture  ;  at  Greystoke  castle  he  died,  and  in  Greystoke 
church  he  found  a  grave."  But  his  grave,  though  since 
the  publication  of  his  housebook  search  has  been  made  for 



it,  is  not  yet  identified.  If  the  item  of  payment  to  "  five 
menne  "  is  to  be  taken  as  indicating  that  Greystoke  church 
had  five  behs  in  1640,  then  we  must  conclude  that  one  of 
them  disappeared  between  that  time  and  1704,  in  which 
hitter  year  Bishop  Nicolson  found  only  four  bells  in  the 
tower.  Nor  had  Edward  VI's  commissioners  in  1552 
found  more  than  four  bells  at  Greystoke  (ante,  VIII,  202). 
Yet,  if  "Erasmus"  was  originally  cast  for  Greystoke, 
there  must  at  some  time  or  other  have  been  at  least  five 
bells  in  Greystoke  church  tower.  A  fifth  bell  in  1640, 
supposing  the  five  men  who  rang  for  Lord  William 
Howard's  funeral  to  indicate  that  there  were  then  five 
bells,  throws  no  light  on  this  question,  as  it  must  have 
come  and  gone  between  1552  and  1704,  since  the  four 
which  still  remain,  being  all  of  earlier  date  than  1552, 
must  be  identical  with  the  "  iiij  gret  belles  "  of  Edward 
VI's  Inventory.  Looking,  then,  to  Erasmus'  present  posi- 
tion, according  to  the  modern  rule  of  numbering,  second 
in  the  descending  scale,  if  it  was  ever  "  quintus  "  at  Grey- 
stoke, and  if  the  same  rule  of  numbering  held  good  when 
it  was  cast,  we  must  infer  that  there  was  once  in  the 
tower  a  ring  of  at  least  six,  three  of  which  were  trebles 
above  "  Katerina ",  with  "Andreas"  as  tenor;  the  pre- 
sent tenor,  which  is  dated  1524,  being  a  later  addition. 
When  did  those  three  trebles,  supposing  them  once  to 
have  existed,  disappear  ?  Did  Henry  VIII's  "visitors" 
lake  them  ?  Well,  Greystoke  church,  being  collegiate, 
had  a  narrow  escape,  at  the  dissolution  of  colleges,  from 
losing  all  its  bells,  and  everything  else  it  possessed.  "  It 
was  disputed  whether  the  church  did  continue  rectorial, 
or  the  rectory  and  profits  thereof  became  vested  in  the 
crown  by  the  said  dissolution.  For  the  incumbent  it  was 
alleged  that  he  was  possessed  by  presentation,  admission, 
institution,  and  induction  ;  that  the  church  was  indeed 
made  collegiate,  but  it  was  by  the  pope's  authority  only  ; 
that  they  had  no  common  seal,  and  therefore  were  not  a 


148  CHURCH    BELLS    IN    LEATH    WARD. 

legal  corporation.  Judgment  was  given  against  the  king  ; 
and  the  church  continued  rectorial  and  parochial  "  (Burn 
and  Nicolson,  ii,  363).  Under  these  circumstances  Grey- 
stoke  was  more  likely  to  gain  than  to  lose  a  bell  through 
the  proceedings  of  the  king's  visitors  ;  and,  indeed,  if  its 
present  second  bell  was  ever  "  quintus  "  in  some  other 
church,  the  year  of  the  dissolution  (153S)  was  the  most 
probable  date  of  its  transference  to  Greystoke  church 
tower.  The  bells  of  Shap  Abbey  are  traditionally  believed 
to  have  been  distributed  among  neighbouring  churches ;  one 
of  them  is  said  to  be  now  at  Kirkbythore  (Whellan,  p.  753), 
and  another  at  Orton  {ante,  vi,  84).  The  bell  of  the  "  late 
ffreers  in  Applebye  "  was  bought  by  "  Xpofer  Cracken- 
thropp  of  Xewbigging  esquyer  "  ;  that  of  the  "  late  howse 
of  the  ffreers  in  Penrithe  "  by  "  Richarde  Wasshingtone 
besyde  Kendal  "  ;  and  "  one  of  the  thre  bells  pteyning  to 
the  late  sell  of  Wetheral  came  to  Carlysle  which  bell  was 
hanged  upon  the  wall  called  vSpringoU  Tower  to  call  the 
workmen  to  work"'  (ante,  vi,  434-5)-  The  late  town 
clock  bell  at  Carlisle  is  supposed  to  have  belonged  until 
the  dissolution  to  St.  Alban's  chapel  (Jefferson,  p.  149). 
Thus  we  see  how  the  bells  of  despoiled  abbeys,  chantries, 
and  religious  houses,  were  dispersed  at  the  dissolution.  It 
mattered  not  to  the  king's  visitors  what  became  of  them, 
so  that  the  money  derived  from  their  sale  went  into  the 
royal  treasury.  Hence  it  happened  that  many  of  them 
were  not  melted  down,  but  were  bought  for  ecclesiastical 
or  secular  use.  The  then  rector  of  Greystoke,  John  Dacre, 
might  have  sufficient  influence  with  his  kinsman,  the  lord 
of  Greystoke  manor,  to  induce  him  to  purchase  one  of  the 
confiscated  bells  for  his  church.  This  hypothesis  must 
not  be  set  aside  without  examination.  One  of  the  reasons 
for  entertaining  it  is  that  some  campanologists  contend 
that  anciently  bells  we're  numbered  in  ascending,  and  not, 
as  now,  in  descending  scale  ;  and,  if  Erasmus  was  ever 
•'  quintus"  at  Greystoke  in  ascending  scale,  the  ring,  with 


CHURCH    BELLS    IN    LEATH    WARD.  149 

three  tenors  below  Andreas,  would  have  been  an  excep- 
tionally heavy  one  for  a  Cumberland  church.     There  is 
evidence  that  some  ancient  rings  were  numbered  in  ascend- 
ing scale.     Such  was  the  case  at   Ely  (Raven,  p.  7)  and 
at  Exeter  (Ellacombes'    Exeter    Cathebral    Bells,    p.    15). 
But  a  few  instances   will   not  prove   it  to  have  been  the 
rule ;  and  it   seems  unlikely  that  a  fixed  rule  of  this  kind 
should   have  got  turned   upside  down.     It  is  more  likely 
that,  until  change-ringing  began  to  be  thought  of,  there 
was  no  fixed  rule.     Evidently  there  was  no  fixed  rule  in 
1552,  since  Edward  VI's  inventories  (see  Berks,  p.  g,  and 
Herts,  p.  60),  when  they  indicate  first  bell,  second  bell,  &c., 
and    add  the  weights,  sometimes   begin    with  the  treble, 
sometimes  with  the  tenor.     I  am  disposed,  then,  to  think 
that  ''Erasmus",  if  at  any  time  fifth  bell  at  Greystoke, 
was   fifth  in  descending  scale.     Another  reason  for  sup- 
posing this  bell  to  have  originally  hung  elsewhere  is  that 
it  has  been  more  clipped  round  the  verge,  for  the  purpose 
of  sharpening,  than  any  other  bell  I  have  ever  seen  ;  which 
shews  that,  when  first  placed  in  Greystoke  tower,  it  must 
have  been   considerably   out  of    tune   with   Andreas  and 
Katerina.    But  it  is  doubtful  whether  anyone  in  mediaeval 
times,  when  furnishing  a  church  tower  with  bells,  cared 
anything  at  all  about  the  scale.  In  the  inventories  of  1552 
we  meet   with  entries  of  this  kind  :  "  thre  belles  of  one 
chyme"  at   Brimpton   {Berks,  p.  8);  "  iiij    belles   of  one 
rynge "  at   Much   Maiden  {Herts,  p.   70);  the  apparently 
exceptional  character  of  which  entries  seems  to  imply  that 
for  the  most  part  the  bells  of  that  time  were  not  in  har- 
mony.   Nor  was  there  the  same  necessity  as  in  later  times 
for  them  to  be  in  harmony,  each  bell  having  anciently  its 
separate    use  ;    for   minute  injunctions  on  which  subject 
see   Bp.  Grandison's  Statutes  directing  the  use  to  which 
each  bell  at  Ottery  St.  Mary  was  to  be  put  (Ellacombe's 
Exeter  CatJiedral  Bells,  p.  12).     Another  reason  for  ques- 
tioning whether  the  bell  is  in  situ,  viz,  that  it  is  evidently 


150  CHURCH    BELLS    IN    LEATH    WARD. 

not^from  the  same  foundry  as  the  two  bells  between  which 
it    now    han^s,  would  have   more   weight  if,  in  order  to 
maintain  that  it  was  cast  for  Greystoke,  it  were  necessary 
to  assume  that  it  was  cast  at  the  same  time  as  Andreas 
and  Katerina.     That  there  did  once  hang  between  these 
two  bells  another  which  was  cast  at  the  same  time  and  at 
the  same  foundry  is  likely  enough.     But  it  may  have  be- 
come cracked,  and  Erasmus  may  have  been  cast  at  another 
foundry  to'^replace  it.     Dr.  Raven,  in  his  letter  to  me,  re- 
ferring to  Erasmus,  says: — "  I  read  the  lettering  much  as 
you  do,  only  wondering  whether  the  words  may  be  *  fab- 
rica  (for  fabrice)    refacit ' ;  which  would  open  up  a  long 
history    of    the    peal".       Whether    this    be    the    correct 
reading  or  not,  it   still  may  be  true  that  the  original  bell 
has  been  recast.     Assuming  this  to  have  been  the  case, 
but  by  no  means  insisting  on  the  accuracy  of  the  inferences 
I  draw  from  it,  I  will  conclude  with  a  conjectural  "  history 
of  the  peal".     At  some  time  during  the  first  twenty  years 
of  the  fifteenth  century  the  tower  was  rebuilt,  and  furnished 
with  six  bells,  each  bearing  the  name  of  one  of  the  six 
chantry  saints.     It   was  a  likely  time  for  a  work  of  this 
kind  to  be  done  in  the  diocese  cf  Carlisle,  which  from  1400 
to   1419  was  presided  ox&v  by  a  tower-building  and  cam- 
panistic   bishop,  William    de    Strickland,  who   raised  the 
tower  of  Carlisle  cathedral   "  a  medietate  ad  summum  ", 
placing    therein    "  quatuor    magnas   campanas ",   built   a 
tower    at    Rose   Castle,  and  added  what  was  called   the 
"  bishop's  tower"  to  Penrith  castle.     No  need  to  suppose 
that  he  either  built  the  tower  of  Greystoke  church  or  gave 
the  bells.       Indeed   it  seems  that   Katerina  and  Andreas 
were  given  by  T.  Auckland  and   Rt.  Edmundson.     It  is 
enough  to  know  that  Bishop  Strickland  in  such  matters 
set  an  example,  and  would  be  sure  to  encourage  similar 
works.     The  fifth   bell,  however,  in  descending  scale,  of 
the  new  Greystoke  ring,  was  either  from  the  first  in  some 
way  defective  or  soon  got  cracked,  and  "  Wilelmus  magis- 


CHURCH    BELLS    IN    LEATH    WARD.  151 

ter  collegii  "  had  it  recast,  not  however  by  its  original 
founder.  For  reasons  best  known  to  himself  he  changed 
its  name.  It  was  a  deal  too  flat  ;  which,  however,  until 
change-ringing  came  into  vogue  in  the  17th  century, 
would  be  of  no  consequence.  Lord  William  Dacre,  on 
the  death  of  his  father,  wishing  to  put  up  something  to 
his  memory  in  Greystoke  church,  consigned  the  three 
trebles,  which  may  have  become  cracked  and  useless,  to 
the  furnace  of  Ihon  Tornor,  who  recast  them  into  the 
present  tenor,  and  also  tuned  what  had  previously  been 
the  fifth  bell,  but  was  now  become  the  second. 

I  do  not,  as  I  have  already  intimated,  ask  or  expect 
assent  to  conjectures,  which  further  research  is  as  likely 
to  disprove  as  to  sustain  ;  it  matters  not  which,  so  that 
they  serve  the  purpose  of  suggesting  inquiry ;  and  I  can 
only  hope  that  what  I  have  written  may  be  not  without 
value  to  some  more  competent  campanologist  who  may 
hereafter  undertake  to  tell  more  completely  the  story  of 
the  Greystoke  bells. 

There  are  here  the  usages  of  8  a.m.  Sunday  bell,  and 
death  knell  without  "  tellers." 

In  vol.  Ill,  p.  130,  of  the  Nevvcastle-on-Tyne  Antiquarian  Pro- 
ceedings there  is  the  following  note. — "In  1876  Mr.  G.  Ferguson  of 
Middleton-in-Teesdale  reported  (Arch.  Ml.  vii,  142)  that  in  1854  there 
was  a  bell  at  Greystoke  which  had  been  brought  from  Patterdale. 
It  was  not  to  be  found  in  t86o.  It  was  inscribed  in  Lombardics  of 
the  15th  century  : — 

+  (two  v's  interlaced  like  an  old  w)  abc  (mark  of  one  v)  defghik. 
The  D  and  Lombardic  11  were  upside  down.  I  have  not  been  able 
to  obtain  any  further  information  about  this  bell.     H.W. 


Art.  XIY.--Kcsiaick  Town  Clock  Bell.      Hy  the  Rev.  H. 

Coimnnnicatcd  at  Ambleside,  Scptcinhcr  ^th,  i88g. 
npHIS  bell,  owing  to  its  alleged  antiquity,  has  become 
-L  famous.  The  earliest  mention  of  it  that  has  come 
under  my  notice  is  in  W.  Scott's  "  Beauties  of  the  Border", 
published  in  1821.  Mr.  Scott,  who  evidently  never  saw  it, 
or  he  would  not  have  called  it  the  "church  bell",  says, 
(p.   103)  :— 

The  church  bell  at  Keswick  is  of  great  antiquity  bearing  date 
AD  lOOI. 

Whellan,  in  his  Histor\'  of  Cumberland,  published  in 
i860,  speaking  of  Keswick  Town  Hall,  which  was  erected 
in    1813   on   the    site    of  the  Old  Court  House,  says  (p. 

345)  :— 

The  clock  bell,  which  was  taken  from  a  building  that  formerly  stood 
on  Lord's  Island  in  Derwent  Lake,  said  to  have  been  the  manor 
house  of  the  Earls  of  Derwentwater,  has  the  letters  and  figures  H  D 
R  O  lOOI  upon  it ;  a  decisiv^e  proof  of  its  high  antiquity. 

The  Old  Court  House  or  former  Town  Hall  of  Keswick 
is  thus  mentioned  in  Mr.  Fisher  Crosthwaite's  pamphlet 
on  "  The  Last  of  the  Derwentwaters  "  (p.  15)  : — 

I  found  a  memorandum  among  the  papers  of  the  late  Jonathan  Ottley, 
in  which  he  made  out  that  the  former  Town  Hall  of  Keswick  was 
built  in  1695,  and  some  of  the  materials  were  brought  from  the  man- 
sion on  Lord's  Island,  and  the  ancient  bell  was  then  removed  which 
is  still  in  use. 

In  this  connection  it  may  be  as  well  to  notice  that 
Hutchinson  (H,  198),  speaking  of  St.  John's-in-the-Vale, 
says  :— 

In  the  chapel  is  an  old  seat,  with  the  date  looi  on  the  back  of  it. 
Tradition  assigns  that  it  was  formerly  in  St.  Herbert's  chapel  on  the 
island  in  the  lake. 



This  old  seat,  which  is  no  longer  extant,  if  brought  from 
an  island  on  the  lake,  more  probably  came  from  Lord's 
Island  than  from  St.  Herbert's ;  there  having  been  for 
centuries  no  chapel  on  St.  Herbert's  Island.  The  mansion 
on    Lord's  Island  is  thus  described  by   Mr.  Crosthwaite  : — 

The  large  and  convenient  house  with  gardens,  orchards,  and  other 
conveniences,  spoken  of  by  the  Rev.  T.  Robinson,  was  built  by  Sir 
Thomas  Radcliffe  sometime  about  1450.  The  former  residence  was 
at  Castlerigg.  .  .  .  Tradition  says  that  the  stones  were  taken 
away  to  build  the  Mansion  on  Lord's  Island.  .  .  .  For  many 
generations  the  Radciiffe  family  resided  on  the  island.  So  late  as 
1623  ^'t"  Edward  Radcliffe  is  mentioned  as  having  his  Mansion  on 
Lord's  Island.  .  .  .  It  is  very  probable  that  the  house  was  dis- 
mantled daring  the  civil  war  about  the  year  1651. 

The  town  clock  bell,  then,  if  of  date  loox,  would  have 
been  originally  at  Castlerigg  on  the  main  land. 

Dated  ancient  bells  are  rare  in  this  country.  The  late 
Mr.  T.  North,  F.S.A.,  in  his  "  Church  Bells  of  Bedford- 
shire" (p.  6)  says: — 

A  few  early  dated  English  bells  have  been  found  :  one  at  S.  Chad's, 
Claughton,  Lancashire,  is  dated  1296;  another  at  Cold  Ashby, 
Northamptonshire,  is  dated  1317;  two  at  South  Somercotes,  Lin- 
colnshire, bear  the  date  1423;  and  two  others  at  Sowerby  in  the 
same  county  tell  us  they  were  cast  in  the  year  143 1. 

To  these  may  be  added  the  tenor  at  Thirsk,  Yorkshire, 
on  which  is  inscribed  anno  milleno  qvater  cento 
QVOQVE  DEN  EST  H^c  CAMPANA  lESVS,  and  the  treble  at 
Holme  Cultram,  dated  mill.cccc.lxv.  From  which  it 
appears  that  the  Keswick  town  clock  bell,  if  the  figures 
looi  really  stood  for  a  date,  would  be  by  nearly  three 
centuries  the  oldest  known  dated  bell  in  England. 

Irs  claim  to  be  regarded  as  of  such  high  antiquity  is 
encountered  by  two  objections. 

I.  The  letters  of  its  inscription  are  Roman  capitals, 
and  its  figures  Arabic,  arranged  in  this  way  : — 

H  D         lOOI         R  O 


154  KESWICK    TOWN    BELL. 

But  were  Arabic  numerals  used  in  this  country  at  so  early 
a  date  as  the  ver}'  beginning  of  the  eleventh  century  ?  Mr. 
T.  Wright,  F.S.A.,  says  :— 

It  was  onlv  in  the  14th  centurj'  that  these  algorismic  numerals  be- 
came generally  used  in  books,  and  it  is  not  probable  that  they  would 
be  used  in  inscriptions  on  buildings  till  long  afterwards.  .  .  .  Rare 
examples  of  inscriptions  in  these  figures  maj'  occur  in  the  15th  century ; 
but  even  in  the  i6th,  as  is  well  known,  the  prejudice  was  strongly  in 
favour  of  Roman  capitals.      {British  Archaolvgical  Journal,  vol.  II,  p. 


And  if  improbable  in  inscriptions  on  buildings  until  long 
after  the  fourteenth  century,  it  is  simply  impossible  in 
bell  inscriptions  of  the  very  beginning  of  the  eleventh 

II.  I'he  shape  of  the  bell  is  comparatively  modern. 
Mr.  Stahlschmidt,  speaking  of  a  bell  at  Chaldon,  Surrey, 
which  he  describes  as  "  very  like  a  common  flower  pot ", 
says  he  thinks  "it  may  be  certainly  reckoned  as  not 
later  in  date  than  1250,  and  from  its  archaic  shape  may 
well  be  much  older  "  {Surrey  Church  Bells,  p.  77).  But 
there  is  nothing  at  all  archaic  about  the  shape  of  the 
Keswick  bell.     It  is  not  even  "  long-waisted  ". 

What  explanation,  then,  can  be  given  of  the  figures 
looi,  if  they  may  not  be  regarded  as  indicative  of  a 
date  ?  Some  persons  have  suggested  that  the  second 
figure  was  originally  6,  and  that  some  mischievous  wag 
by  means  of  a  file  has  converted  it  into  0.  "  The  top 
of  the  6  in  1601  ",  writes  one  to  me,  "  has  been  filed 
off,  as  I  saw  with  my  own  eyes ;  and  the  resulting  O  is 
somewhat  shorter  than  the  genuine  zero  which  follows  ". 
The  accompanying  illustration  (full  size)  may  seem  to 
favour  this  opinion.  But  an  engineer,  with  whom  I 
examined  the  bell,  for  the  express  purpose  of  deciding 
this  point,  very  confidently  stated  that  the  top  of  a  6 
had  not  been  filed  off,  and  that  the  figure  has  always 
been  O  ;  which  opinion,  by  the  way,  seems  to  be  cor- 



roborated  by  the  occurrence  of    the  same  figures  on  the 
old  seat  formerly  in  the  chapel  of  St.  John's-in-the-Vale. 

Another  explanation  of  these  figures  has  been  pro- 
pounded, viz :  that  they  indicate  the  looist  bell  cast  by 
the  founder.  On  which  point  it  may  be  worth  while  to 
quote  the  following  letter,  signed  Thomas  Radcliffe,  which 
appears  in  Notes  &  Queries  of  September  24,  1(887 : — 

I  bought  the  other  day  an  old  case  clock  of  oak,  which  has  an  orna- 
mented brass  face.  On  a  round  sunk  shield  in  the  usual  place  is 
engraved  roughly  W  BARNARD  NEWARK  1061.  The  clock  may 
be  two  hundred  years  old.  1  wish  to  know  when  W  Barnard  began 
business  in  Newark  as  a  clockmaker,  and  when  he  finished.  Also  the 
number  of  clocks  he  made.  Surely  not  1061  !  That  would  be  a  work 
which  in  those  days  of  hand  labour  would  not  be  done  in  the  lifetime 
of  one  business  man.  It  seems  to  me  probable  that  the  number  is 
intended  for  161,  or  else  the  maker  numbered  the  first  clock  he  made 
looi  (as  some  makers  of  articles  do  even  now),  in  which  case  the 
clock  in  question  would  be  the  sixty  first. 



It  would  be  almost  as  curious  a  coincidence  if  the  Kes- 
wick bell  and  the  St.  John's  old  seat  were  each  the  first 
as  it  would  be  if  each  were  the  thousand  and  first 
specimen  of  the  work  of  its  maker.  But  indeed  I  doubt 
whether  any  founder  ever  adopted  such  a  plan  of  num- 
bering his  bells. 

The  only  other  explanation,  as  far  as  I  know,  which 
anyone  has  given  of  the  figures  on  the  bell,  is  that  the 
founder  by  some  accidental  mistake  substituted  O  for  6 
as  the  second  figure.  But  here  also,  as  with  the  other 
hypothesis,  the  matter  is  complicated  by  the  old  oak  seat. 

Now,  whatever  may  be  thought  of  these  explanations, 
to  none  of  which  do  I  commit  myself,  I  am  decidedly  of 
opinion,  looking  to  its  shape,  that  the  bell  is  of  no  great 
antiquity  ;  and  it  only  remains  to  ascertain  whether  any 
clue  to  its  age  can  be  obtained  from  the  initials  which  it 

I  believe  the  initials  R  O  to  be  those  of  the  founder  whose 
name  occurs  in  the  following  entry  in  the  churchwardens 
accounts  of  Haughton-le-Spring,  Durham  : — 

1615,  May  14  To  Mr  Robt   Oldefeild  bell-founder  for  casting  of  the 
litle  bell  xiiij''. 

This  bell  is  no  longer  in  existence.  But  the  entry  shews 
that  Robert  Oldfeild  was  casting  bells  for  the  north  in  the 
early  years  of  the  17th  century.  He  was  probably  connected 
with  the  Oldfeilds  of  York,  one  of  whom,  William,  cast 
the  Dacre  treble  in  1606  {ante,  IX,  490)  ;  the  initials 
W  O  and  R  O  occur  together  on  a  shield  on  the  3rd  bell 
at  Broughton,  Yorkshire,  dated  1615  (Whitaker's  Craven, 
Morant's  edition,  p.  114)  ;  and  on  the  Castle  Sowerby 
treble,  dated  1586  {ante,  IX,  486),  are  found  the  initials 
R  O,  somewhat  larger  than  those  at  Keswick,  which  how- 
ever they  resemble  in  character,  especially  in  the  relative 
dimensions    of  the  two   letters.     Mr.  Stahlschmidt,  in   a 

letter  to  me,  said  : — 



The  Oldfields  are  a  mysterious  family.  I  have  them  at  Canterbury, 
York,  Nottingham,  Hertford,  and  London  ;  and  there  were  besides 
three  or  four  peripatetic  ones  with  no  apparent  abodes  at  all. 

My  theory  of  Robert  Oldfeild  is  that  he  was  a  member 
of  the  York  firm,  travelling  at  intervals  during  the  period 
1586-1615  as  a  peripatetic  founder  ;  and  that  in  one  of 
his  peregrinations  he  cast  what  is  now  the  Keswick  town 
clock  bell. 

The  initials  H  D  are  less  easy  to  identify.  It  has  by 
some  been  taken  for  granted  that  D  must  needs  stand  for 
Derwentwater.  But  during  the  period  in  which  the  bell 
was  probably  cast  there  was  no  such  person  as  a  Derwent- 
water. The  initials,  then,  may  be  those  of  some  steward 
or  agent  who  gave  the  order  for  the  bell  to  be  cast ;  and 
his  name  might  possibly  be  discovered  in  the  archives  of 
Greenwich  Hospital. 


Art.   XV. — Visitations  of  the  Plague  in  Cmnberland  and 

Westmorland.     By  Henry  Barnes,  M.D.,  F.R.S.E. 
Read  at  Ambleside,  Sept.  4th,  i88g. 

IN  looking  over  some  of  the  papers  which  have  been  read 
at  previous  meetings  of  this  Society  and  pubhshed  in 
the  Transactions,  I  find  incidental  allusion  to  the  preva- 
lence of  the  plague  in  several  districts  of  the  two  counties. 
In  some  of  the  papers,  such  as  those  dealing  with  parish 
registers,  the  existence  of  the  plague  in  particular  years 
has  been  inferred  from  the  excessive  mortality  as  compared 
with  the  usual  average.  No  attempt,  however,  seems  to 
have  been  made  up  to  the  present  to  give  any  general  ac- 
count of  the  local  visitations.  In  the  present  paper  I  pro- 
pose to  review  briefly  what  has  been  already  brought  under 
your  consideration,  to  bring  forward  some  references  which 
have  not  hitherto  been  noticed,  to  record  the  evidence  of 
each  outbreak  of  the  disease,  so  far  as  I  have  been  able  to 
obtain  it,  and  in  this  way  to  furnish  a  contribution  to  the 
history  of  the  local  prevalence  of  the  terrible  scourge  of 
the  middle  ages.  I  do  not  profess  to  give  anything  like  a 
complete  account  of  the  subject.  There  are  many  gaps  in 
the  evidence  which  I  have  been  able  to  accumulate,  but  I 
hope  by  directing  attention  to  them  I  may  be  able  to  elicit 
from  others  some  important  contributions. 

At  the  outset  it  may  be  asked,  What  was  the  plague  ? 
What  kind  of  disease  was  it  ?  It  would  be  out  of  place  to 
enter  into  any  medical  details.  It  may  be  sufficient  to 
remark  that  among  the  various  nationalities  of  antiquity 
and  in  the  middle  ages  the  word  plague  was  used  in  its 
collective  sense,  and  included  the  most  various  diseases 
that  occurred  in  an  epidemic  form,  ran  an  acute  course, 
and  showed  a  heavy  mortality.  It  is  in  this  sense  I  shall 
use   the   word  in  the  present  paper.     Some  of  the  local 



visitations  liave  no  doubt  been  visitations  of  true  oriental 
plague,  a  disease  cbaracterised  by  inflammatory  boils  and 
tumours  of  tbe  s;lands,  such  as  break  out  in  no  other  feb- 
rile disease.  On  other  occasions  it  may  have  been  the 
sweating  sickness,  as  I  shall  show  that  there  is  evidence 
of  this  having  extended  to  the  Borders.  It  is  probable 
also  that  small-pox  and  typhus  formed  some  of  the  epi- 
demics and  were  included  under  the  head  of  plague.  It 
is,  therefore,  not  possible  to  say  from  present  records  what 
particular  form  of  disease  prevailed  in  any  given  epidemic. 

The  literature  of  plagues  is  very  extensive,  and  a  fact 
of  some  antiquarian  interest  has  come  out  recently  in 
consequence  of  a  claim  put  forward  on  behalf  of  a  library 
in  Boston  that  it  contained  as  one  of  its  choicest  treasures 
the  earliest  medical  book  published  in  English,  viz  :  The 
Birthe  of  Mankinde,  set  forth  in  English  by  Thomas  Ray. 
nalde,  Physitian,  bearing  date  159S.  This  claim  was  soon 
set  aside,  and  among  English  medical  works  there  are  three 
of  an  earlier  date  which  treat  on  epidemic  pestilences.  Bul- 
lein's  "  Dialogue  on  the  Fever  Pestilence  "  was  published  in 
1564,  and  has  recently  been  reprinted  by  the  Early  English 
Text  Society.  Dr.  Caius'  "  Boke  or  Counseill  against  the 
Disease  comm.only  called  the  Sweate  or  Sweatyng  Sick- 
ness," was  printed  in  1552.  But  more  than  a  century  before 
the  date  of  the  American  treasure  a  book  was  published 
in  London.  Its  title  is  "  A  Passing  Gode  Lityll  Boke, 
necessarye  and  behoveful  against  the  Pestilence,"  pub- 
lished without  printer's  name  or  date  but  attributed  to  the 
press  of  William  de  Machlinia,  in  London  about  1480.  It 
is  a  small  quarto  tract  of  twelve  leaves,  and  is  translated 
from  the  Latin  tract  of  Canute  (sometimes  called  Kamin- 
tus  and  Ramicus),  Bishop  of  Aarhus,  in  Denmark.'*- 

While  the  chief  interest  in  true  plague  rests  in  its  wide- 
spread  diffusion   in   the  middle  ages    its    history  can    be 

*  For  these  and  other  early  works  on  the  Plague  see  Rcli(jiii(e  Heanncnia-, 
vol.  II,  p.  117.     By  this  author  Ramicus  is  described  as  a  Bishop  in  Dacia. 



traced  back  with  tolerable  certainty  to  the  end  of  the  third 
or  the  beginning  of  the  second  century  of  the  pre-Christian 
era.  Like  leprosy,  its  home  seems  to  have  been  in  Egypt. 
It  was  not,  however,  until  the  sixth  century  that  authentic 
records  of  its  prevalence  in  Europe  are  to  be  found.'' 

It  started  from  Lower  Egypt  in  542  A.D.t  and  spread 
over  the  whole  of  the  Roman  empire  "  from  east  to  west, 
and  even  to  the  ends  of  the  habitable  world."  It  caused 
frightful  devastation,  depopulated  towns,  turned  the  coun- 
try into  a  desert,  and  made  the  habitations  of  men  to  be- 
come the  haunts  of  wild  beasts.  It  is  computed  that  this 
pandemic  lasted  about  60  years.  It  is  not  certain  whether 
this  was  the  first  introduction  of  the  true  plague  into 
Europe,  but  it  is  certain  that  it  now  got  a  firm  hold  and 
that  it  kept  its  dominion  for  more  than  a  thousand  years. 
The  earliest  record  of  a  local  pestilence  which  I  have 
been  able  to  find  carries  us  back  to  the  time  when  S. 
Cuthbert  visited  Carlisle.  In  the  recently  published  His- 
tory of  the  Diocese  of  Carlisle,  by  Chancellor  Ferguson,  p. 
42,  a  description  of  this  visit  is  given.  S.  Cuthbert  arrived 
at  Carlisle  about  the  time  of  the  battle  of  Nechtansmere, 
A.D.  685.  He  preached  on  the  Sunday  after  his  arrival, 
and  the  burden  of  his  discourse  was,  "  Watch  and  Pray, 
Watch  and  Pray,"  which  his  hearers  misapplied  to  the 
expected  recurrence  of  a  plague  which  had  recently  ravaged 
the  district.  A  few  days  afterwards  a  solitary  fugitive 
announced  the  result  of  the  battle. 

The   chronicles  of   the  middle  ages  contain  numerous 
references  to  the  prevalence  of  plague,  or    "  pestis.'"      In 

*  After  the  reading  of  this  paper  at  Ambleside,  Mr.  Nanson  adduced  the  great 
plague  at  Athens  in  B.C.  430  and  429  as  a  contradiction  to  this  statement.  This 
epidemic  has  given  rise  to  much  speculation.  A  German  writer  believes  it  to 
have  been  small-pox.  Dr.  Adams,  the  learned  commentator  of  Hippocrates, 
thinks  it  was  glandular  plague,  but  most  recent  writers  seem  to  agree  in  thinking 
it  was  typhus.  The  disease  broke  out  during  a  siege,  and  there  is  no  mention  of 
glandular  swellings  in  the  graphic  history  of  it  given  by  Thucydides,  which  in 
most  particulars  corresponds  with  the  typhus  that  appeared  in  later  times  during 
the  siege  of  Saragossa. 

t  Hirsch's  Handbook  of  Geographical  and  Historical  Pathology,  vol.  I,  p.  495. 



that  wonderful  historical  treasury,  the  Chronicle  of  Laner- 
cost,*  which  deals  with  events  which  happened  between 
A.D.  I20I  and  1346,  there  are  three  references  to  plagues. 
On  the  first  page,  under  date  A.D.  1201,  there  is  the 
following  entry : — 

In  the  same  year  in  divers  parts  of  the  kingdoms  there  befel  a  great 
murrain  of  mankind  and  other  animals,  but  most  of  all  of  sheep  :  of 
such  a  kind  was  this  death  and  murrain  as  never  before  was  seen. 

In  Hecker's  "  Epidemics  of  the  Middle  Ages,"  p.  5,  it  is 
recorded  that  as  the  plague  spread  it  attacked  not  only 
men,  but  animals  fell  sick  and  shortly  expired  if  they 
touched  things  belonging  to  the  diseased  or  dead.  It  is 
stated  that  Boccacio  saw  two  hogs  on  the  rags  of  a  person 
who  had  died  of  the  plague,  after  staggering  about  for  a 
short  time,  fall  down  dead  as  if  they  had  taken  poison.  In 
other  places  multitudes  of  dogs,  cats,  fowls,  and  other 
animals  fell  victims  to  the  disease. 

At  p.  85  of  the  Chronicle  of  Lanercost,  there  is  an  ac- 
count of  a  "  pestis  "  among  cattle  which  prevailed  in  the 
Lothians  in  1268.  It  was  called  "  Lunggesouth,"  and 
was  evidently  a  lung  disease.  The  passage  has  often  been 
quoted.  The  third  reference  will  be  found  on  page  240 
It  also  records  a  plague  among  cattle,  and  seems  worthy 
of  being  translated  and  quoted  in  extenso  : — 

At  that  time,  A.D.  1319,  the  plague  and  murrain  among  the  beasts 
which  had  raged  for  the  two  preceding  years  in  the  South,  visited  the 
North,  and  it  attacked  both  oxen  and  cattle.  And  thus  did  it  work 
that  after  a  slight  sickness  they  would  die  on  a  sudden  and  all  to- 
gether. Few  beasts  of  that  kind  were  left,  and  so  for  that  year  men 
had  to  plough  with  horses.  Still  men  would  eat  of  the  beasts  which 
died  of  the  aforesaid  sickness,  and  by  the  grace  of  God  they  felt  no 
harm.  At  the  same  time,  too,  the  fish  of  the  sea  were  found  dead  on 
the  shore  in  great  numbers,  but  not  a  man  did  eat  of  them,  nor  any 
other  animal  nor  bird.    And  furthermore  in  the  South  of  England  the 

*  Printed  for  the  Maitland  Club,  Edinbnrgh,  1839. 



birds  fought  with  each  other  most  fiercelj'  with  one  consent,  and  were 
found  dead  in  great  numbers.  All  these  three  wonders  seemed  to 
have  happened  for  the  punishment  of  sinners  or  as  an  omen  of  things 
to  come. 

This  latter  prophecy  was  soon  fulfilled.  Shortly  after  this 
period  came  the  disastrous  pestilence  known  everywhere 
under  the  name  of  the  Black  Death.  It  was  one  of  the 
great  events  in  the  world's  history  ;  it  extended  over  the 
\vhole  of  the  then  known  world  ;  it  reckoned  its  victims  by 
millions;  and  in  England,  some  writers  say,  nine-tenths  of 
the  inhabitants  were  swept  away.  It  has  fixed  the  atten- 
tion of  writers  in  a  high  degree,  and  has  been  described  in 
its  minutest  details.  The  starting  point  of  the  pestilence 
seems  to  have  been  in  Eastern  Asia.  It  was  in  Upper 
India  in  1346  ;  in  Turkey  and  Greece  in  1347,  and  from 
thence  in  the  same  year  it  spread  to  Ital}'  and  France.  In 
1348  it  had  devastated  the  whole  of  Italy,  and  in  1349  it 
had  spread  nearly  all  over  middle  Europe,  England,  Scot- 
land, and  Ireland.  Hecker  estimates  the  number  of  those 
who  perished  in  Europe  at  twenty-five  millions,  or  about 
one-fourth  of  the  then  population  of  our  division  of  the 
globe.  There  are  no  data  given  for  the  formation  of  this 
opinion,  and  much  diversity  of  opinion  exists  as  to  the 
mortality  of  the  period. 

Until  recently  it  has  been  impossible  to  draw  any 
accurate  conclusions  as  to  the  real  death  rate  during 
the  epidemic.  It  has  remained  to  an  English  country 
parson  to  let  in  a  glimmer  of  daylight  on  this  subject. 
It  occurred  to  Dr.  Jessopp,  the  well-known  rector  of 
Seaming,  that  if  the  incidence  of  the  Black  Death  was 
as  fatal  as  it  is  represented  to  have  been,  there  must 
remain  among  local  records  documentary  evidence  of 
value  from  which  information  regarding  the  mortality 
of  that  terrible  year  could  be  obtained,  and  in  the 
Book  of  the  Institutions  of  the  Clergy  of  the  Diocese 
of  Norwich,  and  the  Court  Rolls  of  some  of  the  Manors  of 



the  district,  he  obtained  some  striking  facts.  Going  over 
these  documents  he  summarises  his  conclusions  as  fol- 
lows : — 

I  see  no  other  conclusion  to  arrive  at  but  one,  namely,  that  during 
the  year  ending  March  1350  more  than  half  the  population  of  East 
Angiia  was  swept  away  by  the  Black  Death.  If  any  one  should 
suggest  that  more  than  half  died,  I  should  not  be  disposed  to  quarrel 
with  him. 

I  have  made  enquiries  as  to  any  documentary  evidence  of 
a  similar  character  in  these  two  counties  but  as  yet  without 
any  good  result.  Some  interesting  facts  have  been  brought 
out  by  Dr.  Jessopp's  enquiries,  and  it  would  be  of  great 
value  if  any  documentary  records  of  a  similar  character  in 
Cumberland  and  Westmorland  could  be  brought  to  light. 
There  can  be  little  doubt  that  the  two  counties  shared  the 
same  fate  as  the  rest  of  England,  but  the  local  histories 
contain  no  reference  to  the  visitation.  The  following  ex- 
tract, which  I  take  from  Guthrie's  History  of  Scotland, 
vol.  Ill,  p.  49,  will  show  that  I  have  good  grounds  for  the 
belief  that  the  Black  Death  epidemic  visited  this  district, 
as  the  Scottish  army  on  emerging  from  the  forest  of  Selkirk 
would  more  probably  enter  England  by  the  western  route, 
rather  than  by  the  road  by  Berwick. 

The  hand  of  heaven  was  so  severe  upon  the  Scots  dunng  the  year 
1349  and  1350  that  they  furnish  little  of  historical  matter.  A  most 
dreadful  plague  had  passed  from  the  Continent  of  Europe  to  England, 
and  the  Scots  wantonly  indulged  the  innate  hatred  they  bore  their 
enemies  by  enjoying  their  calamities,  and  even  endeavouring  to 
render  them  subservient  to  their  revenge.  This  ferocity,  though  un- 
justifiable, was  natural  to  a  people  so  provoked  and  opprest,  as  the 
Scots  had  long  been  by  the  English  ;  but  it  proved  fatal  at  the  same 
time.  They  had  appointed  a  rendezvous  in  the  forest  of  Selkirk,  to 
avail  themselves  of  the  mortality  which  was  then  desolating  England. 
Scarcely  had  they  passed  the  borders,  when  they  were  seized  by  the 
pestilence.  Five  thousand  of  them  dropt  down  dead,  and  many  were 
cut  off  by  the  enemy  who  had  found  means  to  draw  a  considerable 
body  to  the  field.     This    barbarous  invasion  furnished  Edward  v/ith 



new  matter  of  complaint  and  his  subjects,  in  their  turn,  made  fresh 
irruptions  into  Scotland,  where  they  reinforced  their  garrisons.  The 
tew  Scots  who  returned  from  the  invasion  communicated  the  pesti- 
lence to  their  countrymen  (one-third  of  whom,  according  to  Fordun,* 
perished).  The  patient's  flesh  swelled  excessively  and  he  died  in  two 
days  illness,  but  the  same  author  tells,  That  the  mortality  chiefly 
affected  the  middle  and  lower  ranks  of  the  people. 

Thirty  years  later  there  is  evidence  that  plague  was  again 
in  Cumberland.  It  is  recorded  that  in  13S0  the  Scots,  un- 
mindful of  their  experience  during  the  black  death  epi- 
demic, made  an  inroad  into  Cumberland  under  the  Earl 
of  Douglas.  They  surprised  Penrith  at  the  time  of  a  fair 
and  returned  with  immense  booty,  but  they  suffered 
severely  in  consequence,  for  they  introduced  into  their 
country  the  plague  contracted  in  this  town.  There  is  no 
local  record  of  the  ravages  of  this  pestilence  in  Penrith, 
but  most  of  the  local  histories  which  mention  the  o'tltbreak 
refer  to  the  severity  with  which  it  overtook  the  invaders. 
In  Pennant's  Tour  of  Scotland,  quoted  by  Hutchinson, 
History  of  Cumberland,  vol.  I,  p.  327,  it  is  said  that  one- 
third  of  the  inhabitants  of  Scotland  were  swept  away. 
Jefferson,  in  his  History  of  Leath  Ward,  p.  13,  in  describing 
this  invasion  tells  us  the  Scots  passed  by  Carlisle  in  the 
summer  of  13S0,  and  laid  waste  the  forest  of  Inglewood, 
where,  according  to  Dr.  Todd,  they  seized  4000  cattle. 
They  entered  Penrith  on  a  market-day,  killed  many  of  the 
inhabitants,  took  away  much  spoil  and  many  prisoners. 

They  are  supposed  to  have  taken  away  with  them  also  the  infection 
of  a  pestilence  then  raging  in  the  neighbourhood,  and  from  which 
Holinshed  says  a  third  of  the  inhabitants  of  Scotland  died. 

These  two  reports  of  a  third  of  the  inhabitants  of  Scotland 
having  died  from  the  plague  in  this  particular  year  have 
evidently  come  from  the  same   source,  and   as   I  showed 

*  I  have  verified  this  reference.  It  will  be  found  in  Fordun'sScotichronicon,  vol. 
IV,  p.  1039.  He  speaks  of  the  plague  visiting  Scotland  in  1350.  The  cruelty  of 
it  was  so  great  "'ut  fere  tercia  pars  generis  humani  naturse  debitum  solvere 



when  speaking  of  the  Black  Death,  that  the  mortality  then 
was  estimated  at  one-third  of  the  people,  it  seemed  to  me 
doubtful  that  within  thirty  years  another  epidemic  of  a 
like  magnitude  should  have  occurred.  This  doubt  was 
increased  when  I  found  no  mention  in  Fordun  of  the  second 
pestilence.  In  looking  up  the  reference  in  Holinshed,  I 
find  that  three  words  have  been  omitted  by  those  who  have 
mentioned  this  epidemic,  which  shows  that  the  statement 
of  the  mortality  is  too  sweeping.  These  three  words  are 
"  where  it  came,"  and  probably  the  pestilence  was  not  so 
widespread  as  the  Black  Death  epidemic.  Holinshed's* 
account  is  as  follows  (The  historic  of  Scotland,  p.  246)  : — 

William  Earle  of  Dowglas  came  with  twentie  thousand  men  to  the 
faire  of  Pennire  within  England,  and  spoiled  all  the  goods  found  as 
then  in  the  same  faire  and  so  returned  with  great  riches  into  Scot- 
land ;  but  the  Scotishmen  smallie  rejoised  at  this  gains,  for  with  such 
cloth  and  other  wares  as  they  brought  awaie  with  them  from  the  fore- 
said faire,  they  drew  into  the  countrie  such  a  violent  and  sore 
pestilence  that  the  third  part  of  all  the  people  (where  it  came)  died 
thereof.  This  was  the  third  time  that  the  pestilence  was  knowne  to 
have  doone  anie  great  hurt  in  Scotland,  being  the  yeere  after  the 
incarnation  1380. 

It  appears  from  another  part  of  Holinshed's  Chronicle  that 
this  invasion  was  prompted  by  feelings  of  revenge.  At  p. 
428  vol.  Ill,  part  I,  he  says  : — 

The  Scots  could  not  rest  in  quiet,  but  in  revenge  for  a  ship,  which  the 
townesmen  of  Newcastell  and  Hull  had  taken  on  the  sea,  knowing 
them  to  be  pirates,  determined  to  doe  what  mischiefe  they  could  unto 
the  English  borders  :  for  the  losse  of  that  ship  grieued  them  because 
it  was  esteemed  to  be  verie  rich.  ....  Entring  by  the  west 
borders  they  inuaded  and  spoiled  the  countries  of  VVestmerland  and 
Cumberland  and  comming  into  the  forest  of  Inglewood  they  took  awaie 
with  them  such  a  number  of  beasts  and  cattell  that  they  were  reckoned 
at  fourtie  thousand  heads  of  one  and  another.  Besides  this  they 
cruellie  slue  all  such  as  they  could  laie  hands  upon,  and  burnt  up  all 

*  Holinshed  gives  account  of  three  invasions  of  the  plague  in  Scotland.  The 
first  was  in  the  31st  year  of  the  reign  of  Alexander  the  I'hird  (p.  203)  ;  the  second 
was  the  black  death,  1350— so  vehement  and  contagious  that  it  slew  nearhand  the 
third  part  of  all  the  people  (p.  242) ;    and  the  third  the  epidemic  of  13S0. 



the  townes,  villages  and  houses  as  they  passed  :  and  not  content 
herewith,  they  stole  upon  the  towne  of  Penreth,  when  the  faire  was 
kept  there,  slaieing.  taking  and  chasing  awaie  the  people,  and 
after  gathering  togither  all  the  goods  and  riches  there  found,  tooke 
it  awaie  with  them,  whereof  there  was  such  plentie  as  might  haue 
satisfied  the  couetous  desire  of  a  most  greedie  armie. 

From  the  date  of  this  invasion,  and  to  it  we  owe  our  know- 
ledge of  the  existence  of  the  outbreak  of  plague  at  this 
time,  until  the  3-ear  1554  when  plague  broke  out  at  Pen- 
rith and  Kendal,  I  have  no  local  records  of  any  plague 
visitations.  Several  such  visitations,  however,  did  occur, 
and,  as  some  of  them  reached  the  border  district,  it  may 
be  of  use  if  I  briefly  refer  to  those  which  are  best  known, 
in  order  that  those  who  are  interested  in  such  enquiries 
may  be  able  to  fill  up  the  evidence  of  such  local  visitations. 
Holinshed  vol.  Ill,  part  i,  p.  704  describes  a  great  pesti- 
lence not  only  in  London  but  in  divers  parts  of  the  realm 
in  1479,  in  which  innumerable  people  died.  The  sweating 
sickness,  as  it  was  called,  was  the  most  notable  epidemic 
during  the  latter  part  of  fifteenth  and  the  early  part  of 
the  sixteenth  centuries.  It  was  a  violent  inflammatory 
fever,  and  very  fatal.  Five  distinct  epidemics  of  it  oc- 
curred.    It   is   thus   described  : — * 

For  suddenly  a  deadly  burning  sweate  so  assailed  their  bodies  and 
distempered  their  blood  with  a  most  ardent  heat,  that  scarce  one 
amongst  an  hundred  that  sickened  did  escape  with  life  ;  for  all  in 
manner  as  soone  as  the  sweat  tooke  them  or  within  a  short  time 
after,  yielded  the  ghost. 

This  disease  broke  out  immediately  after  the  battle  of 
Bosworth  on  the  22nd  August,  14^5,  and  thinned  the 
ranks  of  Henry's  victorious  army,  spreading  in  a  few  weeks 
from  the  distant  mountains  of  Wales  to  the  Metropolis, 
where  two  Lord  Mayors  and  six  aldermen  died  in  one 
week.t  By  the  end  of  the  year  it  had  spread  over  the 
whole  of  England  and  was  equally  fatal  everywhere.    The 

*  Holinshed,  vol.  iii,  p.  4S2. 

t  Hecker's  Epidemics  of  the  Middle  Ages,  p.  1S2. 



second  visitation  took  place  in  1506.  Seven  years  before, 
viz :  in  1499,  there  had  been  a  fearful  visitation  of  the 
plague  in  London  which  carried  off  30,000  people,  and  the 
memory  of  the  sweating  sickness  of  1485  had  become 
gradually  obliterated.  Its  second  appearance  does  not 
seem  to  have  been  so  severe,  and  was  more  amenable  to 
treatment.  The  third  visitation  began  in  July,  1517.  It 
lasted  full  six  months  and  spread  from  London  over  the 
whole  of  England.  Scotland  and  Ireland,  and  all  places 
beyond  the  sea  were  spared  on  this  occasion.  The  disease 
was  so  rapid  and  violent  in  its  course  that  it  carried  off 
those  who  were  attacked  in  two  or  three  hours,  so  that  the 
first  shivering  fit  was  regarded  as  the  commencement  of 
certain  death.  Many  who  were  in  good  health  at  noon 
were  numbered  among  the  dead  at  evening.  Hancock 
says  in  his  autobiography  : — 

God  plaged  thys  realme  justly  for  our  sinns  with  three  notable  plages. 
The  first  was  the  posting  swet,  that  posted  from  town  to  town 
through  England,  and  was  named  stope  ^n//rtHf,  for  hytt  spared  none, 
for  ther  were  dawncyng  in  the  courte  at  g  o'clocl^e  that  were  deadd  at 
II  o'clocke. 

This  quaint  name  is  taken  from  the  French,  and  the  epi- 
demic which  ravaged  France  in  1528  was  named  trousse 
gallant,  because  it  chiefly  attacked  young  men.-  At  the 
latter  end  of  May  in  the  year  1528  the  sweating  sickness 
again  broke  out  in  England  and  rapidly  spread  over  the 
whole  kingdom.  This  outbreak  brought  a  scare  upon  all 
the  nations  of  Northern  Europ  e  scarcely  equalled  in  any 
other  epidemic.  Public  business  was  postponed,  the  courts 
were  closed,  and  four  weeks  after  the  pestilence  broke  out 
the  festival  of  St.  John  was  stopped,  to  the  great  sorrow  of 
the  people.  The  King  left  London  immediately,  and  en- 
deavoured to  avoid  the  epidemic  by  continual  travelling. 
A  great  many  lives  were  lost  in  this  epidemic,  and  by  some 

*  In  the  same  gfrotesque  spirit  the  plague  was  called  the  jolly  rant  at  Newcastle. 
Vide  Brand  vol.  ii,  p.  494. 



writers  it  has  been  called  the  great  mortality.  The  last  epi- 
demic of  the  sweating  sickness  which  occurred  in  England 
broke  out  on  the  15th  April,  1551,  at  Shrewsbury.  It 
gradually  spread,  with  stinking  mists,  all  over  England  as 
far  as  the  Scottish  borders,  and  terminated  on  the  30th 
September.     The  mists  are  thus  described  : — 

Which  unite  in  the  countrie  when  it  began,  was  sene  flie  from  towne 
to  towne  with  such  a  stinke  in  mornings  and  evenings,  that  men 
could  scarcely  abide  it. 

The  deaths  throughout  the  kingdom  were  very  numerous, 
so  that  one  historian  actually  calls  it  a  depopulation.  The 
malady  attacked  all  ranks  of  life  and  raged  with  equal 
violence  in  the  foul  huts  of  the  poor  and  in  the  palaces  of 
the  nobility.  The  very  remarkable  observation  was  made 
in  this  year  that  the  sweating  sickness  uniformly  spared 
foreigners  in  England,  and  on  the  other  hand  followed  the 
English  into  foreign  countries. 

There  are  no  local  records  of  any  of  these  epidemics 
that  have  come  under  my  observation,  but  I  think  it  quite 
possible  that  some  mention  of  the  last  epidemic  may  turn 
up  in  some  of  the  older  parish  registers.  In  the  Uffcolme 
registers,*  Devon,  the  stop  gallant  or  hote  sickness  is  men- 
tioned, and  in  Loughborough  register,  county  Leicester,  is 
the  following  entry :  The  swat  called  new  acquaintance, 
alias  stoiipe  knave  and  know  thy  master,  began  24th  June. 
As  the  duty  of  keeping  parish  registers  was  not  established 
until  September  29,  1538,  when  a  royal  injunction  was 
issued  by  Cromwell,  Vicar-General,  this  last  epidemic  of 
the  sweating  sickness  is  the  only  one  which  is  likely  to  be 
recorded  in  parish  registers.  Subsequent  to  this  period, 
epidemics  of  true  plague  frequently  occurred,  and  impor- 
tant evidence  of  its  local  prevalence  is  found  in  many  of 
the  local  registers.    Throughout  the  sixteenth  century  the 

*  Parish  Re<jisters  in  England,  by  Robt.  Edward  Charles  Waters,  B.A.  (1SS2), 
p.  72.  ' 



plaj^ue  was  a  permanent  form  of  disease  on  the  Continent 
of  Europe,  and  scarcely  a  year  passed  without  an  epidemic 
occurring  in  some  country.  The  Calendar  of  State  Papers, 
(Domestic)  contain  hundreds  of  references  to  it,  but  there 
are  few  of  local  interest.  There  are  several  entries  of 
antidotes.*     Thus  M.  de  Brummen  to  Sec.  Walsingham. 

I  send  you  three  little  cushions  of  arsenic,  to  be  hung  round  the  neck, 
and  rest  about  the  heart,  as  preservatives  against  the  plague,  for  you, 
madam,  and  mademoiselle.  They  have  done  great  good  in  Italy, 
France,  and  Germany. 

The  first  great  local  epidemic  of  which  we  have  full  record 
is  the  one  in  1597-9S,  but  from  a  statement  in  the  Penrith 
register,  which  commenced  about  this  period,  it  appears 
that  the  disease  was  in  Penrith  and  Kendal  in  1554.  The 
Hawkshead  registers  have  an  entry  under  date  Nov.  i8, 
1577:  A  "pestilent  sickness"  was  "brought  into  the 
parish  "  by  "  one  George  Barwicke  "  and  38  of  the  inhabi- 
tants died.  (C.  &W.  A.  &  A.  Trans,  vol.  IV.,  p.  35).  In 
the  Penrith  register  there  are  several  entries  which  appear 
to  have  been  copied  from  an  earlier  register.  Among  the 
entries  are  the  following : — 

Liber  Registerii  de  Penrith  scriptus  in  anno  dni  1599 

Anno  regni  regine  Elizabethe  41 

Proper  nots  worth  keeping  as  foUowethe 

Floden  feild  was  in  anno  dni  15  .  . 

Comotion  in  these  north  parts  1536 

St.  George  day  dyd  fall  on  Good  Friday 

Queene  Elizabethe  begene  her  rainge  1558 

Plague  was  in  Penrith  and  Kendal  1554 

Sollome  mose  was  in  the  yere  .... 

Rebellion  in  the  North  Parts  by  the  two  Earls  of  Northumberland  & 

Westmorland  &  Leonard  Dacres  in  the  year  of  our  lord  god  1569 

&  the  9th  day  of  November 

*  It  was  not  uncommon  at  this  period  to  wear  amulets  containingf  poisons.  They 
were  "  hung  round  the  neck  and  worn  upon  the  breast,  aud  were  supposed  to  have 
a  hidden  power  and  secret  virtue  to  defend  the  breast  trom  the  venom  of  the  pes- 
tilence."— See  Tracts  vol.  VIII,  S.  ii.  22,  in  Dean  and  Chapter  Library. 



A  sore  plague  was  in  London  notinghome  Derbie  Sc  lincolne  in  the 

year  1593 
A  sore  plagne  in  new  castle,  durrome  &  Dernton  in  the  yere  of  our 

lord  god  1597 
A  sore  plague  in  Richmond  Kendal  Penreth  Carliell  Apulbie  &  other 

places  in  Westmorland  and  Cumberland  in  the  year  of  our  lord 

god  159S  of  this  plague  ther  dyed  at  Kendal 

The  above  entries  are  copied  from  Jefferson's  Leath  Ward, 
p.  ig.  After  the  last  entry  he  states  that  there  are  a  few 
more  words,  now  very  indistinct,  and  the  remainder  of  the 
page  is  cut  or  torn  off. 

I  have  not  been  able  to  find  an}-  further  reference  to  the 
plague  at  Penrith  and  Kendal  in  1554.  An  examination 
of  the  Calendar  of  State  papers  shows  that  plague  was  in 
many  parts  of  England  as  well  as  of  the  Continent  of 
Europe  about  this  period,  but  it  was  not  until  1592  that 
the  first  of  a  series  of  great  plagues  broke  out  in  London. 
This  series  culminated  in  the  terrible  pestilence  of  1665. 
In  the  Dean  and  Chapter  Library  at  Carlisle  there  is  a 
volume  of  tracts*  (Tracts,  vol.  8,  S.  ii.,  22)  on  the  plague. 
It  contains  several  pamphlets  dealing  with  the  several 
outbreaks  which  took  place  between  1593  and  1665.  One 
of  the  tracts  bears  the  name  of  Dr.  Thomas  Smyth,  and 
it  is  probable  that  it  was  by  his  directions  the  tracts  were 
bound  together.  From  one  of  these  pamphlets  I  gather 
that  in  the  epidemic  of  1592-93,  there  were  in  London  and 
liberties  11,503  deaths  from  plague.  In  order  to  obtain 
correct  returns  weekly  bills  of  mortality  were  instituted, 
and  were  continued  for  three  years.  Their  publication 
was  then  suspended,  but  resumed  in  1603  when  the  second 
great  visitation  broke  out  and  30561  deaths  were  recorded. 
The  third  visitation  followed  in  1625  and  numbered  35417 

*  Bound  up  with  the  tracts  there  are  several  printed  proclamations  and  order, 
relating-  to  the  plague.  There  are  also  some  MSS.  orders  of  Quarter  Sessions  re- 
lating to  the  plague  at  Durham.  Having  obtained  the  permission  of  the  Chapter 
1  have  copied  these  orders  and  forwarded  them  to  the  Newcastle  Society  of 



victims,  and  the  fourth  in  1636  when  10400  persons  died. 
In  the  great  plague  of  1665  I  find  from  a  tabular  statement 
compiled  for  the  owner  of  the  pamphlets  and  written  in 
ink,  there  were  about  70000  deaths  from  the  plague."''  It 
may  be  useful  to  bear  these  dates  and  figures  in  mind  in 
connection  with  local  visitations. 

The  first  great  local  epidemic,  as  before  stated,  began  in 
1597-98.  It  probably  reached  Cumberland  from  Newcastle. 
Lord  Hunsdon,  writing  to  Cecil  from  Berwick,  8  Aug.  1570 
says  : — The  plage  is  very  sorry  at  Newcastle.  1576,  again 
at  Newcastle.  The  sick  poor  were  sent  out  of  the  town  and 
encamped  on  the  waste  grounds,  1588-89.  Again  at  New- 
castle from  May  1588  to  i  January  1589-90,  1727  persons 
died.  Business  of  the  town  was  at  a  standstill.  In  15S7 
it  raged  at  Durham.  In  1593  plague  again  at  Newcastle. 
In  1596  plague  still  in  Newcastle.  From  about  the  19th 
August  the  deaths  gradually  increased  in  numbers,  and 
the  people  appear  to  have  fallen  down  and  died  in  the 
streets,  but  in  the  autumn  of  1597  it  obtained  its  greatest 
rampancy  so  that  the  Judges  adjourned  the  Assizes  from 
Durham  and  Northumberland. 

Our  Transactions  contain  reference  to  an  unusual  mor- 
tality at  this  period  at  Carlisle,  Penrith,  Kendal,  Gosforth, 
Crosthwaite,  Great  Orton,  Holme  Cultram,  and  St.  Bees, 
and,  in  some  instances,  extracts  from  parish  registers  are 
given  to  show  the  extent  of  the  pestilence.  It  broke  out 
at  Penrith   on  the  22nd  September,  1597,  and  continued 

*  In  connection  with  these  outbreaks  it  may  be  of  interest  to  remember  that  cer- 
tain trades  were  supposed  to  confer  an  immunity  from  attack.  It  is  recorded  that 
at  Derby  it  never  entered  the  house  of  a  tanner,  tobacconist  or  shoemaker,  and 
Hearne  remarks  in  his  I\eli(jTii(t  Heariiianir,  vol.  II,  p.  17,  that  "in  the  last  o-reat 
plague  at  London  none  that  kept  tobacconists' shops  had  the  plague.  It  is  cer- 
tain that  smoaking  it  was  looked  upon  as  a  most  excellent  preservative.  In  so 
much  that  even  children  were  obliged  to  smoak.  And  I  remember,  that  I  heard 
formerly  Tom  Rogers,  who  was  yeoman  beadle,  say,  that  when  he  was  that  year, 
when  the  plague  raged,  a  school-boy  at  Eton,  all  the  boys  of  that  school  were 
obliged  to  smoak  in  the  school  every  morning,  and  that  he  was  never  whipped  so 
much  in  his  life  as  he  was  one  morning  for  not  smoaking." 



until  December  13th,  1598.  At  that  time  William  Wallis 
was  vicar  of  Penrith.  He  notes  the  beginning  of  the 
pestilence  in  the  parish  register,  as  follows  :~ 

1597.  22nd  day  of  September  Andrew  Hodgson  a  foreigner  was 
buried.  Here  begonne  the  plague  (God's  punishment  in  Perith).  All 
those  that  are  noted  with  the  P  dyed  of  the  infection,  and  those  noted 
with  F  were  buried  on  the  fell. 

On  December  13,  159S,  is  the  entry  : — 

Here  endeth  the  Visitation. 

The  foreigner  most  probabl}-  introduced  the  disease  into 
the  district  and  became  the  first  victim  of  what  must  have 
been  a  disastrous  calamity.  At  first  the  disease  was  con- 
fined to  a  few  families,  of  which  the  most  part,  if  not  all, 
were  swept  away  in  a  few  days.  Here  are  a  few  entries 
of  interest  : — 

1597.    The  14th  day  of  October  Elizabeth  daughter  of  John  Kailton 

The  24th  day  John  Railton  miller  buried 

The  ist  day  of  November  Mabel  the  wife  of  John  Kailton  buried 
The  5th  day  Elizabeth  Railton  buried 
The  loth  day  son  of  Thomas  Hewer  buried 
The  12th  day  Margaret  daughter  of  Thomas  Hewer  buried 
On  the  same  day  Thomas  Hewer  was  buried 
On  the  23rd  day  Catherine  daughter  of  Thomas  Hewer  buried 

On  the  27th  of  May  in  the  following  year  thirteen  burials 
are  entered  ;  on  the  nth  of  August  there  were  seventeen, 
and  on  the  2nd  of  September  twenty-two  entries. 

There  is  an  interesting  record  of  this  great  epidemic  in 
an  inscription  on  the  wall  of  the  chancel  of  Penrith  Church, 
and  the  same  inscription  is  repeated  on  a  modern  brass 
plate.  During  some  recent  restorations  a  portion  of  the 
inscription  in  the  chancel  has  been  covered  up,  but  copies 
of  it  have  been  published.     It  is  as  follows  : — 




Ex  gravi  peste,  quod  I'egionibus  hisce  incubuit,  obierunt  apud 
Penrith  2260 
Kendal  2500 
Richmond  2200 
Carlisle  1196 
Avertite  vos  et  vivite. — Ezek.  xviii.,  32. 

There  is  no  date  to  the  inscription,  and  no  name  to  show 
by  whom  it  was  placed  there.  I  notice  that  in  Chancellor 
Ferguson's  Histor}^  of  the  Diocese  of  Carlisle,  Penrith 
Church  was  rebuilt  during  last  century,  and  I  think  that 
probably  the  inscription  was  drawn  up  at  the  time  of  the 
rebuilding,  and  the  figures  taken  from  an  older  inscription, 
which,  according  to  Bishop  Nicolson,  was  on  the  church  in 
his  day.  At  p.  154  of  the  Miscellany  Accounts  of  the 
Diocese  of  Carlisle,  there  occurs  the  following  : — 

On  the  outside  of  the  North  Wall  of  the  Vestry,  in  a  rude  and  slovenly 

Character  : 

Pestis  fuit,  Ao-  159S  unde  moriebantur  apud  Kendal 
2500,  Richmond  2200,  Penrith  2266,  Karliol  1196. 

In  this  older  inscription  the  order  of  the  places  is  changed 
and  Penrith  is  credited  with  six  more  deaths.  In  Gibson's 
Camden,  p.  842  this  same  inscription  is  noticed.  The 
author  gives  a  translation  of  the  words,  the  same  figures 
as  Nicolson,  speaks  of  the  rude  characters  of  the  writing 
and  says  the  "  passage  is  the  more  observable  and  worth 
our  notice,  because  not  to  be  met  withal  in  our  Histories." 
Much  speculation  has  taken  place  with  regard  to  the 
numbers  on  this  inscription.  Only  583  deaths  are  re- 
corded in  the  Penrith  register.  The  greater  number  of 
those  who  perished  during  the  pestilence  were  buried  in 
a  common  trench  or  grave  on  the  fell ;  some  were  buried 
in  the  church  yard,  some  in  the  school-house  yard,  and 
some  in  their  own  gardens.  Whellan  (History  of  Cum- 
berland   and    Westmorland,    p.    596)   suggests   that    the 



numbers  on  the  register  represent  only  those  who  were 
buried  in  the  churchyard  or  school-house  yard.  Walker, 
in  his  History  of  Penrith,  thinks  the  numbers  on  the  in- 
scription may  be  taken  as  the  aggregate  of  other  parishes 
in  the  neighbourhooJ,  and  the  same  idea  is  put  forward  in 
a  footnote  published  in  Hutchinson's  History  of  Cumber- 
land, vol.  I,  p.  326.  The  Rev.  H.  Whitehead,  who  has 
devoted  much  attention  to  parish  registers,  has  suggested 
a  very  reasonable  explanation  of  this  difficulty.  He  be- 
lieves that  the  rural  deaneries  of  those  names  are  meant. 
We  know  that  the  disease  prevailed  very  extensively  in  the 
neighbouring  parishes.  The  Rev.  Thomas  Lees,  F.S.A., 
in  his  account  of  the  Greystoke  registers  (vol.  I,  p.  342, 
of  Society's  Transactions)  says  that,  under  date  November 
14,  157S  :— 

The  same  day  was  buried  Margaret  Sle  of  Hutton  John  wch  child 
was  suspected  to  dye  of  the  plague. 

The  average  mortality  of  the  parish  rose  from  45  to  182  in 
1597,  and  of  this  year  the  first  seventeen  days  were 
wanting.  At  the  same  period  the  pestilence  was  severe 
at  Kirkoswald.  Jefferson,  in  his  History  of  Leath  Ward, 
p.  273,  says  that  in  1597  forty-two  persons  died  of  the 
pestilence,  and  in  159S  it  numbered  583  victims.  Through 
the  kindness  of  Canon  Ransome,  I  liave  had  the  oppor- 
tunity of  examining  the  Kirkoswald  register,  and  I  submit 
that  there  are  no  entries  to  warrant  the  belief  that  such 
an  extensive  pestilence  prevailed.  In  159!  the  number  of 
"  buryings  "  is  12  ;  159!,  14;  I59|-,  7;  fi'om  May  1595  ^o 
February  I59f  there  are  ten  entries.  From  February  159" 
to  February  i59|-  there  are  51  entries.  An  examination  of 
these  under  the  several  months  show  the  rapid  rise  of  the 
epidemic.  In  February  there  w^ere  4  ;  March,  9  ;  April, 
13  ;  May,  3  ;  June,  i  ;  July,  5 ;  August,  i  ;  September,  5  ; 
October,  3  ;  November,  5  ;  February,  2  ;  total,  51.  In 
1598  only  four  entries  occur,  the  last  being  in  a  different 



handwriting  from  the  others.  Among  the  entries  is  the 
following  : — 

William  Bowman  parish  clarke  died  7  Nov.  1597. 

Canon  Ransome  informs  me  that  he  is  not  aware  of  any 
authority  for  the  statement  quoted  by  Jefferson,  and  if 
such  a  mortality  as  stated  did  occur,  a  very  large  number 
must  have  been  buried  without  funeral  rites.  The  plague 
visited  Appleby  also  at  this  time.  Nicolson  and  Burn, 
(History  of  Cumberland  and  Westmorland,  vol.  I,  p.  321), 
say  that  at  this  time  the  fairs  and  markets  had  to  be  re- 
moved on  account  of  the  infection  from  Appleby  to  Gils- 
haughlin,*  and  that  between  August  ist  and  March  25th 
there  died  at  Appleby,  Scattergate,  Colby,  and  Colby 
Leathes  12S  persons.  The  Rev.  A.  Warren  informs  me 
that  the  parish  registers  of  St.  Michael's,  Appleb}',  wdiich 
began  in  1582,  show  a  larger  number  of  entries  than  usual 
in  1598. t  The  earlier  registers  of  St.  Lawrence  are  miss- 
ing, and  the  oldest  only  goes  back  to  1695.  At  Edenhall 
about  one-fourth  of  the  inhabitants  are  said  to  have 
perished  of  the  pestilence  in  1598.  Through  the  courtesy 
of  the  vicar,  Rev.  W.  Lovejoy,  I  have  been  permitted  to 
examine  the  Edenhall  and  Langwathby  Registers.  The 
former  commences  in  1558  and  is  in  fairly  good  preserva- 
tion, but  the  edges  of  the  leaves  of  that  part  of  the  book 
which  refers  to  the  visitations  of  the  plague  are  destroyed 
in  parts  as  if  eaten  by  mice.  The  parish  seems  to  have 
suffered  severely.  In  the  year  159^  there  are  only  four 
entries  of  burials.  In  the  following  year  I59|-,  after  re- 
cording the  burials  of  eight  people  the  following  note 
occurs  : — 

*  At  p.  460  of  Nicolson  &  Burn's  History,  in  describing-  the  parish  of  Cliburn, 
it  is  stated  : — "  Within  this  parish  is  a  tenement,  now  belonging-  to  Sir  James 
Lowther,  baronet,  called  Gilshaug-hlin  (from  rubbish  shoveling-  down),  where  the 
market  was  held  159S,  when  the  plague  raged  at  Appleby." 

t  In  his  letter  Mr.  Warren  states  that  in  1699  the  mortality  was  excessive,  and 
that  the  burials  about  this  period  are  all  certified  to  be  "  in  woolen." 



These  4  next  following  dyed  of  the  plaige,  Itm  vii  M'cii  Pattrig  Rowt- 
lishe  was  buried  w*n  Flatts  wall  neare  to  his  own  house  being  knowne 
to  dye  of  the  plaige. 

The  death  of  his  wife  on  the  Sth  of  March  ;  his  servant 
EHzabeth  Thompson  on  the  nth,  and  his  infant  son  John 
immediately  follow.  .  The  first  is  entered  as  having  been 
buried  "  beside  her  husband  near  the  said  place,"  and  the 
last  was  buried  "  beside  his  father  and  mother  in  said 
place."  This  seems  to  have  been  an  isolated  outbreak  of 
the  disease.  No  further  deaths  from  it  are  recorded  until 
the  end  of  the  following  July,  159S.  A  baptism  is  recorded 
on  the  24th  March.  There  was  another  baptism  on  April 
25,  three  burials  between  this  date  and  August,  and  then 
at  the  head  of  the  next  page  is  this  entry  :  — 

The  42  next  following  dyed  of  the — (word  wanting). 

The  first  plague  death  was  on  July  29.  Some  families 
suffered  very  severely  as  shown  by  the  following  entries  : — 

Itm  First  August  one  child  of  Andrew  Atkinson  ot  the  plaige  Sc  was 
buried  in  flatts  cloose.  Itm  xv  &  xvi  August  Andrew  Atkinson  wiffe 
iiii  other  children  dyed  of  plaige  and  were  buried  their  Lodge  on 
Edenhall  Fell  at  a  place  called  Shaddowbourgh. 

Twenty  deaths  occurred  in  August,  and  eleven  in  Sep- 
tember. Some  were  buried  in  the  churchyard,  others  be- 
side or  '*on  the  backside  of  their  house,  on  Penrith  Fell, 
or  Flatts  cloose."  The  epidemic  lasted  until  November. 
The  following  entry  closes  the  record  :  — 

Examyned  and  signed  by  the  Viccar  &  Churchwardens  of  Edenhall 

whose  names  are  under  written 

nu       \         A  '    John  Watson 

Churchwardens      -    Vxr  ,,„  id  ,.i.- 

(    Wyll'"  Pattmson 

Per  me  Will"^  Smith  vicariu  ibidem. 

In  the  latter  part  of  the  year  there  were  no  deaths,  but 



one  wedding  and  two  baptisms.  All  the  entries  of  deaths 
are  in  the  same  handwriting,  and  have  evidently  been 
entered  with  great  care.  The  same  handwriting  continues 
until  1609,  when  the  death  of  the  vicar  is  announced  as 
follows  :  — 

Anno  D'ni  1609. 

The  first  da3'e  of  Maye  was  Sir  Will'"  Smith  viccar  of  .     .     .  buried 

anno  D'ni  1609. 

He  was  evidently  more  precise  and  methodical  about  his 
register  than  he  was  about  his  personal  appearance.  In 
Bishop  Meye's  time  a  Court  of  High  Commission  was 
held,  and  we  find  him  among  the  offenders  : — 

Wilham  Smyth,  Curate  of  Edenhall,  presented  to  wear  his  hose  lowse 
at  the  knees.'' 

Tliere  are,  doubtless,  many  parishes  from  which  similar 
records  of  this  eventful  period  might  be  obtained.  Those 
I  have  given  show  hovv'  widespread  was  the  pestilence.  I 
proceed  to  give  some  record  of  the  shifts  which  were 
adopted  about  this  period  to  avoid  the  infection.  Nicholson, 
in  his  "  Annals  of  Kendal,"  in  describing  Coneybeds,  a  fort, 
situated  on  Hay  Fell,  says : — 

In  the  time  of  the  plague  which  desolated  the  kingdom  in  1597-98, 
provisions  were  brought  to  this  spot  by  the  country  people,  and  de- 
posited for  the  inhabitants  of  Kendal,  which  was  their  only  intercourse 
during  that  destructive  period. 

At  Penrith,  also,  the  usual  markets  were  suspended,  and 
places  without  the  town  (now  called  Meal-Cross,  Cross- 
Green,)  were  appointed  for  purchasing  the  provisions 
brought  by  the  country  people.  There  still  remains  a 
large  block  of  stone  called  the  plague  stone. t  It  is  a 
block    of  freestone,   hollowed   in  the  centre  as  a  trough, 

*  An  account  of  this  Court  will  he  found  in  the  History  of  the  Uiccese  of  Car- 
lisle, by  Chancellor  Ferguson,  p.  127. 
t  See  Walker's  History  of  Penrith. 



about  twelve  inches  square  and  ten  inches  deep,  which  was 
intended  to  hold  some  disinfecting  liquid,  most  probably 
vinegar.  In  this  trough  the  money  from  the  hands  of  the 
townspeople  was  laid,  and  only  when  thus  disinfected 
would  the  farmers  receive  it  in  payment  for  their  goods. 
In  Keswick  there  is  a  tradition  that  when  the  plague 
raged,  as  no  markets  were  held  for  fear  of  the  infection, 
the  people  of  the  dales  carried  their  webs  and  yarns  to  a 
large  stone,  which  is  very  conspicuous  on  one  of  the  lower 
elevations  of  Armboth  Fell,  and  there  periodically  met  and 
did  business  with  the  trades.  The  stone  still  goes  by  the 
name  of  the  "  wd)  stone.'"''''  Mr.  J.  Fisher  Crosthwaite  in- 
forms me  he  has  heard  old  people  say  that  when  the 
plague  was  in  Keswick  the  countr}'  people  came  to  "  Cuddy 
Beck,"  but  did  not  cross  the  little  stream.  The  money 
was  placed  in  the  water  and  then  taken,  and  the  produce 
was  laid  on  the  ground  for  the  Keswickians  to  take  back. 
The  "  Chronicle  of  Perth  "'  (quoted  in  McDowall's  "  His- 
tory of  Dumfries,"  p.  3S1)  says  the  wheat  in  1598  was 
blasted  over  all  Scotland,  and  oatmeal  was  so  scarce  that  it 
sold  for  6s.  the  peck,  "  ane  great  deid  amang  the  people  " 
being  occasioned  by  the  scarcity.  Dumfries  also  suffered 
severely  from  the  visitation.  The  follov/ing  letter  graphi- 
cally shows  the  condition  of  the  North  country,  and  is 
taken  from  the  Calendar  of  State  Papers  (p.  347,  1597) : — 

Jan.  ?  10.  Complaint  of  Dr.  William  James,  Dean  of  Durham,  to 
Lord  (Burghley  ?  I  The  decay  of  tillage  and  dispeopling  of  villages 
offends  God  by  spoiling  the  Church,  dishonours  the  prince,  weakens 
the  commonwealth,  &c.,  Sec,  but  it  is  nowhere  so  dangerous  as  in 
northern  parts.  The  inhabitants'  arms  were  wont  to  be  the  strength 
walls,  but  now  they  are  open  gaps  ;  want  and  waste  have  crept  into 
Northumberland,  Westmoreland,  &  Cumberland  ;  many  have  to  come 
60  miles  from  Carlisle  to  Durham  to  buy  bread,  and  sometimes  for  20 
miles  there  will  be  no  inhabitant.     In  the  bishopric  of  Durham,  500 

*  Transactions  of  Cumbd.  &  Westmd.  Association  for  advancement  of  Literature 
and  Science,  No.  xij.  1SS7,  p.  70. 



ploughs  have  decayed  in  a  few  years,  and  corn  has  to  be  fetched  from 
Newcastle,  whereby  the  plague  is  spread  in  the  northern  counties  ; 
thus  the  money  goes,  and  the  people  can  neither  pay  their  landlords 
nor  store  their  ground.  By  this  decay,  the  Queen  loses  500  horsemen, 
who  were  bound  with  their  servants  to  be  ready  armed  at  an  hour's 
warning.  Also  those  that  remain  have  to  bear  the  burden  of  the  500 
decayed.  Of  8000  acres  lately  in  tillage,  now  not  eight  score  are 
tilled ;  those  who  sold  corn  have  to  buy,  and  colleges  and  cathedrals 
are  impoverished,  because  tenants  cannot  pay  their  rents  ;  then  whole 
families  are  turned  out,  and  poor  borough  towns  are  pestered  with 
four  or  five  families  under  one  roof.  I  beg  the  setting  of  these  ploughs 
again,  and  present  this  to  you  in  the  absence  of  the  Bishop,  who  ten- 
derly affects  this  cause. 

Under  date  Jan.  16,  Dr.  Wm.  James  writes  to  Secretary 
Cecil  :— 

If  corn  were  not  brought  in  at  Newcastle,  which  now  has  the  plague, 
thousands  would  perish  for  want  of  bread. 

Mr.  Lees,  in  a  letter  published  in  Stockdale's  "Annals  of 
Cartmel,"  has  the  following  note: — 

The  cause  of  this  destructive  pestilence  is  thus  described  by  King,  in 
one  of  his  sermons  at  York.  Remember  the  Spring  was  very  unkind 
by  means  of  the  abundance  of  rains  ;  our  July  hath  been  like  a 
February,  our  June  even  as  an  April,  so  that  the  air  must  needs  be 
corrupted.  God  amend  it  in  his  mercy  and  stay  the  plague  of  waters. 

Except  the  inscription  on  the  Penrith  stone  there  are  no 
records  of  the  numbers  affected  with  the  plague  at  Carlisle, 
and  none  of  the  local  registers  go  so  far  back.  Jefferson, 
(History  of  Carlisle,  p.  44)  says  that  in  1598  contributions 
were  raised  for  the  diseased  poor,  which  amounted  to 
£209  9s.  lod.  According  to  Gibson's  Camden,  quoted  by 
Hutchinson,  History  of  Cumberland,  vol.  I,  p.  326,  the 
plague  broke  out  on  October  3.  He  says  no  notice  was 
taken  of  any  deaths  except  those  in  the  city  and  places 
quite  adjacent.  The  lesson  which  the  visitation  taught 
was  a  severe  one,  and  precautions  were  taken  for  pre- 
venting the  city  from  becoming  infected  by  strangers  in 



the  future.  Chancellor  Ferguson  tells  me  that  the  Cham- 
berlain Accounts  of  the  City  of  Carlisle  for  1604  contain 
note  of  payments  for  watching  the  gates  to  prevent  any 
plague  stricken  foreigner  from  entering. 

After  this  great  pestilence  a  quarter  of  a  century  elapsed 
before  the  next  epidemic  in  the  Border  district,  of  which 
I  can  find  record.  Several  references  to  an  unusual  mor- 
tality in  1623  are  to  be  found  in  previous  volumes  of  our 
Transactions.  The  first  to  call  attention  to  this  subject 
was  Mr.  Wm.  Jackson,  who,  in  examining  the  Newton 
Reigny  registers,  was  surprised  at  the  great  mortality  in 
1597  and  1623,  and  Mr.  Lees  found  from  the  Greystoke 
registers  that  the  same  years  had  an  excessive  mortality. 
Mr.  Lees'  idea  vC^as  that  this  mortality  was  only  local, 
caused  by  a  bad  harvest  in  1622,  or  a  very  inclement 
season  in  1623,  or  perhaps  both.  At  Greystoke  the  mor- 
tality in  the  latter  year  was  nearly  as  bad  as  in  the  plague 
year  in  1597.  Further  enquiry  has  shown,  however,  that 
the  mortality  in  this  year  was  very  heavy  over  most  parts 
of  Cumberland  and  Westmorland,  and  also  in  the  South 
of  Scotland,  and  the  existence  of  the  plague  as  one  of  the 
causes  of  it  is  shown  from  the  following  extract  from 
McDowall's    "  History    of   Dumfries,"    2nd    Ed.   p.   381. 

Again  the  two  fell  destroyers  visited  the  country  in  1623.  At  midsum- 
mer that  year,  Caldervvood  tells  us,  the  famine  was  so  sore  that 
many,  both  in  burgh  and  land  died  of  hunger,  numerous  poor  folks, 
who  flocked  into  Edinburgh  in  a  vain  search  for  succour,  falling  down 
lifeless  in  the  streets  of  the  city.  For  several  months  prior  to  Michael- 
mas the  mortality  in  Perth  was  at  the  rate  of  ten  or  twelve  deaths 
per  day :  some  other  towns  suffered  in  the  same  proportion  ;  and  Dum- 
fries, perhaps,  in  a  greater  degree  than  any.  Fearful  must  have  been 
the  condition  of  the  burgh  in  that  fatal  year  :  many  of  the  people 
pining  for  want — many  more  perishing  under  the  arrows  of  the  pes- 
tilence— some  suffering  from  both  the  famine  and  the  plague. 

A  tabular  statement  of  the  death  rate  in  some  of  the 
parishes  in  the  two  counties  may  be  of  some  interest.     It 




shows  how  widespread  the  epidemic   was,  and  how  great 
the  death  rate  was  in  some  small  parishes  : — 





^^    -      average  about   13 
116    ) 










Bolton,  C. 


50    double  ordinary  years 





































182    I                       , 

-  average  under  30 
163    ) 



267   ) 
84    I  average  about  30 



257  J 

Newton  Reigny 

55                            55 


^^    -  average  S 
35    ' 

Saint  Bees 


145      average  30 

Kirkby  Lonsdale 


82  ^ 
no    '.average  under  50 

55                            55 


55                            55 


120   ) 

St.  Leonards,  Cleator 

51                                     55 


28  Y"^'^'^^^  5 



26       average  12 


























































45  ] 


34  ) 



average  15 
average  17 

In  the  West  of  Cumberland  plague  seems  to  have  been 
very  prevalent.  Dr.  Ormrod,  of  Workington,  who  has 
kindly  examined  the  registers  at  Dean,  Lamplugh,  and 
Camerton,  for  me,  sends  the  following  interesting  note  re- 
garding the  latter  register:  — 

The  register  dates  from  1599,  is  well  preserved  and  the  writing  such 
as  you  would  expect  from  one  of  Queen  Elizabeth's  churchmen  clear 
and  stylish.  A  very  weak  imagination  can  picture  the  horrors  of 
that  time.  The  parish  seems  to  have  included  Flimby  (with  a  chapel) 
Camerton,  Seaton  and  the  hamlet  of  Ribton.  Death  seems  to  have 
treated  all  alike  from  the  Curwen  who  seems  to  have  been  the  squire 
(a  younger  branch  of  the  Workington  Curwens)  to  "  ye  poore  childe 
and  ye  poore  woman  whom  no  one  knoweth," — whose  deaths  without 
a  name  are  recorded.  The  clerk  seems  to  have  lived  through  it  all, 
for  the  same  scholarly  hand  records  the  whole  of  the  dismal  tale. 
The  churchyard  at  Camerton  is  small  now,  and  it  has  been  enlarged, 
but  it  must  have  been  raised  in  height  by  the  accumulation  of  human 
clay,  for  during  the  year  1623-4,  April  to  April,  92  bodies  were  in 

*  In  forwarding-  me  the  Ravenstonedale  statistics,  the  Rev.  R.  W.  Metcalfe  says 
the  mortality  was  especially  high  in  June,  July,  and  August  of  1730,  and  the  epi- 
demic must  have  been  very  contagious  judging  from  the  frequency  of  the  same 
family  name  occurring.  There  is  no  mention  of  this  epidemic  in  any  of  the  local 
histories  I  have  seen. 































2  (can' 


't  make  1 







The  year  1622  seems  to  have  been  a  sickly  time,  but  it  was  not  till 
the  summer  of  1623  that  the  death  cloud  burst  in  its  full  fury.  In 
the  month  of  March  and  April  the  average  was  as  usual,  but  it  rose 
with  alarming  rapidity,  attaining  its  maximum  in  September. 

Mch  &  Apl 










Sept.    Oct. 



J  any. 


20      16 





Two  and  three  deaths  were  common  in  a  house. 

Gyles  Dynningon  died  with  his  wife  and  daughter 

John  Pearson  died  with  his  wife  and  daughter 

Henry  Allisan  lost  wife  and  two  daughters 

Geo.  Bouch  lost  wife  daughter  and  reputed  daughter 

John  Moor  lost  son  and  daughter 

Antony  Yeoward  lost  wife  son  brother  and  I  think  more  besides. 

There  was  no  time  for  marryings  and  christenings  for  few  took  place 

that  year  but   the  following  year  they  were  marrying  and  giving  in 

marriage  as  usual,  and  the  number  of  christenings  was  very  large.    To 

one  who  knows  the  district  well  and  can  imagine  what  it  was  then 

these   bare  facts  furnish   the  outline  of  a  ghastly  picture — the  idle 

plough — the  silent  spinning  wheel,  the  melancholy  hearth,  and  the 

subdued  conversation  as  each  enquired  of  his  neighbour  who  had 

gone  last  and  wondered  who  would  be  next. 

Comparing  this  plague  year  with  the  last  cholera  visita- 
tion in  1849,  Dr.  Ormrod  furnishes  me  with  the  number 
of  burials  in  the  parishes  of  St.  Michael's  and  St.  John's, 
Workington,  during  the  following  years  :  — 

In  1847  iQS  burials. 











Tlie  plague  of  1623  seems  to  Iiave  been  the  last  epidemic 
year  in  the  two  counties.*  A  few  more  instances  of  its 
presence  are  recorded,  but  it  does  not  seem  to  have  had 
any  great  prevalence. 

Some  instances  of  the  plague  are  remarkable  for  the 
high  station  of  those  affected.  I  am  indebted  to  Mrs. 
Ware  for  calling  my  attention  to  tlie  fact  that  two 
successive  Bishops  of  Carlisle  died  of  the  plague  :  their 
deaths  are  recorded  in  the  Dalston  registers.  Bishop  John 
Meyt  who  succeeded  Bishop  Richard  Barnes  in  1577,  died 
in  1597  from  the  plague  at  Rose  Castle,  at  eight  o'clock  in 
the  morning,  and  was  buried  in  the  Cathedral  in  the  evening 
of  the  same  day.  His  successor,  Bishop  Henr}'  Robinson, 
who  became  celebrated  for  his  piety  and  learning,  died  of 
the  plague  at  Rose  Castle  on  the  igth  June,  1616,  at  about 
three  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  and  was  buried  in  the 
Cathedral  the  same  evening  about  eleven  o'clock. |  Henry 
Lord  Clifford,  writing  from  Appleby  Castle,  under  date 
Sep.  10,  1625,  to  Sec.  Conway,  states: — 

That  the  plague  Is  in  Lord  Will.  Howard's  house.  Sir  Francis 
Howard's  ladj^  took  the  infection  from  a  new  gown  she  had  from 
London  so  as  she  died  the  same  day  she  took  it. 

In  the  household  books  of  Lord  William  Howard,  of 
Naworth  Castle  (published  by  Surtees  Society,  p.  227,) 
occurs  this  entry  : — 

Rewards  and  given  to  the  poor  (inter  aha)  Octob.  5.  Given  to  my 
Lady  for  the  poor  at  Sir  Francis'  Ladye's  funeralls  iij". 

In  a  foot  note  on  same  page  : — 

*  Great  poverty  and  scarcity  prevailed  for  some  years  in  the  North  about  this 
period.  In  1629  the  Justices  of  the  Peace  made  a  representation  to  the  Council 
on  this  subject  (vide  Calendar  of  State  Papers,— Domestic,  1C29,  p.  450): — "Of 
late  the  price  of  corn  is  marvellously  enhanced  in  all  these  northern  parts,  being 
much  about  the  prios  following,— a  quarter  of  wheat,  ,^4;  rye,  £2,  >  bigg,  40s. ; 
oats,  20s.,  atter  the  rate  of  twelve  gallons  to  the  bushel,  the  ordinary  measure  of  the 
country.  Fear  even  these  prices  will  be  higher,  except  they  be  supplied  from  the 
south.     Pray  them  to  stay  the  export  of  corn." 

t  Jefferson's  History  of  Carlisle,  p.  21G. 

+  Op.  Cit.  p.  iSo. 



Margaret,  daughter  of  John  Preston,  of  the  Manor  of  Furness,  Esq.,  the 
first  wife  of  Sir  Francis  Howard.  Her  death  is  recorded  in  Sir  Fran- 
cis' prayer  book,  in  his  handwriting,  as  having  taken  place  on  the  7th 
of  September,  1625.  The  book  is  preserved  at  Corby, — (Cf  Howard 
Memorials,  of  the  late  Henry  Howard,  Esq.,  of  Corby  p.  8r.)  She 
died  of  the  plague,  as  we  learn  from  a  letter  by  Henry,  Lord  Clifford, 
to  Secretar}'  Conway,  dated  Appleby  Castle,  Sept.  10,  1625  — :"the 
plague  is  gotten  unto  my  Lord  William  Howarde's  house,  and  the 
first  that  dyed  of  it  was,  S^"  Francis  Howarde's  lady,  whoe  tooke  the 
infection  from  a  new  gowne  she  had  from  London,  soe  as  she  dyed  the 
same  day  she  tooke  it,  wherupon  they  are  all  dispersed  most  miserably 
with  the  greatest  terror  in  the  worlde,  since  they  had  all  beene  with 
the  lady,  and  all  in  danger  by  that  meanes.  God  knowes  it  was  a 
most  lamentable  accident,  and  worthy  of  the  tenderest  pytty,  to  have 
all  his  children  and  grand-children  in  this  aparant  danger,  and  the 
lady  of  S''  William  Howarde,  the  hope  of  his  house  (beeinge  his 
heyer),  greate  with  childe."     (S.  P.  Dom  Charles  I,  vi.  46). 

In  West  Cumberland  (Bridekirk  Registers,  vide  Trans, 
vol.  IV,  p.  262,)  two  families  seem  to  have  been  destroyed 
by  the  plague  in  1647  and  are  entered  as  peste  tnortui,  and 
in  a  note,  p.  279,  the  destruction  by  plague  of  the  Brom- 
field  family  is  recorded  as  having  taken  place  in  1648. 
This  is  the  last  local  entry  of  the  plague  I  can  find.  The 
great  Visitation,  as  it  is  called,  took  place  in  London  in 
1665,  and  this  was  followed  by  the  decline  and  ultimate 
cessation  of  the  disease  not  only  in  Europe,  but  in  the 
East  generally.  It  finally  disappeared  from  the  English 
Bills  of  Mortality  in  1679.  The  ravages,  however,  of  the 
disease  about  the  time  when  the  English  Liturgy  was 
penned  in  1547  will  show  the  great  significance  which 
would  be  attached  to  the  following  words  in  the  Liturgy  : — 

From  lightning  and  tempest  ;  from  plague,  pestilence,  and  famine  ; 
from  battle  and  murder,  and  from  sudden  death,  Good  Lord,  deliver 

Note. — Since  the  above  paper  was  in  type  I  have  had  the  oppor- 
tunity, through  the  courtesy  of  Dr.  Garnett,  of  examining  the  topo- 
graphical catalogue  of  MSS.  and  also  the  catalogue  of  MS  treatises 
and  papers  relating  to  the  plague  in  the  British  Museum.     There 



does  not  appear  to  be  any  matters  of  direct  local  bearing  but  from 
enquires  I  made  of  the  courteous  keeper  of  the  department,  I  am 
inclined  to  think  that  valuable  and  interesting  material  might  pos- 
sibly be  found  in  the  Court  rolls  of  some  of  the  manors  in  Cum- 
berland and  Westmorland,  and  also  in  collections  of  private  corres- 
pondence. The  kind  of  information  which  maybe  expected  from  the 
latter  source  may  be  gathered  from  an  extract  which  I  quote  from 
the  Egerton  papers — Camden  Society,  p.  406. 

Letter  from  Lord  Dumfermline,  Lord  Chancellor  of  Scotland  to 
the  Lord  Chancellor  of  England,  dated  30  October,  1606. 

"  The  estaite  of  this  kingdome  in  quietnes,  obedience,  and  all  other  respects, 
is  indeed  better  (thanks  to  God)  at  this  present,  nor  it  has  been  scene  in  ony 
levin?  menns  reniemberance.  The  only  truble  we  haiff  is  this  contagious  sick- 
nes  of  peste,  whilk  is  spread  marvelouslie  in  the  best  townes  of  this  realme.  In 
Edenburght  it  has  bene  continuall  this  four  years,  at  the  present  not  werie 
vehement,  bot  sik  as  stayes  the  cowmann  course  of  administration  off  justice, 
whilk  can  not  be  weill  exercised  in  naa  other  plain.  Air  and  Stirveling  ar  al- 
most overthrown  with  the  seiknes,  within  thir  twa  moneths  about  twa  thousand 
personnes  dead  in  ane  of  thame.  The  maist  of  the  people  fled,  and  the  tounes 
almoste  left  desolat.  Dundie  and  Pearthe,  otherwayes  called  St.  Jhonstoun,  the 
twa  best  tounes  in  this  kingdome  nixt  to  Edenburght,  wearie  wealthie  and  mer- 
chant tounes  indeed,  ar  baith  also  infected  within  theis  twa  monthes,  and  in  great 
truble.  Glasgow  and  many  other  tounes  and  partes  ar  in  the  same  distres. 
God  of  his  mercie  remove  the  same." 

If  any  of  my  readers  having  access  to  such  sources  of  information 
as  1  have  indicated  will  communicate  with  me,  I  shall  be  much 


Art.   XVI. — Mayburgh  and  King  Arthur's   Round   Table. 
By  C.  W.  Dymond,  F.S.A. 

^PHE  accompanying  plans  and  sections  of  these  ancient 
-*-  remains  are  reduced  prioto-lithographed  copies  of 
originals  drawn  to  one  scale  from  exact  instrumental 
surveys  made  in  October,  1889.  The  objects  thus  de- 
lineated, though  not  the  only  relics  of  remote  ages  in 
their  district,  are  by  far  the  most  prominent  among  them. 
Both  are  on  the  south  side  of  the  river  Eamont,  close  to 
the  village  of  Eamont''  Bridge,  and  near  together  ; — their 
centres  being  but  445  yardst  apart. 

Southward  from  the  Round  Table,  centrally  distant 
from  it  about  225  yards,  and  with  little  more  than  the 
width  of  a  road  between  it  and  the  river  Lowther,  there 
formerly  existed  a  slight  annular  embankment,  known  as 
the  "  Little  Round  Table,"  vestiges  of  which  were  visible 
until  about  the  year  1878,  when,  according  to  Mr.  William 
Atkinson,  the  last  traces  were  obliterated  in  widening  the 
approaches  to  the  new  lodge-gates  of  Lowther  park.  He 
describes  what  he  saw  as  consisting  of  "  a  low  circular 
ridge  .  .  .  not  more  than  6  to  g  inches  above 
the  level  of  the  surrounding  ground,  and  from  3  to  5  feet 
broad  at  the  base."|  There  is  some  difference  of  state- 
ment between  authorities  who  give  the  diameter  of  this 
ring.  Stukeley,  partial  to  round  numbers,  calls  it  100 
yards,  and  says,  "  the  vallum  is  small,  and  the  ditch 
whence  it  was  taken  is  outermost. "§  Hutchinson,  who 
wrongly  locates  it  "  nearer  to  Emont  Bridge,"  (Lowther 

*  Locally  pronounced  "  Yammon  :  "  whence,  perhaps,  Yeoman's  bridge,  an  old 
foim  of  the  name. 

t  Measured  on  the  25-inch  ordnance  map,  which,  however,  is  not  always  quite 
trustworthy  as  to  the  smaller  dimensions  and  distances. 

+  Traits.  Ciimid.  and  JFcslm.  Ant.  Soc,  vol.  VI,  p.  444. 

§  Itincrarium  Curiosum,  Cent.  11,  p.  43. 

bridge  ?) 


bridge?)  describes  it  as  a  "circular  ditch,  with  a  very  low 
rampart,  .  .  .  without  any  apertures  or  advances  ;  "* 
and  puts  the  diameter  at  70  paces.  It  is  clearly  shown  on 
a  well-engraved  plan  in  Pennant's  First  Tour  in  Scot- 
land, 1769,  herewith  reproduced  in  facsimile  on  a  rather 
smaller  scale.  The  outer  diameter  measures  80  yards, 
after  making  a  needful  adjustment  of  the  slightly  erroneous 
scale  attached  to  the  plan.  No  ditch  is  shown, — the  size 
is  too  small  for  that, — but  there  appears  to  have  been  an 
entrance,  or  at  least  a  gap,  through  the  bank,  a  little  east 
of  the  north  point,  not  quite  in  the  direction  of  the  Round 
Table,  which  is  somewhat  west  of  north.  Mr.  Atkinson 
does  not  mention  the  ditch,  which  may  have  disappeared. 
He  estimated  the  diameter  of  the  ring  at  from  60  to  So 
yards.  On  a  comparison  of  the  data,  we  may  probably 
assume  that  the  latter  figure  is  very  near  the  truth.  The 
authors  of  Beauties  of  England  and  Wales,  after  referring  to 
the  Round  Table,  somewhat  obscurely  describe  this  inclo- 
sure  as  follows  : — "  On  the  adjoining  plain  are  a  larger 
ring  with  low  ramparts,  and  some  smaller  ones,  [rings  ?J 
at  present  [1S14]  scarcel}-  visible. "t 

A  field,  until  lately  fenced  off,  on  the  south-east  side  of 
Mayburgh,  and  covering  the  space  between  it  and  the 
main  and  occupation  roads,  for  no  good  reason  that  I  can 
find,  was  called  "  High  Round  Table."  Perhaps  a  curved 
escarpment,  the  western  and  straighter  part  of  which  is 
shown  in  the  plan  of  Mayburgh,  together  with  other  wavy 
scorings  of  the  surface,  may  have  conjured  up  in  some 
imaginative  mind  the  idea  of  another  artificial  work  like 
the  Round  Table.  It  is  hardly  likely  that  the  name  had 
any  reference  to  the  adjoining  Mayburgh,  which  is  self- 

A  large  cairn  once  crowned  the  high  northern  bank  of 
the  Eamont,  nearly  opposite  to  Mayburgh.     It  was  being 

*  Excursion  to  the  Lakes,  1773-1774,  p-  91. 
t Westmorland  vol,  p.  in. 


^^^a^^^i^j.  g* 


MAYBUKGH    AND    KING    ARTHUR'S    ROUND   TABLE.       189 

removed  even  in  Stukeley's  time  ;  and,  apparently,  has 
lon;^^  since  utterly  disappeared,  unfortunately  without  any 
note  having  been  taken  of  its  contents.  He  describes  it  as 
"  a  very  fine  round  tunmliis,  of  a  large  size,  and  set  about 
with  a  circle  of  stones:"  from  which  simple  record  he 
characteristically  jumps  to  the  conclusion  that  "this  in 
all  probability  was  the  funeral  monument  of  the  king  that 
founded  "  Mayburgh  and  the  Round  Table.*  That  this 
cairn  was  coeval  with  Mayburgh  is,  however,  not  unlikely, 
if  any  weight  is  to  be  attached  to  the  fact  that  both  were 
built  with  similar  materials  :  for  Hutchinson  states  that  it 
"  appears  where  the  turf  is  broken,  to  be  composed  of 
pebbles;  it  is  surrounded  at  the  foot  with  a  circle  of  large 
stones,  of  irregular  forms,  sizes,  and  distances,  of  the  cir- 
cumference of  eighty  paces. "f 

A  mile-and-a-half  due  south  from  Mayburgh,  near  the 
top  of  a  hill  of  moderate  height,  are  the  remains  of  an 
intrenched  upland  settlement  known  by  the  name  of 
"  Castlesteads  ;  "  and,  three-quarters  of  a  mile  east  of 
this,  on  the  other  side  of  the  Lowther,  half-a-mile  south 
of  the  village  of  Clifton,  are  two  standing-stones,  of  no 
great  size  or  interest, — perhaps  the  only  relics  of  a  once- 
important  megalithic  work.  Stukeley  mentions  other 
tumuli  and  megalithic  groups  in  the  Clifton  district ; — all 
of  which,  probably,  have  long  since  disappeared. 

As  to  local  ancient  roads,  I  have  not  had  an  opportunity 
of  gleaning  much  information  ;  and  therefore  touch  upon 
the  subject  with  diffidence  and  reserve.  One  known 
Roman  way — High  Street — either  traversed  or  skirted  the 
lociLS  in  quo.  Leading  from  Ambleside  over  the  highest 
intervening  mountain-ridges,  it  passed  through  Tirril  to 
Yanwath ;  beyond  which  there  'appears  to  be  some  differ- 
ence of  opinion  as  to  its  course.    In  an  archaeological  map 

*  Itin.  Curios.,  II,  44. 
t  Ere.  to  the  Lakes,  yS. 



in  Lapidariiun  Septcntrionale,  1875,  published  by  the  Society 
of  Antiquaries  of  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  and  embodying  the 
results  of  the  best  and  most  recent  research,  this  part  of  the 
road  is  laid  down  as  taking  a  north-easterly  direction  from 
Yanwath,  and  terminating  at  Brougham,  a  full  mile  east 
of  Eamont  Bridge.  There  it  would  unite  with  one  of  the 
great  roads — that  passing  near  Appleby  and  Kirkby  Thore, 
— ^just  south  of  the  point  where  it  crossed  the  Eamont 
on  the  way  to  Penrith  and  Carlisle.  Although  much  of 
High  Street  on  mountain  and  moor  may  still  be  seen,  and 
is  accurately  laid  down  in  the  ordnance  maps,  its  whole 
course  is  uniformly  dotted  in  the  archaeological  map  as 
"  not  surveyed,  but  in  accordance  with  the  best  local 
authorities."  It  is,  therefore,  not  clear  what  degree  of 
trust  may  be  placed  in  those  portions  of  the  indicated  line 
which  are  undefined  on  the  ground  ;  and  I  am  not  aware 
that  any  part  of  the  ancient  road,  or  a  branch  of  it,  has 
actually  been  traced  between  Yanwath  and  Brougham.  If 
now  we  turn  to  the  large  scale  ordnance  maps,  we  get  a 
different  testimony.  In  them.  High  Street  is  made  to 
diverge  from  the  present  Tirril — Yanwath  road  one-third 
of  a  mile  short  of  the  bridge  over  the  railway,  and  to  strike 
the  river  a  few  yards  to  the  west  of  Yanwath  Hall,  where 
there  would  be  a  ford  or  a  bridge  It  may  be  of  some 
importance,  in  connexion  with  the  subject  of  this  paper, 
to  settle  such  points  as  this  :  and  it  is  evident  we  need 
more  information  about  the  history  of  the  local  roads, 
many  of  which  are  full  of  hints  of  survivals  from  Roman 
times.  Pennant's  plan  does  not  help  us  ;  there  being  no 
indication  thereon  of  an  east  and  west  track.  The  present 
road  was,  I  believe,  made  about  a  century  ago  ;  and,  from 
Stukeley's  statement  that  "  one  end  [of  the  Round  Table 
— doubtless  he  means  the  northern  end]  is  inclosed  into  a 
neighbouring  pasture,"  it  may  be  inferred  tha*:  the  line  of 
the  Roman  way  at  that  part,  unless  lost  beneath  the  sod, 
did  not  coincide  with  the  present  one.    One  thing  is  sure, 









— that,  it  it  came  in  this  direction,  it  must  have  passed 
either  to  the  north  or  to  the  south  of  the  escarpment  ex- 
tending from  the  Round  Tahle  about  400  yards  southward. 
Bishop  Gibson,  in  his  "  Additions  "  to  Camden,  (ed.  1695, 
p.  815')  makes  the  Roman  way  between  Brougham  and 
Penrith,  after  reaching  the  former  place,  lead  "  directly  to 
Lowther-bridge,  and  so  over  Emot  into  Cumberland." 


Site  and  general  descriMion. — Mayburgh,*  seated  on  a 
wide  low  mound  of  glacial  drift,  consists  of  a  rude  circular 
cincture  of  small  stones  inclosing  a  nearly  level  grassy 
area,  except  on  the  east  side,  where  an  entrance  interrupts 
the  continuity  of  the  rampart.  In  the  midst — though  not 
quite  in  the  centre  of  the  inclosure — stands  a  massive 
monolith,  the  only  remaining  member  of  a  group,  or 
groups,  which  once  formed  a  prominent  feature  of  the 
whole  work. 

Dimensions. — The  following  list  will  be  found  to  include 
all  the  important  dimensions.  In  so  far  as  the  reference 
is  to  that  which  can  be  accurately  ascertained,  and  to  the 
present  state  of  the  work,  the  figures  may  be  taken  as 
trustworthy.  It  is,  however,  impossible  to  say  how  much 
the  valhmi  ma}^  have  suffered  from  dilapidation,  or  to  what 
extent  this  may,  here  and  there,  have  altered  its  form. — 

Height  of  standing  stone  above  ground  .  .     (9  ft.  2  ins.)       9-17 

Greatest  girth  of  stone      ....  about       iS 

Seat  of  stone  above  intrenched  area  of  Round  Table  .       30 

Seat  of  stone  above  surface  of  water  of  river  Eamont  .       35 

Scat  of  stone  above  ordnance  datum     ....     430*2 
Highest  part  of  inclosure  (S.E.  point)  above  ordnance  datum     433 
Greatest  height    of  vallum    (S.    point)  above  foot    of  outer 

slopef       .......       21T 

*  Pronounced,  and  often  written,  Mayborough. 

f  And  about  the  same  height  at  east  end  of  southern  sweep. 



Greatest  height  oi  vallum  (E.  end  of  southern  sweep)  above 

foot  of  inner  slope            .....  19-3 

Least  height  of  vallum  (N.W.  point)  above  foot  of  outer  slope  io'4 

Least  height  oi  vallum  (N.W.  point)  above  foot  of  inner  slope  7*3 

Average  height  of  crest  of  vallum  above  original  surface         .  13*8 

Greatest  breadth  of  t;n//;n;j  (S.  point)    ....  140 

Least  breadth  of  wW»';j  (N.W.  point)  ....  102 

Average  breadth  of  vfl//;/»!         .....  120 

Length  of  entrance        .....     about  115 

Breadth  of  entrance  at  surface  of  ground         averages  about  15 

Average  diameter  of  circumvallation,  centre  to  centre  of  crest  3S3 

Average  diameter  of  internal  area,  foot  to  foot  oi  vallum         .  287 
Cubic  content  o(  vallum,  with  hollows  filled  up             .     37,530  yards. 
Area  of  inclosure  to  foot  of  t'a//»;;j         .             .             .        la.   ir.  38p. 

The  valltun. — Hutchinson  greatly  under-estimated  the 
breadth  of  the  vallum,  "  near  20  paces  " — say  50  feet.  It 
consists  of  stones  evidently  brought  either  entirely  from 
the  bed  of  the  Eamont,  distant  300  yards,  or  partly  from 
thence,  and  partly  from  the  Lovvther,  distant  540  yards.* 
For  the  most  part  they  are  of  very  small  size, — not  much 
bigger  than  a  man's  fist ; — though  boulders,  18  inches  in 
length,  with  a  very  few  as  much  as  30  inches,  may,  here 
and  there,  be  seen.  Save  in  scattered  patches,  the  sur- 
face of  the  stone  bank,  which  at  first  was  probably  left 
bare,  has  become  clothed  with  a  thin  coating  of  soil,  now 
grassed  over.  In  this  unpromising  belt,  a  number  of  trees, 
chiefly  ash,  have  taken  root  ;  their  umbrage  contributing 

*  The  opinion  of  Mr.  Goodchild,  of  H.M.  Geological  Survey,  as  reported  by 
Mr.  Atkinson,  (see  vol.  \'I,  p.  451  of  these  Transactions)  is  that  "  Maybroug-h 
may  very  well  have  been  originally  one  of  those  great  mounds  of  glacial  drift 
known  as  Eskers,  ....  and  that  the  centre  has  been  cleared  out,  and  the 
larger  stones  thus  obtained  placed  round  the  margin,  while  the  gravel  and  smaller 
stones  were  used  to  form  the  level  internal  area.  The  large  stone  in  the  centre  is 
one  of  the  great  bluish-grey  boulders  of  volcanic  ash,  so  commonly  found  scattered 
over  the  country  by  glacial  action,  and  probably  brought  from  the  Lake  District, 
and  it  would,  with  the  others  formerly  existing  here,  in  all  probability  be  found  in 
the  centre  of  such  a  mound."  That  the  standing  stone  was  an  erratic  block,  is 
most  likely  :  but  the  rest  of  the  theory  does  not  altogether  commend  itself  to  our 
acceptance.  It  would  be  singular  if  this  were  the  only  ridge,  out  of  many  in  the 
neighborhood,  on  which  such  an  accumulation  of  stones  gathered  :  and  the 
theory  does  not  seem  consistent  with  the  contours  of  the  surface  and  the  natuer 
of  the  ground, — evidently,  as  the  sections  show,  the  natural  top  of  the  swell,  ap- 
parently nearly,  if  not  quite,  free  from  stones. 


MAYBURGH    AND    KING    ARTHUR  S    ROUND    TABLE.       193 

to  deepen  the  retirement  within.  From  Hutchinson's  ac- 
count, we  learn  that  the  surrounding  land,  now  almost 
completely  cleared,  was,  in  his  day,  "  on  every  side  grown 
with  oaks  and  ashes,"  ■' — possibly  the  descendants  of  the 
trees  of  ancient  woods,  in  the  depths  of  which  this  rude 
hypsethral  chamber  was  secluded. 

The  area. — The  inclosed  area,  with  an  average  diameter 
of  287  ft.,  may  originally  have  been  a  little  larger ;  for  it 
is  likely  that,  in  course  of  time,  some  of  the  loose  materials 
of  the  bank,  disturbed  by  growth  of  trees  and  other  agen- 
cies, may  have  slid  downward  and  encroached  upon  it. 
Stukeley  calls  the  diameter  300  ft.,  and  says  that,  at  the 
time  of  his  visit,  (15th  Aug.  1725),  the  land  was  ploughed 
up  and  growing  corn.  Pennant  estimated  the  diameter  at 
88  yards  ;  which  is  a  few  feet  less  than  the  width  at  the 
narrowest  part :  for  the  field,  as  the  plan  shows,  is  not 
quite  round.  Hutchinson  describes  it  as  "  a  fine  plain  of 
meadow  ground,  exactly  circular,  one  hundred  paces  [250 
ft.]   diameter."+ 

The  megaliths. — The  standing  stone  is  31  ft.  6  ins.,  N.W. 
by  W.,  from  the  centre  of  the  plot  ;  a  distance  which 
lends  support  to  Stukeley's  theory  of  an  inner  circle  ;  and 
agrees  tolerably  with  his  estimate  that  "  this  inner  circle 
was  fifty  foot  in  diameter.":}:  He  proceeds  to  state  his  con- 
viction that  there  "  have  been  two  circles  of  huge  stones; 
four  remaining  of  the  inner  circle  till  a  year  or  two  ago, 
[about  1723],  that  they  were  blown  to  pieces  with  gun- 
powder :  .  .  .  one  now  stands,  ten  foot  high,  seven- 
teen in  circumference,  of  a  good  shapely  kind  ;  another 
lies  along.  .  .  .  One  stone,  at  least,  of  the  outer  circle 
remains,  by  the  edge  of  the  corn  ;  and  some  more  lie  at 
the  entrance  within  side,  others  without,  and  fragments 

*  Exc.  to  the  Lakes,  92. 

t  Ibid.,  93. 

%  Itin.  Curios.,  II,  44. 


194    ^fAY^.URG^  and  king  Arthur's  round  table. 

all  about."*  So  much  for  Stukele3''s  fairly  trustworthy 
record  of  facts.  Pennant  comes  next,  in  1769,  44  \'cars 
later.  Accordinj^  to  his  measurements,  the  height  and 
j^^irth  of  the  stone  were  9  ft.  8  ins.  and  17  ft.  respectively. 
He  says,  "  there  had  been  three  more  placed  so  as  to 
form  (with  the  otlier)  a  square.  Four  again  stood  on  the 
sides  of  the  entrance,  viz.  one  on  each  exterior  corner  ; 
and  one  on  each  interior;  but,  excepting  that  at  present 
remaining,  all  the  others  have  long  since  been  blasted  to 
clear  the  ground. "t  Writing  of  the  standing  stone,  about 
four  years  after  Pennant,  Hutchinson,  who  classes  it  as 
"  a  species  of  the  free  stone,"  gives  the  height  as  "  eleven 
feet  and  upwards,"  and  the  "  circum.ference  near  its  middle 
twenty-two  feet  and  some  inches  ;  "  and  tells  us,  "  the 
inhabitants  in  the  neighbourhood  say,  that  within  the 
memory  of  man,  two  other  stones  of  similar  nature,  and 
placed  in  a  kind  of  angular  figure  with  the  stone  now  re- 
maining, were  to  be  seen  there,  but  as  they  were  hurtful 
to  the  ground,  were  destroyed  and  removed."]:  West 
makes  the  curious  mistake  of  calling  the  monolith  "  a  red 
stone. "§  Pennant's  plan,  upon  which  are  marked  the 
places  of  seven  of  the  missing  stones,  shows  the  one  re- 
maining, with  the  seats  of  three  others, forming  a  rectangle, 
60  ft.  by  53  ft.,  out  of  square  with  the  cardinal  points; 
also  the  seats  of  two  other  stones,  40  ft.  apart,  and  not 
quite  vis-a-vis,  at  the  inner  corners  of  the  entrance  ;  and 
of  two  more,  45  ft.  apart,  one  on  each  side,  at  about  the 
middle  of  its  length.  Little  trust  should,  however,  be 
placed  on  the  accuracy  of  this  evidence  ;  for  we  are  not 
told  that  the  seats  of  the  missing  stones  were  then  to  be 
seen  :  and  perhaps  we  may  be  justified  in  concluding  that 
there  is  not  sufficient  reason  for  regarding  this  apparent 

*  I/in.  Curios.,  II,  44. 

f  First  Tour  in  Scotland,  p.  257. 

tiExc.  to  the  Lakes,  93. 

^Guide  to  the  Lakes,  7th  cd.,  p.  167. 



rectangular  arrangement  as  other  than  accidental.  We 
may  even  go  farther,  and  assume,  with  Stukeley,  that  a 
stone  circle  50  ft.  or  60  ft.  in  diameter  once  surrounded 
the  central  part  of  the  ground ;  also  that  the  avenue  of 
approach  was  flanked  by  at  least  two  great  stones  on  each 
side.  It  is  to  be  wished  that  we  had  stronger  evidence  as 
to  the  larger  concentric  circle  imagined  by  Stukeley,  who 
appears  to  have  seen  only  one  stone  "  by  the  edge  of  the 
corn."  That  such  circle  did  once  exist,  is  far  from  im- 
probable :  for  in  Mayburgh  there  is  much  that  recalls  the 
plan  of  Avebury,  which  exhibits  a  similarassociation  and  ar- 
rangement of  stones  and  embankment.  As  to  the  weight  of 
the  remaining  stone,  estimates  have  differed  considerably. 
It  is  not  known  exactly  how  deeply  it  is  sunk  into  the 
ground.  One  Abraham  Rawlinson,  83  years  of  age,  told  me 
that,  with  a  tourist  from  London,  he  once  dug  down  more 
than  four  feet  by  the  side  of  the  stone  without  reaching 
the  bottom.  It  was  found  to  taper  downward,  as  though 
to  a  small  extremity.  A  large  piece  was  hammered  off 
and  weighed;  and  from  this  specimen  the  weight  of  the 
whole  stone  was  calculated  to  be  15  tons.  Others  have 
put  it  at  20  tons.  From  my  own  measurements,  I  think 
the  content  may  be  from  155  to  160  cubic  feet,  and  the 
weight  II  or  12  tons. 

Camden  says  that  Penrith  castle,  in  the  reign  of  Henry 
VI,  was  repaired  out  of  the  ruins  of  Mayburgh.  Bishop 
Gibson,  one  of  his  editors,  denies  this.  The  statement  is 
repeated  by  Nicolson  and  Burn,  who  also  print  a  record 
that  "  in  the  reign  of  Hen.  6  there  seems  to  have  been  a 
general  contribution  towards  the  building,  or  perhaps 
rather  rebuilding  of  Eamont  bridge,"*  for  which  an  in- 
dulgence was  granted  by  bishop  Langley.  It  is  not  un- 
likely that,  for  this  purpose,  Mayburgh  may  have  been 
despoiled  of  most  of  its  megaliths  ;  and  that  the  other  less 

*  Hist,  and  Ant.  ofWcslvi,  and  Citmbd.,  I,  413. 



probable  assertion  may  have  so  originated.  The  authors 
of  Beauties  of  England  and  Wales'''  are  yet  wider  of  the 
mark  when  they  make  the  last-named  writers  say  that 
it  was  Kendal  castle  which  was  thus  repaired  : — an  evident 

The  berm. — Along  the  southern  third  of  the  circuit  of 
the  inclosure  there  is  a  faintly  marked  berm,  or  terrace, 
10  ft.  or  12  ft.  in  breadth,  and  about  six  inches  in  height. 
It  is  shown  in  section  C — D,  but  is  too  indistinct  to  be 
plotted  on  the  plan.  Whether  artificial  or  accidental,  or 
whether  it  was  left  as  a  margin  in  ploughing,  cannot  now 
be  told.  The  last  supposition  seems  to  be  the  most  pro- 

Modern  work. — To  avoid  the  risk  of  future  visitors  er- 
roneously assuming  that  certain  superficial  traces  of  human 
handiwork  on  the  vallum  are  ancient,  it  may  be  well  to 
note  that  the  footings  of  fence-walls  once  crowning  por- 
tions of  its  crest, — one  of  which  was  continued  down  the 
edge  on  the  south-eastern  side  of  the  entrance,  as  indicated 
on  the  plan, — are  still  visible.  These  walls  were  removed 
only  a  few  3'ears  ago.  The  shallow  transverse  gap  through 
the  top  of  the  vallum,  on  the  south-west  side,  was  un- 
doubtedly cut  in  modern  times  for  a  cart-track  into  the  in- 
closure. All  the  hollows  in  the  stone  bank  have  been  made 
either  by  the  uprooting  of  trees  or  by  the  removal  of 
material  for  mending  the  roads.  For  a  long  time  men 
were  kept  here  breaking  stones  ;  and  I  was  told  that 
hundreds  of  cart-loads  have  been  taken  away  Jor  that  pur- 
pose. The  eastern  half  of  the  vallum  seems  to  have 
suffered  little  from  this  spoliation  ;  and,  in  its  present  state, 
no  doubt  fairly  retains  the  original  height  and  contour. 

Ditch. — The  absence  of  a  ditch  is  easily  explained.  A 
ditch  usually  connotes  an  earthen  bank  raised  with  the 
excavated  material.     But  here,  where  the  material  of  the 

*  Westmorland  vol.  p.  113. 



bank  was  brought  from  a  distance,  a  ditch  was  unneces- 
sary. Had  the  vallum  been  of  earth,  as  at  Avebury,  no 
doubt  we  should  here,  as  there,  have  had  the  berm  and 
the  inner  ditch. 

Time  required  for  raising  the  work. — From  an  approximate 
estimate  which  I  have  made  as  to  the  total  time  likely  to 
be  occupied  in  raising  an  embankment  such  as  this,  on  the 
supposition  that  the  materials  were  brought  from  the 
rivers  in  baskets,  I  find  that,  if  looo  men  were  to  work  in- 
dustriously and  continuously  for  eight  hours  a  day  col- 
lecting and  carrying  the  stones,  under  the  most  favorable 
conditions,  it  would  take  at  least  six  months.  But  the 
time  would  really  be  very  much  longer  :  for  the  material 
could  be  got  only  when  the  waters  were  comparatively 
low; — -a.  rarer  occurrence  in  olden  times  than  in  our  own. 

Relics. — No  systematic  exploration  has  been  attempted 
here :  nor  have  casual  "  finds  "  been  of  any  importance. 
But  two  are  recorded  :  the  first  by  Stukeley,  who  says  that 
"  in  ploughing  at  Mayborough  they  dug  up  a  brass  Celt."*' 
In  1879,  "Professor  Harkness  exhibited  [to  the  Society]  a 
portion  of  a  broken  unfinished  [stone]  celt,  which  had 
been  found  by  Mr.  Williams,  at  the  entrance  into  the  May- 
borough.  ...  It  was  obtained  on  the  surface  of  the 
soil  from  which  a  thin  covering  of  turf  had  recently  been 

Historic  notices. — Mayburgh  cannot  with  assurance  be 
connected  with  any  historic  event.  Bishop  Gibson  has 
tried  to  prove  that  it  was  the  place  called  "  Eamotum," 
or  "  Eamotun,"  where,  according  to  several  chroniclers, 
Athelstan,  in  the  year  926,  two  years  after  his  accession  to 
the  throne,  made  a  treaty  of  peace  with  Constantine,  king 
of  Scotland,  Howel,  king  of  the  western  Britons,  Owen, 
king  of  Gwent,  and  Aldred,  son  of  Eadulph,  of  Bamburgh. 
William  of  Malmesbury  is   alone  in  mentioning  a   place 

*  [till.  Curios.,  II,  44. 

t  Trans.  Cumld.  and  IVesfm.  A?it.  Soc,  IV,  545. 


igS      M.WUURGH    AND    KING    ARTHUR'S    ROUND    TABLE. 

called  "  Dacor  "  in  connexion  with  a  similar  treaty  which 
Athelstan  made  with  Constantine  and  his  liege,  the  king 
of  Cumberland  ;  other  parties  to  the  pact,  if  any,  not 
being  named.  This  also  being  represented  as  sequential 
to  that  turn  in  affairs  which  immediately  preceded,  and 
issued  in,  the  afore-mentioned  treat}',  it  is  not  unreason- 
able to  suppose  that  these  tw^o  records  refer  to  one  and 
the  same  event ;  and  that  Dacor  and  Eamotum  were 
different  names  of  the  same  place.  Dacor  is  generally 
identified  with  Dacre,*  in  Cumberland,  barely  four  miles 
W.S.W.  from  Mayburgh,  and  only  a  mile  from  the  banks 
of  the  Eamont,  or  Eamot,  as  it  was  formerly  called.  Pro- 
babilities, therefore,  do  not  seem  strained  if  we  assume 
that  it  was  once  known  by  a  name  formed  from  that  of 
the  neighboring  river.  Were  it  not  for  this  (as  I  think) 
preferable  theory,  perhaps  the  vicinity  of  Eamont  Bridge 
might  have  put  in  a  plausible  claim  by  reason  of  being 
not  far  from  two — perhaps  three — important  passages 
across  the  river,  if  it  could  be  shown  to  have  been, — as, 
doubtless,  Eamotum  was, — in  olden  time  an  inhabited 
place,  with  a  recognised  name.  There  is,  however,  so  far 
as  I  am  aware,  no  evidence  that  Eamont  Bridge,  as  a 
settlement,  is  as  old  as  the  time  of  Pennant,  upon  whose 
plan  no  such  village  is  shown.  That  Eamotum  was 
Mayburgh, — a  spot  doubtless  uninhabited, — is  merely  a 
conjecture,  and  an  improbable  one.  Ingram,  in  his 
edition  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle,]  places  Eamotum 
at  "  Emmet,  or  Emmo'land,  in  Yorkshire."  He  evidently 
refers  to  two  villages  called  High  and  Low  Emmotland, 
two  miles  S.W.  of  North  Frodingham,  and  S^  miles 
N.W.  of  Hornsea.  It  may  be  mentioned  that,  in  the  same 
county,  there  are  two  villages  or  hamlets  bearing  the 
names    of   Dacre    and    Dacre  Banks.      They  are  on  the 

'In  Black's  Guide  to  the  English  Lakes,  it  is  stated  that  "there  is  a  room  in 
the  castle  called  to  this  day  '  the  room  of  the  three  kings.'  " 
t  Index  to  place-nan:es. 



river  Nidd,  three  miles  S.E.  of  Patele}'  Bridge ; — for 
topographical  reasons,  a  very  unlikely  spot  to  have  been 
the  Dacor  of  the  chronicler. 

Analogues. — Though  standing  apart,  by  reason  of  its 
vast  size,  Avebury  has  several  features  in  common  with 
Mayburgh.  It  consisted  of  an  earthen  embankment, 
4442  ft.  in  compass,  measured  along  its  crest,  and  34  ft. 
in  height,  within  which  was  a  berm  about  12  ft.  wide,  and 
then  a  ditch,  33  ft.  deep,  inclosing  an  approximately  cir- 
cular area  of  2S5-  acres,  having  an  average  diameter  of 
about  121 5  feet.  Around  the  edge  of  this,  100  huge  stones 
were  set  up  in  a  ring ;  and,  within  the  circuit,  there  were 
also  two  great  stone  circles,  respectively  about  325  ft.  and 
350  ft.  in  diameter.  One  avenue  of  megaliths  (some  think 
two)  radiated  from  the  ring,  and  probably  extended  to  a 
long  distance  from  it.  There  are  now  four  gaps  through 
the  embankment  ;  but  the  place  has  been  so  much  injured, 
that  it  is  almost  impossible  to  say  whether  all  of  these  are 
ancient.  The  only  entrance  as  to  which  there  seems  to  be 
any  certainty,  is  that  on  the  south  side,  at  the  head  of  the 
Kennet  avenue,  which  points  a  little  south  of  south-east. 
"  Bryn  Gwyn,  or  Brein  Gwyn,  at  Tre'r  Dryw,  is  a  circular 
hollow  of  a  hundred  and  eighty  feet  in  diameter,  sur- 
rounded by  an  immense  agger  of  earth  and  stones,  evi- 
dently brought  from  some  other  place,  there  not  being  any 
mark  of  their  being  taken  from  the  spot.  It  has  only  a 
single  entrance."*  "  There  are  no  remains  of  columns  in 
the  interior  part."t  Near  by  was  "a  great  copped  heap 
of  stones,"  and  "  the  reliques  of  a  circle  of  stones,  with 
the  Cromlech  in  the  midst. "t  Gough  furnishes  the  fol- 
lowing additional  facts\^  : — That  the  perpendicular  height 
of  the  agger  is  15  feet;  that  "the  people  call  it  Castclh, 

*  Pennant's  Tour  in  JVales  in  1770,  vol.  II,  pp.  229-230. 
f  Pennant's  First  Tour  in  Scotland,  p.  257. 
X  Pennant's  Tour  in  JVales  in  1770,  vol.  II,  pp.  229-230. 
§  Camden's  Britannia,  11,  199,  Add.  to  Anglesey. 



and  suppose  it  to  have  been  anciently  surrounded  with  a 
town;"  that  Bryn  Gwyn,  by  which  Mr.  Rowlands  desig- 
nated the  work,  is  properly  the  name  of  '"  a  cottage,  two 
bow  shots  south  of  it,  whose  gabel  is  formed  of  a  monstrous 
single  stone."  ''  Behind  the  cottage  is  a  broken  cromlech. 
The  name  of  Bryn  Gwyn  seems  to  be  given  also  to  the 
circle  of  stones,"  eight  or  nine  in  number,  near  at  hand  : 
beside  which,  there  are  ruins  of  other  megalithic  works  in 
the  immediate  vicinity. 

It  will  be  most  convenient  to  discuss  the  etymology  of 
its  name,  and  the  theories  about  the  origin  and  use  of 
Mayburgh,  at  the  end  of  this  paper,  together  with  those 
concerning  the  Round  Table. 


Site. — The  site  of  the  Round  Table  has  been  aptly 
described  by  Stukeley  as  "  a  delicate  little  plain,  of  an 
oblong  form,  bounded  on  "  one  "  side  by  a  natural  de- 
clivity." On  the  other  side  flows  the  Lowther.  The 
ground  thus  shut  in  is  about  300  yards  in  length,  and  has 
an  average  breadth  of  130  yards.  The  Round  Table  is  at 
its  northern  outlet,  where  it  suddenly  expands,  continuing 
on  the  same  level  to  the  banks  of  the  two  rivers.  In  the 
opposite  direction,  the  surface  begins  gradually  to  rise  at 
the  distance  of  230  yards  from  the  Round  Table. 

Description. — This  earthwork  has  been  formed  by  digging 
a  ditch  nearly  around  an  oval  area ;  with  the  excavated 
material  forming  an  inclosing  embankment,  with  a  berm 
between  it  and  the  ditch,  and  raising  a  slight  and  nearly 
circular  platform  eccentrically  in  the  inclosure.  Originally, 
the  continuity  of  the  ditch  was  broken  at  two  opposite 
points  by  leaving  gangways  to  give  access  to  the  interior 
of  the  work ;  in  line  with  which  were  two  passages  through 
the  embankment.  The  northern  of  these  two  entrances 
was  all  but  completely  destroyed  in  making  the  Yanwath 
road,  about  the  end  of  last  century;  only  a  portion  of  its 






.DYMOND.    F.S.  A..  O  CTOB  E  R.   1889. 



inner  end  being  left  visible  at  the  field-gate.  A  slice  was 
also  cut  off  from  the  eastern  side  of  the  embankment  by 
straightening  and  widening  the  Clifton  road,  which  appears 
to  have  been  done  at  the  same  time.  The  inner  area 
around  the  platform  is  nearly  level ;  but  the  berm  rises 
from  the  edge  of  the  ditch  to  the  foot  of  the  bank.  The 
section  G — H  shows  what  must  have  been  the  original 
form  and  height  of  the  latter,  which,  in  most  other  parts, 
has  been  much  degraded.  Especially  is  this  so  along  the 
south-western  side,  where  the  bank  has  been  scooped  out 
and  ilattened  almost  beyond  recognition.  As  to  the  material 
of  which  it  is  made,  Stukeley  says, — "the  composition  of 
it  is  intirely  coggles  and  gravel,  dug  out  of  the  ditch  ;  " 
adding  that  "  the  inhabitants  carry  it  away  to  mend  the 
highways  withal."*  Perhaps  this  may  account  for  the 
deformation.  There  is,  however,  nothing  visible  to  indi- 
cate this  alleged  stony  nature  of  the  ground  ;  for  the  whole 
is  carpeted  with  fine  turf  constantly  grazed  ;  and  not  a 
stone  can  be  seen  on  the  surface.  Such  is  the  irregularity 
of  the  work  on  the  plan,  that  it  evidently  could  not  have 
been  set  out  even  by  pacing, — still  less  with  a  measuring 
line  from  a  centre.  I  learned  from  the  old  man  before- 
mentioned  that,  more  than  60  years  ago,  to  the  best  of  his 
poor  recollection,  the  then  owner  of  the  "Crown"  inn, 
one  Bushby, — either  the  same  who  built  it  in  1770,  or  his 
son, — deepened  the  ditch,  and  threw  the  earth  on  the 
banks.  I  do  not,  however,  imagine  that  much  in  this  way 
was  done  ; — probably  not  enough  to  alter  to  any  appre- 
ciable extent  the  features  of  the  work. 

Detached  works. — Toward  the  northern  end  of  the  es- 
carpment on  the  western  side  of  the  field,  there  are  traces 
of  what  apparently  was  an  inclined  cart-track  which,  per- 
haps, once  connected  the  two  adjoining  fields.  Just  south 
of  this,  two  short  spur-banks  project  from  the  escarpment ; 

*  Jtin.  Curios.,  II,  43. 


202      MAYBURGH    AND    KING    ARTHUR'S    ROUND    TABLE. 

and,  in  the  plain,  midway  between  this  and  the  Round 
Table,  are  faint  traces  of  what  may  be  the  remains  of 
another  bank. 

"  King  ArtJmr's  Drinking-cup.'" — In  the  inn-yard,  serv- 
ing as  a  water-butt,  is  a  circular  tank  of  red  sandstone, 
38  ins.  in  diameter,  and  about  36  ins.  in  depth,  which 
has  "been  called  "King  Arthur's  Drinking-cup."  About 
this  object,  as  about  many  another,  a  baseless  story 
has  been  started  which,  unless  checked,  may,  in  time,  be- 
come, by  repetition,  a  fixed  tradition  of  the  spot.  I  find 
that  even  some  antiquaries  have  been  misled  by  confiding 
too  easily  in  statements  made  to  them,  to  the  effect  that 
this  tank  was  dug  up  on  the  site  of  the  Round  Table  ; 
nay,  that  it  had  been  found  in  the  very  centre  thereof.  I 
myself  was  told  this  most  improbable  tale,  till,  on  closely 
cross-questioning  my  informant, — the  same  who  had  set 
the  story  afloat, — he  acknowledged  that  he  knew  nothing 
about  it  ;  and  that  he  had  stated  as  a  fact  that  which  he 
only  supposed  to  be  so.  The  aforesaid  old  man — the  most 
ancient  authority  in  the  village,  having  lived  there  for 
more  than  60  years — testified  that  it  had  been  in  the  inn- 
yard  (though  not  in  the  same  position)  as  long  as  he  could 
remember  Of  course,  this  tank  has  really  never  had  any 
connexion  with  the  earthwork  over  the  way. 

Dimensions. — The  following  is  a  list  of  the  principal 
dimensions,  &c. — 

Original  extreme  length  outside  embankment,  about  365 
Original  extreme  breadth  outside  embankment,  about  315 
Original  length,  centre  to  centre  of  embankment,  about  320 
Original  breadth,  centre  to  centre  of  embankment,  about  2S0 
Longest  diameter  within  the  ditch  ....  16S 
Shortest  diameter  within  the  ditch  ....  144 
Longest  diameter  of  raised  platform  ....  78 
:  Shortest  diameter  of  raised  platform  ....  72 
Width  of  crest  of  bank  on  line  G — H 
Greatest  width  of  berm         ..... 



MAYBURGH    AND    KING    ARTHUR'S    ROUND    TABLE.      203 

Least  width  of  berm     . 

Average  width  of  berm  . 

Width  of  gangway  at  narrowest  part 

Width  of  entrance 

Greatest  top  width  of  ditch  . 

Least  top  width  of  ditch 

Average  top  width  of  ditch   . 

Greatest  bottom  width  of  ditch     . 

Least  bottom  width  of  ditch 

Average  bottom  width  of  ditch     . 

Greatest  depth  of  ditch  below  inner  edge 

Least  depth  of  ditch  below  inner  edge 

Average  depth  of  ditch  below  inner  edge 

Greatest  height   of  bank  above  original  surface, 

(section  G — -H)  . 
Greatest  height  of  bank  above  bottom   of  ditch, 

(section  G — H)  . 
Greatest  height  of  raised  platform 
Least  height  of  raised  platform    . 
Bearing  of  S.E.  entrance  from  centre  of  work 
Bearing  of  N.W.  entrance  from  centre  of  work,  about 








S.  35"  E. 

N.  41"  W. 

Early  notices. — Leland  (c.  1538)  is  the  first  author  who 
has  noticed  this  relic  of  the  past.  He  says  : — "  Withyn  a 
Myle  of  Perith,  but  in  Westmorland,  is  a  Ruine,  as  sum 
suppose,  of  a  Castel  withyn  a  sh'te  Shotte  of  Lodcr  and  as 
much  of  Emot  Water,  stonding  almost  as  a  inediamnis  be- 
twixt them.  The  Ruine  is  of  sum  caullid  the  Round  Table, 
and  of  summe  Arture's  Castel.  A  Myle  lower  metithe  Loder 
and  Emot  SLt  Biirgham  Castel."*  After  a  long  interval,  comes 
Stukeley,  in  1725.  His  description  is  as  follows: — "  Upon 
the  edge  of  the  Louther,  where  the  bridge  now  passes  it 
is  a  delicate  little  plain,  of  an  oblong  form,  bounded  on 

the  other  side  by  a  natural  declivity On  this 

plain  stands  the  antiquity  commonly  called  King  Arthur's 
Round  Table  :  ....  it  is  a  circle  inclosed  with  a 
ditch,  and  that  with  a  vallum,''  which  "  lies  sloping  in- 
ward with  a  very  gradual  declivity.     .     .     .     The  outside 

*  Itinerart/,  vol.  VII,  pp.  49,  50. 



of  the  vallum  is  pretty  steep  :  it  was  high  originally,  as  may 
be  seen  now  in  some  parts  ;  but  it  is  worn  down,  as  being 
by  the  side  of  the  common  road,  .  .  .  There  are  two 
entrances  into  the  area,  north  and  south,  or  nearly  so:  one 
end  is  inclosed  into  a  neighbouring  pasture  ;  the  area  had 
a  circle  within,  somewhat  higher  in  elevation  than  the 
other.  The  outer  verge  of  the  vallum  is  a  circle  of  300 
foot.'"'  Pennant's  notice  (1769)  is  very  short: — "At  a 
small  distance  beyond  the  bridge,  near  the  road  side,  is  a 
circle  called  Arthur's  round  table,  consisting  of  a  high 
dike  of  earth,  and  a  deep  foss  within,  surrounding  an  area 
twenty-nine  yards  in  diameter.  There  are  two  entrances 
exactly  opposite  to  each  other ;  which  interrupt  the  ditch 
in  those  parts  iilled  to  a  level  with  the  middle."!  These 
gangways  have  been  left ;  not  filled  in.  In  1773,  Hutchin- 
son writes  : — ''  From  thence  [Penrith]  we  went  to  view  a 
place  by  the  inhabitants  called  Arthur's  round  Table,  near 
to  Emont  Bridge,  and  about  half  a  mile  from  Penrith. 
.  .  .  .  It  is  cut  in  a  little  plain  near  the  river,  of  an 
exact  circular  figure,  save  to  the  eastern  and  western  sides 
an  approach  is  left  to  the  common  level  of  the  plain  : — the 
trench  by  which  it  is  formed,  is  near  ten  paces  wide;  the 
soil  which  has  been  thrown  up  on  the  outward  side  making 
a  kind  of  theatre  : — the  approaches  are  ten  paces  wide,  and 
the  whole  circle  within  the  ditch  is  one  hundred  and  sixty 
paces  in  circumference. "  + 

Analogues. —  Man}'  other  ancient  earthworks  in  this 
country  are  more  or  less  similar  in  design  to  the  Round 
Table ;  and  it  may  be  well  to  notice  in  a  few  words  those 
which  bear  the  closest  resemblance  to  it. 

On  the  occasion  of  a  visit  paid  by  this  Society  to  Eamont 
Bridge  in  1879,  attention  was  drawn  to  a  description  of  the 
Round   Table  by  Canon    Greenwell   and   Dr.   Rolleston, 

*  hilt.  Curios.,  II,  43. 

t  First  Tour  in  Scotland,  256. 

J  Exc.  to  the  Lakec,  90. 



{British  Barrows,  381),  after  referring  to  which,  they  pro- 
ceed to  notice  "  three  similar  constructions  (one  perfect, 
the   others  more   or  less  destroyed),  almost  identical  in 
shape  with  Arthur's  Round  Table,  [which]  still  exist  at 
Thornborough,    near   Tanfield,    in    the   North    Riding  of 
Yorkshire;"  adding  that  "two  more  are  to  be  seen   on 
Hutton   Moor  near  Ripon,  not  many  miles    [about  four 
miles    S.E.]    from  those   at   Thornborough."*       Stukeley 
mentions    that    Roger    Gale,    who    accompanied    him    to 
Westmorland,  "  says  there  is  such  a  work  as  the  round 
table   near  his   house  in  Yorkshire,    [Scruton,  about   six 
miles  north  of  Thornborough] ,  with  many  barrows  near 
it."f     Not  having  seen  any  of  these  remains,  I  take  the 
following   particulars   of   the    Thornborough    group  from 
the  6-inch  ordnance  map.     It  seems  that  the  site  is  a  low 
plain,  of  considerable  extent,  washed  on  the  south-western 
side  by  the  river  Ure.     They  range  in  a  nearly  straight 
line,  almost  parallel  to  the  river,  and  about  3500  ft.  there- 
from ;  their  distances  apart,  from  centre  to  centre,  being 
as  follow: — from  the  N.W.  ring,  (No.  1),  to  the  middle 
ring,  (No.  2),  2480  ft.  from  No.  2  to  the  S.E.  ring,  (No. 
3),  2380  ft.     In  plan,  No.  i  is  identical  with  the  Round 
Table  ;  with  this  addition,  that  there  are  remains  of  an 
outermost  ditch  covering  the  eastern  half,  with  an  interval 
of  about  80  ft.  between  its  edge  and  the  foot  of  the  bank. 
The    diameter  of  the  apparently  circular  central  area  is 
340  ft. ;  that  from  crest  to  crest  of  embankment,  570  ft. 
The  plan  of  No.  2  is  the  same :  but  here  the  outermost 
ditch  is  indicated  as  covering  only  the  western  quarter. 
The    two    diameters   of  the    oval   central   area   scale   re- 
spectively  340   and  366  ft.  ;  that   from  crest  to  crest  of 
embankment,  600  ft.     No.  3  seems  to  differ  from  the  other 
two   in   having  now  no  berm  between  the  bank  and  its 
very  wide  ditch, — so  wide  as  to  suggest  that  there  may 

*  Trans,  Cumb.  and  IVeslm.  Ant.  Sue,  IV,  545. 
f  Iti?i.  Curios.,  II,  46. 



orij^inally  have  been  a  berm,  which  has  been  worn  away 
and  lost  in  the  counterscarp  of  the  ditch.  The  diameter 
of  the  nearly  circular  central  area  is  275  ft. ;  that  from 
crest  to  crest  of  embankment,  550  ft.  No  traces  of  an 
outermost  ditch  are  indicated  on  the  map.  The  entrances 
of  No.  I  point  N.  35"  W.  and  S.  35°  E. — the  latter  exactly 
toward  the  northern  entrance  of  No.  3.  The  bearings  of 
those  of  No.  2  are  N.  ^^°  W.  and  S.  33°  E. — the  latter  in 
the  direction  of  the  northern  entrance  of  No.  3  :  that  of 
the  northern  entrance  of  No.  3  is  N.  35°  W. — exactly  in 
the  direction  of  the  southern  entrance  of  No.  1  :  that  of 
the  southern,  S.  28°  E.  It  is  curious,  but  perhaps  hardly 
significant,  that  most  of  these  bearings  are  identical  with 
those  of  the  entrances  of  the  Round  Table.  There  are 
four  iumiili  within  a  quarter  of  a  mile  of  these  rings, — one 
of  them  being  about  mid-way,  and  almost  exactly  in  a  line 
between  the  entrances  of  No.  2  and  No.  3.  Pennant 
furnishes  the  following  description  of  these  remains,  as  he 
saw  tliem  in  1773. — ''  About  this  common  are  three  of 
those  circular  enclosures,  which  are  attributed  to  the 
Danes,  and  called  camps.  They  lie  in  a  line  passing  from 
north-west  to  south-east,  about  nine  hundred  yards  distant 

from  each  other Their  form     ....  is  an 

exact  circle.  The  first  thing  observable  is  the  outmost 
ring,  which  consists  of  a  very  small  ditch  :  about  twenty- 
four  paces  from  that  is  a  mound,  or  dike,  of  earth,  of  a 
vast  size,  not  less  than  twelve  or  fourteen  feet  high,  covered 
with  sod,  and  sloping  both  outwardly  and  inwardly.  At 
the  foot  of  this  a  terrass,  fourteen  paces  broad,  surrounds 
a  very  deep  ditch,  at  least  sixteen  paces  broad  at  top. 
This  incloses  a  circular  area,  smooth  and  even  as  could  be 
formed,  about  a  hundred  and  thirty-two  yards  in  diameter. 
To  this  are  two  entrances,  exactly  in  the  middle,  and  op- 
posite to  each  other.  These  are  cut  through  the  dyke,  and 
fill  the  ditch  in  that  part,  to  the  level  of  the  area.  One  of 
these  circles  is  very  entire  :  the  other  has  been  injured  by 


MAYBURGH    AND    KING    ARTHUR'S    ROUND    TABLE.       207 

the  plough.  I  mention  a  third,  which  I  saw  in  a  survey  I 
was  latel}'-  favored  with  ;  for  I  did  not  walk  far  enough 
to  discover  it.  .  ,  .  All  these  are  of  the  same  size  :  their 
whole  diameter,  from  outer-ditch  to  outer-ditch,  is  two 
hundred  and  sixty-four  yards.  ...  I  must  observe 
that  the  ring  near  Penrith,  in  Cumberland,  is  an  exact 
miniature  of  these.  ...  I  found  between  two  of  the 
circles  four  tumuli,  small,  round,  and  exactly  in  a  line  with 
each  other  :  and  to  the  north-west  of  the  middle  are,  noted 
in  the  plan,  three  others,  which  escaped  my  notice."* 

Mr.  James  Fergusson  has  instanced  two  earthworks  as 
"  identical  "  in  plan  and  dimensions  with  the  Round 
Table, — Wood  Castle,  near  Lochmaben,  in  Dumfries- 
shire,t  and  Arbor  Low,  in  Derbyshire. |  Though,  at  first 
sight,  perhaps,  there  is  sufficient  similarity  in  both  cases  to 
invite  comparison,  they  have  by  no  means  that  identity  of 
form  and  character  with  the  earthwork  at  Eamont  Bridge 
which  Mr.  Fergusson  claims  for  them. 

Wood  Castle,  on  a  hill  overlooking  a  valley  partly  oc- 
cupied by  a  chain  of  lochs,  is  an  earthwork  formed  by 
surrounding  an  elevated  circular  area,  210  ft.  in  diameter, 
with  an  embankment,  outside  which  is  a  ditch,  and  then 
another  lower  embankment,  with  one-third  of  its  circuit 
covered  by  a  second  ditch,  and  by  a  third,  outermost,  and 
still  lower  embankment  beyond  that.  The  one  feature 
which  catches  the  eye  in  this  connexion  is  the  occurrence 
of  two  opposite  entrances,  like  those  of  the  Round  Table  ; — 
a  correspondence  much  too  slight  to  be  of  any  significance 

Of  Arbor  Low,  about  nine  miles  S.  by  E.  from  Buxton, 
Mr.  Fergusson  says,  it  "  consistsof  a  circular  platform,  [the 

*  Tour  from  Alston  Moor  to  Harroivgate  and  Brimliam  Crags,  pp.  48,  49,  51. 
f  Rude  Stone  Monuments,  pp.  129,  135. 
X  Ibid.,  139,  140. 

§  Roy's  Militarij  Anthjuitics  of  the  Romans  in  Britain,  1793,  PI.  viii.    There  is 
no  letterpress  description. 



plan  shows  it  as  a  rude  oval],  167  feet  in  diameter,  sur- 
rounded by  a  ditch  18  feet  broad  at  bottom,  the  earth 
taken  from  which  has  been  used  to  form  a  rampart  about 
15  feet  to  18  feet  high,  [probably  from  the  bottom  of  the 
ditch] ,  and  measuring  about  820  feet  in  circumference  on 
the  top."  No  berm  intervenes  between  the  ditch  and  the 
embankment.  "  There  are  two  [opposite]  entrances  across 
the  ditch."  These  are  in  a  line  pointing  nearly  N.  and  S. 
"  A  tumulus  is  attached  unsymmetrically  to  the  outer 
vallum,"  not  far  from  one  of  the  entrances.  But  Arbor 
Low  had — what  none  of  the  other  examples,  except  Ave- 
bury,  have,  or,  as  far  as  can  be  determined,  ever  had — "  a 
circle  of  stones  on  its  inner  platform,  originally  probably 
forty  or  fifty  in  number.  ...  In  the  centre  of  the 
platform,  also,  are  several  very  large  stones,  which  evi- 
dently formed  part  of  a  central  dolmen. ""*-' 

If  we  except  the  megaliths,  and  the  lack  of  symmetry  in 
the  approaches,  and  forget  the  difference  in  size,  the  general 
design  of  Avebury,  described  above,  is  much  like  that  of 
the  Round  Table  :  the  level  site,  the  earthen  bank,  the 
berm,  the  inner  ditch,  and  the  circular  shape  are  alike  in 
both  :  but  with  these  the  similarity  ceases. 

Another  example  may,  perhaps,  be  brought  into  com- 
parison ;  one  which,  though,  like  Avebury,  differing  greatly 
from  it  in  size,  resembles  our  Westmorland  inclosure 
in  several  respects.  This  is  "  Chlorus'  camp,"  in  Wilts, 
a  plan  and  description  of  which  are  given  by  Sir  R. 
C.  Hoare,t  and  a  perspective  view,  with  a  brief  notice,  by 
Stukeley.t  It  is  situated  on  high  ground,  commanding  a 
wide  prospect.  From  the  former  author  I  glean  that  in 
plan  it  is  bluntly  pear-shaped,  with  an  embankment  in- 
closing an  area  of  about  15  acres,  the  central  part  of 
which,   550  to  650  ft.  across,  is  nearly  insulated  by  "  a 

'^  Rude  Stone  Monuments,  139,  140. 
■f  Ancient  TViltshirc,  I,  217,  21S. 
%  Itin.  Curios.,  I,  pp.  129,  130. 



deep  and  irregular  ditch,"  with  a  berm  70  to  100  ft.  wide 
between  it  and  the  embankment,  which  is  stated  to  be  46 
ft.  in  height  (probably  measured  on  the  slope  of  the  scarp), 
and  with  an  outer  ditch  around  the  whole.  "  The  principal 
entrance  lies  towards  the  east,  [E.  by  S.] ,  where  there  are 
some  slight  traces  of  an  outwork  ;  it  had  an  exit  on  the 
opposite  side  towards  the  west."  The  inner  ditch  was 
crossed  by  gangways  in  line  with  the  outer  entrances. 

It  remains  to  notice  one  more  illustrative  earthwork,  and 
that  of  more  kindred  character  than  any  of  the  above,  ex- 
cept the  Yorkshire  examples, — Piran  Round,  near  Perran- 
zabulo,  in    Cornwall,  of   which  I    am    able    to    give    the 
following  particulars  and  rough  dimensions,  taken  chiefly 
by  pacing,  on   a  hasty  visit  paid  to  this  spot  in   1870.     A 
circular  embankment,  in  good  preservation,  about  10  ft. 
high  from  the  surface  of  the  site,  and  7  ft.  in  width  at  top, 
surrounds  a  level  grassy  area,  about  140  ft.  in  diameter ; 
and  the  whole  is  encompassed  by  an  outer  ditch,  about  25 
ft.  wide  at  top,  10  ft.  at  bottom,  and  6  ft.  deep,  except  at 
two  opposite  points,  S.E.  and  N.W.,  where  gangways  have 
been  left  across  the  ditch,  and  corresponding  entrances,  12 
ft.  wide,  through  the  embankment.  A  straight  road,  12  ft. 
wide,   and   sunk  about  a  foot  below  the  surface,  crosses 
from  one  entrance  to  the  other,   bisecting  the  area.     N. 
60°  E.  from  the  centre  there  is  a  semi-circular  recess, 
g  ft.  wide,  in  the  foot  of  the  inner  face  of  the  bank  ;  from 
which  a  straight  passage,  5  ft.  wide,  and  sunk  12  inches, 
leads    toward    the    centre    into    a  circular   saucer-shaped 
depression,  13  ft.  in  diameter  at  top,  8j  ft.  at  bottom,  and 
27  ins.  deep,  the  centre  of  which  is  about  24  ft.  from  the 
centre  of  the  inclosure.     There  was  another  smaller  re- 
cess, 4  ft.  wide,  in  the  bank  at  a  point  S.  30°  W.  from  the 
centre  of  the  inclosure.     It  may  be  added  here  that  Piran 
Round  was  undoubtedly  used  for  miracle  plays ;  and  pro- 
bably is  not  many  centuries  old. 


210      MAYBURGH    AND    KING    ARTHUR'S    ROUND    TABLE. 

Historic  notices. — But  one  historic  event  is  recorded  as 
having  occurred  at  the  Round  Table.  Stukeley  relates 
that  "  upon  part  of  the  plain  are  marks  of  the  tents  of  the 
Scots  army,  that  accompanied  King  Charles  II.  in  his  way 
to  Worcester  :  they  encamped  here  for  some  time,  and 
drew  a  small  line  across  part  of  the  southern  circle  :  this 
was  done  within  memory."* 


Though  the  two  remains  from  a  forgotten  past,  which 
are  the  subjects  of  this  paper,  are  herein  brought  together, 
it  ought  not,  by  any  means,  to  be  assumed,  as  was  done  by 
Stukeley,  that  both  belong  to  one  period,  and  were  works 
of  one  people.  On  the  contrary,  it  is  possible  that  a  long 
period  may  have  elapsed  between  the  dates  at  which  they 
were  separately  founded  ;  and,  in  attempting  to  divine  the 
uses  to  which  they  were  devoted,  it  will  be  best  to  con- 
sider each  quite  independently  of  the  other.  It  ought  to  be 
borne  in  mind  that  works  like  these, — so  notable,  the  one 
for  the  amount  of  labour  expended  upon  it,  the  other  for 
its  evident  adaptation  to  some  established  requirement, — 
are  not  likely  to  have  been  executed  for  any  merely  tem- 
porary purpose.  Their  founders  must,  in  the  one  case, 
have  had  in  view  that  which  to  them  was  a  great  and 
worthy  end  ;  and,  in  the  other,  some  special  and  continual 
use  to  which  the  special  form  was  suited. 

Etymology  of  the  name  Mayburgh. — This  word,  as  is 
common  in  such  cases,  has  been  spelled  in  a  variety  of 
ways; — Maburg,  Maburgh,  Mayburgh,  Maybrough,  May- 
borough  ; — and,  as  is  usual  too,  speculations  on  its  signi- 
fication have  been  numerous,  and  sometimes  wild.  Bishop 
Gibson,  the  earliest  writer  I  can  find  treating  upon  the 
subject,   says  that  the  place  is    "  call'd  by    some    King 

*//(/(.  Curios.,  II,  43. 

A  rtJmr's 


Arthur's  Castle,*  and  by  others  Mayburgh  (or  as  vulgarly 
Maybrough)  which  probably  is  but  a  modern  name."t 
Pennant  pronounces  the  name  "  Saxon,  and  given  long 
after  its  construction."!  Hutchinson  quotes  from  Magna 
Britannia  an  observation  of  Dr.  Hicks  "  upon  the  baxon 
and  mago,  magu,  &c.  that  it  signifies,  afiinitas,  kindred. "§ 
He  also  says  that  "  the  name  of  Maybrough  [at  first]  in- 
duced us  to  believe,  that  "...  it  was  "  a  corruption 
of  Maiden  Burg,"  but  the  standing-stone  "  confounded 
this  conjecture,  and  prompted  an  idea,  that  the  name  "  was 
"  Mayberie,  or  Maleberge.''\\  In  a  note,  he  adds  this  quo- 
tation from  Lord  Coke: — "Antiquarians  have  frequently 
confounded  Bury,  for  Berie; — the  one  implying  the  tomb 
of  some  personage  ;  the  latter,  Berie,  being  the  name  of  a 
plain  or  vale,  surrounded  with  groves  and  forests,  and  held 
sacred  by  the  ancient  Britons."  West,  borrowing  from 
Rowlands'  Mona  Antiqua,  p.  84,  says: — "If  the  present 
name  be  a  Saxon  corruption  of  the  ancient  name,  which 
probably  was  Myfirion,  by  the  Saxons  pronounced  May- 
birion  or  Maybir,  and  to  bring  it  still  nearer  to  their  own 
language,  Mayburgh,  then  this  conjecture  being  admitted, 
it  will  signifiy  a  place  of  study  and  contemplation. "IT  The 
authors  of  Beauties  of  England  and  Wales  **  accept  the 
opinion  that  "  its  present  name  is  Saxon,  and  signifies  the 
Virgin,  or  Maiden's  Fortress."  I  am  tempted  to  add  one 
more  guess  to  the  above,  but  only  by  way  of  suggestion. 
May  the  word  be  of  British  instead  of  Saxon  origin,  with- 
out going  so  far  out  of  the  way  as  Rowlands  has  done  for 

*  Probably  we  may  thus  correct  Leland,  quoted  ante,  where  he  says  that  the 
Round  lable  was  called  "  of  summe  Arture^s  Castel."  He  appears  not  to  have 
seen  Mayburgh  ;  but,  hearing  one  of  its  local  designations,  confounded  it  with 
that  of  the  other  ring. 

fCamden's  Britannia,  1695  ed.,  p.  S17,  Add.  to  Westm. 

X  First  Tour  in  Scotland,  257. 

§  Exc.  to  the  Lakes,  97. 

II  Ibid.,  94. 

*|  Guide  to  the  Lakes,  7th  ed.,  167,  168. 

**  Westmorland  vol.,  114. 

212      MAYBURGH    A\D    KING    ARTHUR'S    ROUND    TABLE. 

an  explanation  ?  A  plausible  etymoloc;jy  might  be  made 
by  combining  the  Welsh  nm,  a  place  or  space,  with  bwr, 
an  intrenchmenc.  Little  change  would  be  needed,  but  in 
the  pronunciation  of  the  a  from  the  Celtic  to  the  English 
sound  ; — such  a  change  as  has  actually  taken  place  in 
parallel  cases,  which  could  be  cited.  Another,  but  much 
less  probable  derivation  might  be  that  from  magn'yr,  an 
inclosure,  a  wall.  There  are  two  words  with  so  much 
likeness  to  Mayburgh,  that  the}'  deserve  to  be  mentioned 
here.  One  of  these  is  Mawhurgh  or  Malbray,  the  name  of 
the  ruins  of  a  fortified  post  on  the  coast  of  Cumberland. 
The  other  is  Avehury.  If  we  could  get  over  the  difficult}- 
presented  by  the  initial  M,  there  is  sufficient  similarity 
between  some  of  the  various  forms  of  Avebury  and  May- 
burgh  to  suggest  comparison  between  them  :  and  the  force 
of  this  (if  it  has  any)  is  perhaps  increased  by  the  analogy 
between  the  works  themselves.  x\vebury  (now  pronounced, 
and  often  written,  Ahiiry)  has,  at  different  times,  been 
spelled  variously,  thus: — Avreberic  (Domesd.),  Avehury 
(Sarum  Regist.),  Ahery  and  Auhcry  (Valor  EccL),  A±nebury 
(Monast.),  Atibury  (Aubrey),  and  Abury  (Stukeley).  It 
seems  probable  that  the  first  part  of  the  word  is  kindred 
to  ea,  ey,  ay,  signifying  water.  The  second  part  is  pro- 
bably hury,  (not  bcry),  a  fort. 

For  what  purpose  designed. — When  we  come  to  speculate 
upon  the  purpose  for  Which  Mayburgh  was  probably 
founded,  we  find  the  subject  involved  in  even  more  than 
the  usual  depth  of  obscurity  ;  for  the  page  of  authentic 
history  is  here  totally  blank  ;  the  voice  of  tradition,  if  not 
altogether  dumb,  is  errant  and  misleading;  the  iorm  and 
arrangement  of  the  work  are  very  uncommon,  if  not 
unique  ;  and  there  has  been  no  systematic  exploration  of 
the  place  with  the  spade.  Bishop  Gibson,  in  his  Additions 
to  the  Britannia,  calls  it,  in  one  place,  "  a  great  Fort  of 
Stones,"  in  another,  "  a  Danish  Temple."  Stukeley,  "  a 
great  British  temple."  Pennant,  unaware  of  any  tradition, 



follows  Rowlands  in  regarding  it  as  "  a  supreme  consistory 
of  Druidical  administration."  Hutchinson,  after  mention- 
ing "  the  traditional  account  given  of  this  place,  .  .  in 
nowise  to  be  credited  :  That  it  was  a  Roman  theatre, 
where  criminals  were  exposed  to  wild  beasts  ;  and  that 
those  stones  were  placed  for  the  refuge  and  respite  of  the 
combatant,"  concludes  that  it  was  "  a  druidical  monu- 
ment,"-," a  temple  of  the  druids."  Nicolson  &  Burn,  '"a 
place  of  worship  in  the  times  of  the  ancient  Druids." 
West  says  that  it  "  has  the  circumstances  of  a  British 
fort ;  but  the  rude  pillar  inclines  some  to  believe  it  the 
remains  of  a  druid  temple."  Gough,  "  plainly  British  and 
Druidical."  We  may  at  once  brush  aside  as  baseless  the 
fancies  in  which  less  known  writers  were  wont  to  indulge 
when  contemplating  Mayburgh  as  a  scene  of  awful  Druidic 
ceremonies  ; — such  as  that  the  standing-stone  supported 
the  wicker  colossus  in  which  the  holocaust  of  human  vic- 
tims was  offered  to  the  gods. 

Now  the  megaliths  in  Mayburgh  forbid  us  to  regard  it 
as  having  been  a  fort  :  and  the  supposition,  based  on 
tradition,  that  it  was  a  Roman  theatre,  is  even  more  un- 
tenable. The  "  Danish  "  temples,  from  early  times,  seem 
to  have  been  walled  and  roofed,  and  were  commonly 
rectangular,  with  no  resemblance  to  a  stone  circle.  Nor 
can  we  now  rest  satisfied,  as  our  forefathers  were,  with  an 
undiscriminating  application  to  these  cases  of  the  theory 
which  attributed  all  such  works  to  the  Druids.  To  what, 
then,  must  we  go  for  an  explanation  ?  In  this  case,  the 
name  affords  no  clue  to  the  solution  of  the  problem. 
"  Arthur's  castle "  is,  of  course,  nothing  but  a  fanciful 
designation,  as  devoid  of  authority  as  is  the  wholly 
imaginary  mediaeval  setting  of  the  life  of  a  personage 
about  whom  we  may  truly  be  said  to  know  nothing.  Nor 
does  the  name  "  Mayburgh  "  help  us  farther.  It  evi- 
dently embodies  the  idea  of  a  later  time  that  it  was  a 
fortified,  or,  at  least,  a  fenced  place. 



If  we  seek  the  testimony  of  relics,  there  are  none,  save 
two — the  bronze  and  stone  celts  already  mentioned  as 
having  been  accidentally  turned  up  in  the  inclosure.  It 
is  rather  startling  to  read  in  the  Transactions  of  this 
Society  (vol.  IV,  p.  545)  when  the  latter  solitary  specimen 
was  exhibited,  that,  upon  its  sole  evidence,  the  inference 
was  reached  that  "  this  circular  enclosure  perhaps  pro- 
tected a  settlement  of  Neolithic  men."  If  similar  articles 
were  never  found  save  in  these  inclosures,  there  might  be 
force  in  the  conclusion  :  but  many  antiquaries  are  scarcely 
aware  how  widely  dispersed  such  objects  are.  A  friend  of 
mine — a  specialist  in  this  line — can  hardly  cross  a  field  in 
many  localities  without  picking  up  something  of  this 

We  are  then  left  to  question  the  work  itself,  its  situation, 
and  its  surroundings.  The  argument,  handled  with  great 
ability  by  the  late  Mr.  Fergusson,  that  nearly  all  such  re- 
mains are  solely  sepulchral ;  and  that,  of  those  which  are 
not  sepulchral,  the  greater  part  are  merely  memorial ;  has, 
perhaps,  been  rather  overstrained  by  him  and  by  others 
who  adopt  his  conclusions  :  and  there  may  be  some  danger 
of  our  yielding  too  absolutely  to  the  extreme  reaction  which 
has  long  set  in  against  the  absurd  extravagancies  which 
discredited,  if  they  embellished,  the  Druid  hypothesis. 
Now  Mayburgh  is  not  such  a  monument  as  would  be 
likely  to  be  raised  in  memory  of  some  great  victory  ;  nor 
has  anything  yet  been  found  which  marks  it  as  sepulchral." 
What,  then,  could  it  have  been  ?  We  learn  that,  in  olden 
times,  certain  religious,  legal,  and  other  public  and  private 
acts  or  ceremonies,  have  not  uncommonly  been  associated 
with    conspicuous    stones,    either    single,    or  grouped   by 

*  Nothing  seems  to  have  been  found  in  the  vallum  while  the  extensive  bur- 
rowings  therein  for  road  stone  were  in  progress.  So  far,  the  evidence  agfainst  a 
sepulchral  use  may  be  regarded  as  positive :  but  it  is  negative  in  the  case  of  the 
area,  which,  as  I  have  already  noted,  has  never  been  excavated.  Until  this  shall 
have  been  done,  the  testimony  of  the  spade  must  be  regarded  as  very  incomplete. 



nature  or  by  man.  Among  these,  stone-rings  have  held  a 
prominent  position.  Upon  a  review  of  the  whole  subject 
— dimly  lighted  as  it  is — I  am  hardly  able  to  avoid  the 
conclusion  that  in  Mayburgh  we  have  that  which  suggests 
that  its  founders  had  some  such  purpose  in  view.  It  ap- 
pears to  me  to  rank  with  remains,  such  as  Bryn  Gwyn, 
which  stand  apart,  bearing  the  marks  of  a  locus  consecratics. 
By  what  people  established,  we  know  too  little  to  venture 
to  guess  ;  whether  it  be  the  work  of  the  Northmen  who 
over-ran  and  settled  in  these  parts;  or  of  those  whom  they 
dispossessed  ;  or  of  some  yet  earlier  race  of  whom  we  have 
3  still  more  shadowy  conception.  Is  it  possible  that  the 
ash  trees  which  flourish  on  the  spot  have  a  more  than  ac- 
cidental connexion  with  it  ?  And  again,  is  it  possible  that 
the  spring  which  wells  forth  between  it  and  the  high-road 
may  have  been  one  of  the  ruling  incidents  which  deter- 
mined the  selection  of  the  site  ?* 

The  Round  Table :  What  was  its  use  ? — We  are  now  on 
much  firmer  ground ;  and  the  limits  within  which  we  may 
wander  are  much  narrower  and  better  defined  :  so  that,  for 
once,  the  conclusions  of  those  who  have  written  on  the 
subject  are  in  close  accord.  Leland  (admiring  believer  in 
Arthur  though  he  was)  has  not  ventured  to  speculate  on 
this  spot,  glorified,  as  it  has  been,  by  association  with  the 
name  of  that  hero  of  chivalry.  He  contents  himself  with 
simply  recording  that  the  earthwork  is  "  a  Ruine,  as  sum 
suppose,  of  a  Castel."  Bishop  Gibson  says,  "  '  Tis  possible 
enough  that  it  might  be  a  Justing-place  ;  "  adding, — "  That 
it  was  never  design'd  for  a  place  of  strength,  appears  from 
the  trench  being  on  the  in-side. "t  Stukeley  writes  : — "  At 
first  sight  we  may  see  that  it  was  intended  for  sports,  but 
not  on  horseback,  because  much  too  little."     After  giving 

*It  is  hardly  necessary  to  remind  the  reader  of  the  sacred  character  which  the 
ash  bore  in  Scandinavia.  In  Iceland,  dojn-riiigs  and  springs  are  nearly  always 
found  associated. — Fiking  Age,  I,  371. 

f  Camden's  Britannia,  ed.  1695,  p.  S17. 


2l6      MAYBURGH    AND    KING    ARTHUR'S    ROUND    TABLE. 

particulars  of  the  southern  ring-einbankment,  he  remarks 
that  "  these  two  circles  and  the  interval  make  looo  foot 
in   length  ;  and  there  is  just   room  enough  without  them, 
next  the  river  and  next  the  bank,  for  a  circus  or  foot-race, 
according  to  the  old  manner  of  the  Grecian,  which  were 
always  celebrated  by  the  sides  of  rivers  ;   .     .     .   and  pro- 
bably British  chariots  had  here  their  courses."     "  After 
the  religious  duties    fat  MayburghJ  were  over,  they  went 
down  to  the  circus  to  celebrate  their  games  :  and  I  could 
not  but  admire  the  fine  genius  of  these  people  in  chusing 
places  for  their  sports  ;  for  upon  the  verge  of  the  acclivity, 
along  the  circus,  an  infinite  number  of  people  might  stand 
to  see  the  whole  without  the  least  inconvenience,  besides 
those  in  the  plain  between  the  two  circles  ;  and  these  two 
circles  admirably  well  executed  the  intent  of  the  ineta's, 
but  much  better  than  those  in  the  Roman  circus's."     He 
adds  : — "  This  is  used  to  this  day  for  a  country  rendezvous, 
either  for  sports  or  military  exercises,  shooting  with  bows, 
&C.'"'''    Pennant  says: — "  Some  suppose  this  to  have  been 
designed   for   tilting   matches,    and    that   the   champions 
entered  at  each  opening.     Perhaps  that  might  have  been 
the  purpose  of  it  ;  for  the  size  forbids  one  to  suppose  it  to 
be   an   encampment. "+       Four   years   later,    however,   on 
seeing  the  similarbut  larger  rings  at  Thornborough,  which, 
from  their  size,  and  in  other  respects,  were  much  better 
suited  to  such  exercises,  he  had  seen  reason  somewhat  to 
modify  his  opinion.  He  then  says  : — ''  The  intent  of  these 
rings  is  cleared  up  by  Saxo  Grammaticus.     [Lib.  iii.,  p.  48, 
and   Notes,  p.   97] .     Among  the  northern  nations  duels 
were  fought  within  circles  :  if  the  combat  was  sudden,  the 
spectators   themselves  formed  the  ring,  as  is  customary 
with  mobs  from  the  days  of  Ajax  to  the  present  time.     If 

*  I  tin.  Curios.,  II,  43,  44.  There  is  aperspeetive  view  of  the  Round  Table  and 
the  southern  ring,  in  both  of  which  men  are  wrestling,  while  horse  and  foot  races 
are  in  progress  outside. 

t  Firs/  Tour  in  Scotland,  25O. 


MAYBURGH    AND    KING    ARTHUR'S    ROUND    TABLE.       217 

the  combatants  were  men  of  rank,  and  the  cause  im- 
portant, then  the  ring  was  inclosed  with  pales,  or  with 
stones,  or  earth.  This  placed  was  called,  in  the  old 
Danish,  Holmur ;  a  single  combat,  Holm-ganga  ;  to  enter 
into  the  ring  at  gauge  a  holm;  and  the  laws  of  duel  Holm- 
ganga  leg.  The  terraces  were  allotted  for  the  numerous 
spectators,  who  sat  round  this  arctic  amphitheatre;  the 
entrances  placed  opposite  to  each  other,  for  the  champions 
to  enter  at,  to  divide  the  field  ;  and  on  the  signal  given  by 
the  heralds,  to  rush  on  each  other,  to  make  their  con- 
gyessus."  "  I  daresay  the  ring  near  Penrith,  in  Cumber- 
land, was  formed  for  the  same  purpose."*  Hutchinson 
says : — "  We  were  induced  to  believe  this  was  an  antient 
tilting  ground,  where  justings  had  been  held  :  the  ap- 
proaches seemed  to  answer  for  the  career,  and  the  circle 
appears  sufficient  for  the  champions  to  shew  their  dexterity 
in  the  use  of  the  lance  and  horsemanship  ;  the  whole  cir- 
cus being  capable  of  receiving  a  thousand  spectators  on 
the  outer  side  of  the  ditch. "t  West  held  that  the  Round 
Table  "  may  be  presumed  to  have  been  a  place  of  public 
exhibition  for  martial  exercises."!  Nicolson  &  Burn,  that 
"it  seems  to  have  been  a  justing-place ;  "  adding!!the 
rather  amusing  and  superfluous  supposition, — "  and  per- 
haps the  knights,  after  justing  and  exercise, "might  dine 
here."§  "  Mr.  Albert  Way,  who  visited  Arthur's  Round 
Table,  described  it  as  a  Roman  castrensian  theatre  in 
connection  with  the  camp  at  Brougham." ||  Dr.  Simpson 
"  held  that  the  table  was  indeed  for  a  hoam-gang  of  the 
Norsemen,  and  was  probably  constructed  a  considerable 

*  Tour  from  Alston  Moor  to  Harrowgate  and  Brimham  Crags,  49,  50,  51. 

+  Exc.  to  the  Likes,  90.  Stukeley  estimated  that  the  annular  space  between 
the  ditch  and  the  top  of  the  ralliim  "  would  hold  at  least  10,000  people."  This  is 
too  large  an  estimate,  as  Hutchinson's  is  much  too  small.  The  real  number 
who  could  stand  closely  packed  in  the  space  (leaving-  unoccupied  a  width  of  50  ft. 
at  each  gangway)  is  5,000. 

+  Guide  to  the  Lakes,  7th  ed.,  167. 

§  Hist,  and  Ant.  of  IFestm.  and  Cunib.,  I,  414. 

II  Trans,  Cuvib.  and  fVestm.  Ant,  Soc,  IV,  545. 


2l8      MAYBURGH    AND    KING    ARTHUR'S    ROUND    TABLE. 

time  before  the  Norman  conquest,  as  a  place  on  which 
duels  were  fought."* 

Now  it  is  easy  to  decide  what  the  Round  Table  was 
not.  Clearly  it  was  not  a  camp.  To  ]\lr.  Way's  theor}^  it 
may  be  objected,  (i)  that  it  is  a  mile  from  Brougham, 
where  a  good  site  could  easily  have  been  secured ;  (2)  that 
it  does  not  resemble  most  other  castrensian  theatres  with 
which  we  are  acquainted ;  (3)  that  its  form  is  identical 
with  that  of  the  group  at  Thornborough,  which,  I  believe, 
are  not  near  any  Roman  military  station.  The  occurrence 
of  the  raised  platform  in  the  midst  of  the  inclosure,  as 
well  as  the  narrowness  of  the  limits,  forbid  us  to  suppose, 
with  Gibson,  Pennant,  (first  impression),  Hutchinson,  and 
Nicolson  &  Burn,  that  it  was  a  tilting-ground.  Nor  do 
its  interior  arrangements  seem  such  as  to  make  it  suitable 
for  a  "  thing."  We  are  thus  left  to  accept  either  or  both 
of  the  two  remaining  alternatives  :  for  no  more  rational 
supposition  has  been,  or  is  likely  to  be  offered.  The  par- 
ticular view  ultimately  taken  will  turn  very  much  upon 
questions  of  date.  It  is  said  that  many  wrestling  matches 
have  been  held  within  memory  on  this  spot.  Stukeley 
speaks  of  "  sports  and  military  exercises  "  as  being  prac- 
tised there  in  his  own  day.  Among  these,  boxing  is  likely 
to  have  held  a  prominent  place  :  and  if  we  can  but  go  back 
far  enough,  what  more  likely  than  that  we  should  find  this 
a  scene  of  the  bloodier  encounters  of  the  holm-ganga  ?  Now 
it  is  recorded  that  duelling  was  abolished  in  Norway  (may 
we  suppose  also  in  our  own  country  ?)  while  Knut  was  on 
the  throne  of  England. t  Whether  the  Round  Table  was 
in  existence  before  that  time,  who  shall  say  ?  Judging 
from  its  state  of  preservation,  my  own  impression  is  that 
it  is  not  nearly  so  ancient.  As  to  its  age,  there  are  but 
two  sources  from  whence  we  can  expect  to  get  any  light. 

*  Ihid. 

fFiking  Age,  I,  576. 



One  would  be  the  opening  of  the  tiimidi  at  Thornborough 
and  at  Scruton,  Should  these  yield  evidence  of  their  pro- 
bable connexion  with  the  neighboring  rings,  the  problem 
would  be  sufficiently  solved ;  and  we  should  have  to  carry 
these  earthworks  back  into  the  earlier  centuries  of  our 
era ;  and,  perhaps,  might  safely  attribute  them  to  a 
Scandinavian  origin.  The  other  possible  (though,  I  fear, 
now  very  improbable)  source  of  information  would  be  the 
discovery  of  the  Roman  road  (if  there  was  one)  from  Yan- 
wath  to  Brougham.  If  it  should  be  found  to  have  taken 
(as  most  likely  would  be  the  case)  the  line  of  the  present 
road, — having  afterward  become  grassed  over  and  lost ; — 
then,  it  would  follow  that  the  Round  Table,  the  northern 
end  of  which  was  destroyed  in  making  the  modern  road, 
is  /»os^Roman. 


Art.  XVII. — An  instance  of  Infant  Marriage  in  the  Dio- 
cese of  Carlisle.     By  Mrs.  Henry  Ware. 
Communicated  at  Ambleside,  Sept',  ^th,   18S9. 

"Y  mind  has  been  turned  towards  the  subject  of  infant 
marriages  by  my  acquaintance  with  Rukmabai,  che 
Hindoo  child-wife,  and  by  the  efforts  which  are  now  being 
made  to  bring  about  some  modifications  of  the  marriage 
laws  and  customs  of  India. 

It  is  probably  not  generally  known  that  infant  marriages 
of  a  certain  kind  have  been  recognised  in  our  own  land 
within  comparatively  recent  times.  It  seems  certain  that 
during  the  i6th  and  17th  centuries  such  marriages,  or  at 
all  events  betrothals,  or  contracts  of  a  legal  and  permanent 
character,  were  not  uncommon,  and  that  there  was  a 
recognised  way  in  which  such  contracts  could  be  voided, 
if  either  party  so  wished,  on  arriving  at  the  age  of  con- 

I  am  indebted  to  the  Dean  of  Carlisle  for  the  Canon  law 
on  the  subject,  which  he  has  gathered  from  Lyndwood,  as 
follows  : — 

There  can  be  no  marriage  without  mutual  consent.  Therefore, 
infants,  i.e.,  children  under  7  years  of  age  may  be  espoused  to  each 
other,  but  such  espousal  is  not  binding,  either  for  espousal,  unless 
confirmed  by  the  parties  after  7  years  of  age  ;  or  for  marriage,  unless 
confirmed  after  the  marriageable  age,  i.e.,  14  for  a  boy,  13  for  a  girl. 
At  the  age  of  14  and  12  a  contract  of  espousal  may  be  cancelled  ;  but 
this  effect  will  remain  that  neither  of  the  two  can  marry  a  blood  re- 
lation of  the  other.  Espoused  children  may  be  married  when  one 
or  both  are  under  the  marriageable  age,  on  occasion  of  necessity,  pro 
bono  pads,  i.e.  it  is  explained  for  the  union  and  reconciliation  of  per- 
sons or  families,  acquisition  of  wealth  and  friendship. 

A    paper   read   by  J.    P.    Earwaker,   Esq.,   during  the 
meeting  of  the  Archaeological   Institute  at  Chester,  but 



not  yet  published,  gave  several  interesting  particulars  on 
this  subject  ;  the  writer  called  attention  to  the  fact  that 
information  must  be  sought  in  the  records  of  the  Con- 
sistory Courts  and  not  in  the  parish  registers,  inasmuch 
as  there  is  generally  no  notice  in  the  older  church  registers 
of  the  ages  of  parties  recorded  as  having  been  married.  I 
have  not  been  able  to  obtain  a  sight  of  his  paper,  which 
was  of  great  interest,  and  which  I  hope  may  be  published 
in  some  form,  but,  so  far  as  I  can  remember,  he  stated 
that  young  children  were  contracted  in  marriage  and  the 
form  of  service  was  gone  through  ;  they  then  returned  to 
the  care  of  their  respective  parents,  and  when  the  time 
came  for  fulfilling  their  engagement,  if  both  consented,  no 
further  ceremony  was  necessary  ;  but  if  one  of  the  parties 
objected  the  matter  was  taken  into  the  Consistory  Court, 
and  the  Chancellor  either  ratified  or  annulled  the  contract. 
Mr.  Earwaker  quoted  many  extracts  from  the  records  of 
the  Chester  Consistory  Court  in  proof  of  his  statement, 
some  of  them  very  funny  ones,  such  as  that  the  bride- 
groom had  never  been  a  consenting  party,  that  he  had 
had  to  be  enticed  to  the  altar  with  promises  of  sweetmeats, 
and  had  never  kissed  his  baby  bride  or  given  her  any  cakes 
or  toys  since.  Many  of  these  so-called  marriages  seem  to 
have  been  annulled.  I  have  searched  the  records  of  the 
Carlisle  Consistory  Court,  beginning  with  the  year  1606 
down  to  1684,  but,  unfortunately,  the  volumes  between 
1608  and  1663  are  missing,  (they  were  probably  destroyed 
during  the  Commonwealth) ;  this  is  specially  disappointing 
as  the  only  reference  to  a  case  of  infant  marriage  occurs 
in  the  volume  for  1608,  in  which  the  defendant  was 
ordered  to  appear  before  the  Court  at  its  next  sitting  for 
the  hearing  of  matrimonial  causes,  and  it  would  have 
been  interesting  had  it  been  possible,  to  follow  the  cause 
to  its  conclusion.  The  entry  to  which  I  refer  is  as  fol- 
lows : — 



Kirkby  Stephen. 
Eisdem  die  et  loco  comparuit  procter  Mergera  Dowthwait  ct  allegav- 
it  quod  fuit  contracta  in  ejus  impubertate  cum  quodam  Thomas 
Ffawcett  cum  condicione  sequenti  Vizt.  that  if  she  should  refuse  to 
marrie  with  him  when  she  came  to  lawfull  yeares  of  consent  it 
should  be  lawful  for  the  said  Ffawcett  to  take  the  forfeiture  men- 
sioned  in  the  condicons  or  articles  of  the  same,  and  if  Ffawcett 
should  refuse  her  then  she  to  take  ye  like  forfeite,  et  petiit  indicat  (?) 
ut  solemnizetur  cum  dicto  Ffawcett  alledging  that  she  was  willing  to 
have  him  to  her  husband  according  to  ye  said  articles  Et  quia  dictus 
vir  non  comparuit  dominus  (i.e.  the  Chancellor)  decrevit  diemcitandi 
fore  in  proximo  hoc  in  loco  in  causa  matrimoniali. 

As  the  parish  registers  at  Kirkby  Stephen  do  not  commence 
so  early  I  have  not  been  able  to  find  the  entry  of  this 
marriage  or  contract. 

In  Bishop  Nicolson's  Miscellany  Accounts  of  the  Dio- 
cese of  Carlisle  (p.  loS)  referring  to  the  Register  at 
Threlkeld  there  is  a  passage  which  may  possibly  have  a 
bearing  on  this  subject.  He  says  : — "  Before  we  shut  this 
Book,  we  must  observe  one  extraordinary  Custome  of  the 
place,  to  be  proved  by  it.  Formal  Contracts  of  Marriage 
are  herein  Recorded  ;  and  Sureties  enter'd  for  the  payment 
of  five  Shillings  to  the  poor,  by  the  party  that  draws  back." 
This  custom  may  be  connected  with  the  contracts  between 
children.  It  is  improbable  that  so  accurate  a  man  as 
Bishop  Nicolson  should  have  made  a  complete  mistake, 
but  I  am  informed  by  the  present  Incumbent  that  there  is 
nothing  whatever  to  be  found  of  this  nature  in  the  registers 
at  Threlkeld,  the  entries  of  which  date  from  1572.  (It  has 
been  suggested  by  Mr.  Lees  that  the  Bishop  mistook  some 
entries  of  the  loan  of  the  Poor's  Stock,  but  it  seems  to  me 
more  probable  that  the  Bishop  made  an  error  with  regard 
to  the  parish  in  which  he  saw  the  Register  to  which  he 

There  is  a  notice  in  the  Chronicle  of  Lanercost  which 
has  an  undoubted  bearing  on  the  subject  of  this  paper.  It 
runs  as  follows  : — 



A.D.  1313. 
Eodem  anno  dominus  Thomas  de  Multuna,  dominus  Gilieslandias, 
sexto  kalendas  Decembris  [  ]  obiit,  unicam  filiam  heredem, 
nomine  Margaretam,  post  se  reliquit,  quam  Robertus  de  Clifford,  filius 
Roberti  de  eadem,  septimo  suae  JEtatis  anno,  apud  Hoffe,  ipM  Iccto 
decuhante,  desponsavit.  Et  vivente  dicto  Roberto,  Ranulphus  de 
Daker  filius  domini  Willelmi  de  Daker,  eundem  Margaretam  nupsit, 
quia  jus  habuit  ad  illam  propter  pactionem  factam  ante  priores 
nuptias,  inter  Thomam  de  Multuna,  patrem  dictse  Margaretje,  et 
Willelmum  de  Daker. 

The  Dean  of  Carlisle  thus  renders  the  passage  : — 
"  In  the  same  year  13 13  on  Nov.  27  Lord  Thomas  of 
Multon,  Lord  of  Gilsland  died,  leaving  an  only  daughter, 
Margaret,  his  heiress,  whom  Robert  of  Clifford,  son  of 
Robert  of  Clifford  betrothed  at  Hoffe,  being  in  his  7th  year, 
he  himself  \y'mg  in  the  bed,  and  though  this  Robert  was 
alive,  Ranulph  of  Dacre  son  of  William  of  Dacre  married 
this  Margaret,  for  he  had  a  right  to  her  on  account  of  a 
contract  made  before  her  first  marriage  {i.e.,  betrothal)  be- 
tween Thomas  of  Multon  father  of  the  said  Margaret  and 
William  of  Dacre." 

From  this  it  would  seem  (see  also  Transactions  of  the 
Cumberland  and  Westmorland  Society,  vol.  IV,  p.  469), 
that  the  betrothal  or  marriage  of  Margaret  to  Robert  de 
Clifford  ("  ipse  lecto  decubante  "  is  an  allusion  to  one  of 
the  ceremonies  which  accompanied  the  hand-fasting  in 
these  infant  weddings)  was  void  by  reason  of  her  "  priores 
nuptias  "  with  Ranulph  de  Dacre,  and  her  elopement  with 
him  (at  the  age  of  seventeen)  was  justified. 

A  curious  account  of  marriage  and  betrothal  customs 
will  be  found  in  Brand's  Popular  Antiquities  (vol.  II,  p. 
54)  but  there  is  nothing  bearing  specially  on  infant  mar- 

I  cannot  but  feel  that  this  essay  on  Infant  Marriage 
is  of  a  somewhat  meagre  kind  ;  it  is  the  result,  how- 
ever, of  not  a  little  searching  and  enquiry.  It  is  not 
my  fault   that   the   harvest  has  been  thin,   and  it   may 



possibly  suggest  to  persons  in  other  dioceses  to  examine 
the  records  of  the  Consistor}'  Courts  for  the  purpose  of 
obtaining  more  information  and  evidence.  I  can  only 
wish  them  more  abundant  success  than  I  have  met  with 

I  began  this  paper  by  a  reference  to  the  Hindoo  lady 
Rukmabai :  in  closing  it  I  cannot  refrain  from  suggesting 
that  perhaps  a  partial  cure  for  the  miseries  attendant 
upon  infant  marriage  in  India  might  be  found  in  per- 
mitting persons  contracted  in  infancy  to  obtain  a  release 
from  their  contract  b}-  sentence  of  a  competent  Court  to 
which,  as  in  England,  application  might  be  made  by 
either  party  on  reaching  the  age  of  consent. 

The  following  letters  from   the  Rev.  T.  Lees,  F.S.A.,    and  from 
Professor  Clark,  F.S.A.,  refer  to  the  translation  of  the  passage  from 

the  Lanercost  Chronicle. — 

Wreay,  Deer,  gth,  1889. 
Dear  I'erguson — That  passage  from  the  Lanercost  Chronicle  is  an  old 
friend,  and  has  long  been  a  puzzle  to  me  ;  but,  at  last,  I  think  I  see  my 
way  to  its  true  meaning.     This  1  take  to  be  a  true  interpretation  : — 

In  the  same  year  (i.e.  A.U.  13 14)  Lord  Thomas  de  Multon,  Lord  of  Gilsland,  on 
the  6th  day  before  the  kalends  of  December  [  ]  died,  he  left  behind  him  an 
only  daughter  as  heir  whose  name  was  Margaret,  whom  Robert  de  Clifford,  son 
of  Robert  of  the  same  ilk,  in  the  7th  year  of  her  age,  betrothed  at  Hoff,  he  him- 
self lying  on  the  outside  of  the  bed.  And  during  the  life-time  of  the  said  Robert, 
Ranulph  de  Daker,  son  of  Lord  William  de  Daker,  married  the  same  Margaret, 
because  he  had  a  right  to  her  on  account  of  a  compact  made  before  her  former 
nuptials,  between  Thomas  de  Multon,  father  of  the  said  Margaret  and  William 
de  Daker. 

The  man  lying  outside  the  bed  of  his  betrothed,  may  have  been 
one  of  the  customs  of  the  time.  When  Marie  de  Valois,  Duchess 
Burgundy,  in  1477,  was  married  by  proxy  to  the  Archduke  Maximilian, 
the  Duke  of  Bavaria  (Maximilian's  substitute)  slept  with  the  princess 
after  the  custom  of  the  times.  Both  were  in  complete  dress,  watched 
by  four  guards,  and  separated  by  a  naked  sword.  Evidently  Mar- 
garet's marriage  with  Robert  de  Clifford  was  never  consummated  ;  or 



she  could  not  so  easily  have  been  wedded  to  William  Dacre,  without 
apparently  any  ecclesiastical  proceedings  in  the  way  divorce  or 
dispensation.     Thomas  Lees. 

"  Remove  the  bridegroom,"  said  Aladdin  to  the  genie.  .  .  .  On 
Aladdin  being  left  alone  with  the  princess.  ...  he  then  laid 
himself  down   beside  her,  putting  a  drawn   scim.itar  between  them. 

Arabian  Nigpits. 

Newnhara  House, 

Cambridge,  Dec.  13th,  1889. 
My  dear  Ferguson — On  the  whole  I  think  I  agree  with  Lees,  except 
that  I  render  sues  of  his  age,  which  the  other  records  require,  and 
the  Latin  will  bear  ;  and  I  translate  ipso  Iccto  decuhantc  "  he  himself 
lying  apart  from  her  in  the  bed." 

Dccubare  is  not  a  very  common  word,  but  the  passage  quoted  in 
the  Lexicons  from  Fabius  Pictor  (apud  Aulum  Gellium,  x,  15),  suits 
this  passage.  The  Flamen  Dialis  never  sleeps  three  continuous 
nights  aK'ay  from  his  proper  bed  "  de  eo  lecto  trinoctium  continuum 
non  decubat."  I  think,  however,  it  must  be  here  "away /row  her,  in 
the  bed."  I  do  not  think  decitbare  ever  means  to  lie  ill  in  bed,  tho' 
possibly  decmnhcrc  may  have  once  or  twice  borne  that  sense. 

The  most  extraordinary  piece  of  Latinity  is  the  transitive  niipsit,  of 
which  I  can  find  no  other  instance,  but  for  v/hich  I  see  no  help. 


Art.  XVIII. — The   Dacre   Stone.     By  the   Rev.   Canon 

Read  at  Dacre,  July  ^th,  i88g. 

rriHE  stone,  of  which  the  accompanying  sketch  is  given, 
J-  was  found  during  the  restoration  of  Dacre  church  in 
1875,  imbedded  in  the  east  end  wall  of  the  church,  when 
that  was  being  pulled  down  for  the  insertion  of  the  new 
east  window.  It  is  a  pink  gray  sandstone  of  a  grit  very 
similar  to  the  local  quarries.  The  length  is  3  ft.  2  inches, 
greatest  breadth  at  the  bottom  14  inches,  and  least  width 
near  the  top  11  inches.  Its  thickness  is  4  inches  ;  the 
back  roughly  chipped,  the  sides  ornamented  with  a  rope- 
work  border.  It  has  obviously  formed  a  portion  of  a  larger 
whole,  from  the  broken  edge  at  the  top,  just  as  it  begins 
to  spread  out  from  its  narrowest  width ;  but  the  sculpture 
on  the  front  appears  complete,  from  the  fact  of  the  bor- 
dering line  being  returned  across  the  top. 

The  carving  on  the  front  is  both  interesting  and  difficult 
to  decipher.  There  is  first  a  figure  which  Mr.  Calverley 
says  is  a  lamb,  but  I  had  taken  to  be  a  horse  : — then  a  lit- 
tle foliage  to  the  left,  a  trefoil,  and  circle  with  pellet.  Then 
two  figures,  a  larger  and  smaller  seemingly  striking  hands 
over  a  rude  altar, — the  branches  of  a  tree  to  the  right  with 
a  stag  reaching  to  nibble  them,  and  below  a  curving  line 
which  I  think  is  a  serpent.  Below  is  a  tree  with  spreading 
branches,  with  pellets  (perhaps  fruit)  all  round  it,  two 
human  figures  reaching  each  a  hand  to  the  tree,  and  a 
small  snake  clearly  marked  curving  under  the  lower 

Upon  the  symbolism  I  do  not  like  to  pronounce.  The 
first  general  assumption  was  that  it  represented  Adam 
and  Eve,  and  Cain  and  Abel,  and  that  the  stone  was  the 
lower  limb  of  a  rude  cross,  of  which  it  does  give  a  very 
strong  impression. 


THE    DACRE    STONE.  227 

The  objection  to  this  is  that  there  is  not  a  single  dis- 
tinctly Christian  emblem  on  the  whole  stone  :  while  every- 
one of  the  figures  has  a  symbolic  meaning  in  Norse 
paganism.  If  (pace  Mr.  Calverley)  the  upper  figure  is  a 
?orse,  that  is  the  sacred  animal  of  Freya, — the  three  pel- 
lets represent  Thor,  Odin,  and  Frey, — the  circle  with 
pellet  Freya.  Then  we  have  the  sacred  ash  Yggdrasil, 
with  the  stag  nibbling  its  shoots,  and  the  serpent  Nidhog 
at  its  roots.  (The  stag  also  a  sacred  animal  to  Frey). 
Below  we  have  again  a  sacred  tree  and  serpent,  with  (?) 
Thor  gathering  its  fruit. 

If,  however,  the  upper  figure  is  that  of  a  lamb,  it  un- 
doubtedly will  represent  Christ,  and  its  position  in  the 
sculpture  generally  would  shew  the  triumph  of  Christianity 
over  Paganism.  The  central  scene  of  the  two  figures  and 
what  seems  to  be  a  rude  altar  I  cannot  pronounce  upon. 
Their  attitude  is  that  rather  of  amity  than  hostility, — 
which  is  against  the  theory  of  Cain  and  Abel.  I  should 
like  to  think  that  it  could  have  been  carved  to  represent 
the  treaty  made  at  the  monastery  which  stood  on  this  spot 
between  Eugenius  (Owain)  the  last  independent  king  of 
the  native  Cumbrians,  and  Athelstan,  in  926  :  when  "  the 
barbarians  without  delay  coming  to  a  place  called  Dacor 
surrendered  themselves  and  their  kingdoms  to  the  sovereign 
of  England.  Out  of  regard  to  this  treaty,  the  King  himself 
stood  for  the  son  of  Constantine,*  who  was  ordered  to  be 
baptized  at  the  sacred  font."  (Wm.  of  Malmesbury.)  The 
Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle  says  of  this,  that  "  they  confirmed 
the  peace  by  pledges  and  by  oaths  at  the  place  which  is 
called  Eamot  (the  river  Eamont  which  flows  within  a  mile 
of  Dacre)  on  the  4th  before  the  Ides  of  July  (this  day  963 
years  ago),  and  they  renounced  all  idolatry  and  submitted  to 
him  after  that  in  peace." 

*King  of  Scotland,  who  accompanied  Eugenius.      The  large  hall  at  Dacre 
Castle  adjoining  is  still  called  "  the  room  of  the  Three  Kings." 


228  THE    DACRE    STONE. 

If  it  is  legitimate  to  think  that  this  stone  represents 
this  treaty,  and  the  triumph  of  Christianity  over  the 
Paganism  which  still  lingered  among  the  Cumbrians  after 
so  many  conversions,  it  will  be  one  of  the  most  interesting 
memorials  that  we  have  in  the  country  of  Strathclyde.  I 
can  only  submit  it  as  a  conjecture  to  this  meeting,  without 
any  doubt  that  there  will  be  ''quot  homines  tot  sententicB.'" 


The  Dacre  Stone,  of  which  I  give  a  drawing,  is  the  shaft  of  a  cross 
ahnost  complete.  The  head  has  been  broken  awa\-.  The  sculpture 
of  the  whole  face  of  the  shaft  is  seen.  The  plaitwork  of  three 
strands  on  the  edge  terminates  correctly.  We  may  not  say  what 
form  the  head  and  arms  took,  but  the  upper  figure,  which  is  a  lamb, 
corresponds  in  position  and  very  closely  also  in  form,  with  the  upper 
figure  on  the  much  larger  and  very  differently  shaped  cross  at 
Penrith,  the  head  of  which  is  itself  decorated  with  a  raised  cross 
having  a  central  boss.  The  head,  and  it  may  be  a  few  inches  of 
plain  stone  at  the  bottom,  is  all  that  is  wanting  of  this  remarkable 
and  most  interesting  piece  of  work,  perfect  in  proportion,  and  of  very 
great  merit  in  conception  and  design. 

The  artist  has  divided  the  surface  of  the  stone  into  four  panels 
above  each  other.  In  the  lower  panel  he  has  figured  the  temptation  ; 
in  the  centre  stands  the  tree  bearing  fruit  in  groups  of  threes,  a  fruit 
bearing  branch  hanging  down  on  either  side  ;  to  the  left  Eve,  draped, 
takes  the  fruit,  whilst  one  apple  falls,  and  the  serpent  raising  itself 
with  open  mouth  appears  as  the  tempter  ;  to  the  right  Adam  stretches 
out  his  hand  to  the  tree.  In  the  next  panel,  the  stag  is  hunted  by 
the  hound,  a  fit  picture  of  the  life  of  effort  in  a  fallen  world.  The 
hart  has  held  its  place  in  symbolism  through  all  the  ages.  In  the 
panel  above,  two  men  join  hands  in  peaceful  compact  over  a  square 
stone"'-  font  standing  on  two  short  supports,  and  over  them  the  sun 
sign,  or  a  three  limbed  sign  is  seen  (this  part  of  the  work  is  damaged). 
In  the  uppermost  division  the  Lamb  walks  triumphant,  for  the  world, 
the  flesh,  and  the  devil  may  not  compass  the  abiding  death  of  him 
who  is  alive  through  Christ. 

■  Such  a  square  stone  font  may  be  seen  in  Gilcrux  Church. 


Dacre      CTioss  Shatt 

THE    DACRE    STONE.  229 

This,  I  think,  is  the  reading  of  the  picture  writing — the  regenera- 
tion of  christian  baptism  is  placed  in  apposition  to  the  fall ;  the  lamb 
once  slain  but  ever  living  as  our  Blessed  Lord,  is  placed  in  apposition 
to  the  hunted  stag.  Baptism  and  the  resurrection  of  the  dead  is  the 
teaching.  Outside  the  real  design  there  is  no  attempt  at  ornamenta- 
tion, or  very  little  indeed. 

The  workman  whose  skill  may  be  seen  in  his  treatment  of  the  horns, 
shape,  and  movement  of  the  stag,  and  in  the  general  proportions  of 
his  figures,  has  not  cut  away  the  stone  at  the  sides,  between  the  legs 
of  the  animals,  and  in  other  places  ;  but  has  left  his  work  in  simplicity, 
to  tell  its  own  story  without  adornment  of  any  kind. 

In  searching  for  facts  which  might  bear  upon  the  history  of  the 
Penrith  crosses,  the  circumstances  of  Athelstan's  visit  to  Cumbria 
were  forcibly  brought  to  my  notice,  and  about  the  same  time  Canon 
jVJathews  sent  me  his  notes  upon  this  Dacre  cross  shaft,  which  I  had 
not  seen.  Now  that  I  have  seen  the  stone,  I  find  no  reason  to  alter 
my  opinion,  namely,  that  the  whole  thing  is  christian,  that  it  com- 
memorates the  compact  of  the  kings,  and  that  the  date  926  is  not  too 
early  for  its  production. 


Art.  XIX. — Prc-Novman  Cross  Fragments  at  Aspatria, 
Workington,  Distington,  Bridekirk,  Gilcrux,  Plwiibland, 
and  hell.  By  Rev.  W.  S.  Calverley,  F.S.A.,  Vicar 
of  Aspatria. 

Comnmnicated  at  Penrith,  July  /\th,  and  Ambleside,  Sept. 
6th,  1889. 

HEREWITH  I  give  ten  pages  of  drawings,  all  from 
photographs  taken  for  me  by  our  member,  Mr.  W. 
L.  Fletcher,  of  Stoneleigh,  Workington,  to  whom  I  desire 
to  express  my  gratitude  and  the  thanks  of  the  Society. 

Dimensions. — I.,  II.,  III.,  shew  Aspatria  cross,  still 
standing  in  its  own  socket  stone  measuring  30  ins.  by  26 
ins.,  level  with  the  ground  surface  in  the  churchyard,  forty 
yards  to  the  south  of  the  church.  Height  4  ft.  6  inches, 
width  at  top  beneath  the  curve  of  the  circular  head  which 
has  been  destroyed,  143-  inches,  width  at  bottom  where 
the  shaft  enters  the  socket,  18  inches,  thickness  at  top  7^ 
inches,  at  bottom  Sj  inches.     Red  sandstone. 

IV. — Shews  the  face  and  reverse  of  a  fragment  of  a 
cross  shaft  12  in.  by  12  in.  by  3^-  in.  thick,  with  a  smaller 
fragment  of  one  of  the  arms  of  the  same  or  of  a  similar 
cross,  7  in.  by  4  in.  by  2j  inches  thick.  Light  coloured 
sandstone.  I  refer  to  the  upper  drawing  as  shewing  the 
Distington  Triskele  fragment,  the  sign  appearing  to  the 

V. — Gives  the  greater  part  of  a  cross  head  having  arms 
and  central  boss  with  raised  ring,  16  in.  by  14  in.  by  si- 
inches  thick.  Also  a  part  of  a  cross  head,  which  has  been 
knocked  off  square  by  the  builders  for  walling  purposes 
when  it  was  bedded  into  the  old  church  wall.  The  lime 
mortar  obscures  the  ancient  carving,  but  the  boss,  raised 
ring,  and  the  meandering  spiral  work  in  relief  are 
sufficiently  clear  to  fix  the  type,  g  in.  by  8\  in.  by  5  in. 
thick.     Light  coloured  sandstone.     Distington. 





'A  ,,   i«^.' .,    •  .1,    f    i.    ;    JM 

ummAUs  ■'  ■  ■C:i^Hr  \  pi 

/  (■ 

tAhlVl^Ll   .       Outiimo  dlie.ij^'M.   o(i  ')«At. 





^  1  . 



FKiiGiti^HTs  ^f  km  oT  aoss^s 





5v<'xX  -x 


'Paiwsh  Church  \Vokmngton,     S. Michael. 




?^\-T  if    SM/^LL     Hf,M3       LKTtK 


VI. — Two  sides  of  boss  and  arm  of  a  cross  head  at 
Bridekirk  : — double  raised  ring  and  projected  arm  with 
small  boss  at  the  end,  surrounded  with  raised  spiral  work 
on  the  face  ;  flatter  boss  with  single  raised  ring  and  spirals 
on  the  back.     White  sandstone. 

The  two  arms  with  boss,  raised  ring  and  lateral  exten- 
sions in  the  arms,  at  Cross  Canonby.     White  sandstone. 

The  two  sides  of  a  fragment  with  rather  rough  and  flat 
spiral-like  design  at  Isell.  White  sandstone.  19  in.  by  16^ 
in.  by  6^  in.  thick. 

VII. — Two  sides  and  one  edge  of  white  sandstone,  20 
in.  by  13  in.  by  5^  in.  thick.  x\lso  one  edge  of  the  frag- 
ment figured  in  VIII.  white  sandstone,  14  in.  long,  5^  in. 
thick  at  the  lower  sculptured  end,  tapering  to  5  in.  thick 
at  the  opposite  end,  to  the  left  in  the  drawing.  Working- 

VIII. — Upper  part  of  cross  shaft  with  arms  and  top 
broken  off.  White  sandstone.  14  in.  by  yl  in.  Also  one 
edge  of  the  same  14  in.  by  ^^  in.,  tapering  to  5  in. 

IX. — White  sandstone  cross  shaft,  broken  across,  length 
3  ft.  gj  in.  by  16  in.  in  widest  part.  Two  pieces  of  a  white 
sandstone  cross  shaft,  the  lower  fragment  16  in.  by  15  in., 
the  upper  one  20  in.  long  by  15  in.  across  the  lower,  and 
132-  inches  across  the  upper  end  ;  thickness  six  inches. 
Also  a  small  piece.     Aspatria. 

X. — Two  sides  of  broken  red  sandstone  circular  cross 
head  at  Gilcrux.  Greatest  diameter  15I  inches.  Also 
Triskele  fragment  of  shaft  from  Plumbland.  White  sand- 
stone, 17  inches  by  14  inches.  Built  into  tower  wall 

Reference  to  these  dimensions  is  necessary  as  the 
photographs  could  not  be  produced  on  a  uniform  scale. 

Here  are  twelve  relics  from  pre-Norman  times,  which 
have    never  before  been  engraved  or  made  known  ;    the 



Cross  Canonby  head  alone  having  been  noticed.  (Part  I, 
vol.  V,  p.  154.) 

They  furnish  specimens  of  at  least  six  styles  of  art  and 
ornamentation,  and  they  appear  to  spread  over  a  period 
beginning  soon  after  the  close  of  the  Roman  occupation, 
and  embracing  periods  of  settlement  or  colonization  by 
Teutonic  peoples  on  the  Solway  coast  at  a  very  early 
date.  They  may  also  serve  to  remind  us  of  a  more  purely 
Northern  influence,  for  at  the  base  of  the  east  face  of  the 
Aspatria  standing  cross,  beneath  the  tangled  strands  and 
convolutions  which  appear  to  have  been  woven  into  a 
pattern  or  web  (of  life)  which  might  have  been  copied  from 
one  of  the  ancient  MS.  Gospels,  we  see  the  devouring 
\volflike  progeny  of  mankind's  enemy  (death  or  hell, 
Fenris  or  Helia)  bound,  unable  to  hurt  where  the  cross 
triumphs.  This  cross  has  been  copied  and  set  up  at  Bow- 
ness  in  memory  of  the  Rev.  S.  Medlicott. 

The  circular  head,  the  curve  of  which  may  be  seen,  and 
which  would  be  something  like  the  head  of  the  Dearham 
standing  cross,  has  been  purposely  knocked  off,  but  the 
stem  was  so  strong  that  it  withstood  the  mad  storm,  and, 
indeed,  served  for  long  (it  is  said)  as  a  pillar  to  which 
horses  and  cattle  could  be  tied  to  be  claimed  on  the 
Sunday;  even  this  usage  failed  to  overthrow  the  silent 
witness  of  the  Truth  of  the  ages,  which  stands  firm  to-day 
in  its  own  native  red  sandstone  socket  stone. 

Whoever  set  up  this  cross  quarried  a  great  block  of 
living  stone  ;  they  did  not  even  weaken  it  by  squaring 
down  to  get  a  perfect  surface,  but  worked  upon  the  face 
almost  as  it  left  the  quarry.  Notice  the  hollowed  surface 
beneath  the  north-east  shoulder. 

The  north  edge  bears  broad  rings,  with  two  crossing 
bands  as  its  ornament. 

Two  of  the  predecessors  of  this  cross  (IX)  are  in  sorrier 
case,  but  enough  of  them  is  left  to  furnish  interesting  links 



in  our  christian  pedigree.  The  remains  of  each  of  these 
two  earlier  crosses  consists  of  two  pieces. 

One  shaft  shews  spirals  near  the  bottom,  massed  in  a 
manner  reminding  one  of  the  curved  svastika  on  the 
Dearham  fragment  (Vol.  VII,  p.  290,)  with  two  pieces  of 
plaitwork  of  three  double  strands  having  bosses  worked  in 
every  available  space  ;  this  seems  to  have  been  a  tall, 
broad,  and  thin  cross  fixed  in  the  ground  without  a  socket 
stone.  The  line  marking  off  the  carved  from  the  uncarved 
part  is  not  horizontal,  and  the  work  is  irregular.  It  is  the 
lower  part  which  remains. 

The  other  shaft  has  two  broad  bands  passing  round 
bosses  similar  to  the  back  of  the  Dearham  stone  (V^ol.  VII, 
p.  292,)  along  each  side  of  a  central  scroll  ;  in  the  lower 
part  are  the  body  and  legs  of  a  man  above  a  svastika  of 
of  solid  form  ;  the  man  is  hoisted  up  in  the  air  a  saciifice 
to  the  God  of  heaven,  to  heathen  minds  it  might  be  a 
victim  hurled  to  Odin,  to  christians  the  God  man  (rhe 
sun  of  righteousness) — the  svastika  is  the  sun  sign — raised 
on  the  cross.  In  the  upper  part  the  scroll  enlarges,  and 
the  space  to  the  left  is  filled  with  spirals  which  take  the 
place  of  the  bands  and  bosses.  A  portion  is  missing  be- 
tween the  two  pieces  of  this  shaft.  The  scroll  work  in  the 
centre  of  the  upper  fragment,  if  continued  downward  would 
appear  like  the  work  on  the  Dearham  stone  before-named. 
A  precisely  similar  raised  scroll  ornaments  the  edge  of 
this  cross,  and  the  reverse  is  covered  with  spirals. 

This  work  is  such  as  might  be  the  result  of  the  free- 
working  of  British  native  artists  following  their  idea  of 
the  scroll  work  and  plaited  patterns  on  Roman  pave- 
ments, &c.,  in  the  years  following  the  decay  of  the  Roman 
civilization  consequent  upon  the  retirement  of  the  legions. 

The  very  small  piece  of  redstone  interlacing  shewn  is 
probably  of  much  later  date. 

The  Distington  stones,  I\',  V,  are  parts  of  three  cross 
heads  and  of  a  shaft.     All  are  of  the  type  having  central 



boss  with  rings.  One  (V.)  is  so  much  weather  worn  that 
no  tracinc:  of  older  desij^n  is  found  upon  it,  it  thus  re- 
sembles the  newly  discovered  Bromfield  cross.  (Art. 
XII,  p.  I20  of  this  vol.) 

Another  sht^ws  the  meandering  raised  twining  work  like 
that  on  the  Dearham  head  (Part  I.  vol,  V.)  and  so  well 
shewn  on  the  Bridekirk  relic  (VI.) 

A  third  shews  the  round  bossed  end  of  the  projecting 
central  arm  within  the  cross  arm  (IV)  with  an  S  shaped 
curve  alongside;  this  may  be  part  of  the  cross  of  which 
the  piece  figured  with  it  formed  a  part,  and  which  is  of 
later  date  than  the  other  two  heads  ;  its  ornament  con- 
tains the  triskele  sign,  an  8  shaped  figure  and  a  large 
boss  with  central  depression  within  the  divisions  formed 
by  the  broad  bands  of  a  three  stranded  plait.  At  the 
break  in  the  lower  portion  may  have  been  a  svastika 
within  another  space,  so  little  remains  of  the  sign  that  I 
can  only  express  the  opinion. 

I  think  we  have  here  the  very  early  British  cross  heads 
followed  by  a  later  but  still  early  cross,  of  a  period 
when  the  Saxon  "ton"  (tun)  had  become  a  part  of  the 
place  name  Distington,  through  the  settlement  there  of 
men  to  whom  the  symbol  with  the  three  curved  legs  and 
other  signs  as  the  8  shaped  figure,  and  the  boss  with 
hollow  centre  were  familiar.  (The  triskele  is  used  here 
no  doubt  in  place  of  the  well  known  triquetra  form  at 
Gosforth,  part  II,  vol.  \'I,  p.  394,  Aspatria,  part  II,  vol. 
IX,  p.  466,  to  signify  the  Trinity).  This  sign  is  cut  in 
relief  at  Isell,  pt.  I,  Vol.  IX,  p.  29.,  and  at  Plumbland. 

The  spirals  of  the  early  crosses  arrange  themselves  in 
threes  and  in  the  S  form,  as  though  it  were  the  aim  to 
lead  the  mind  to  the  christian  doctrines  by  the  use  of 
symbols  already  recognized. 

These  fragments  were  brought  to  our  notice  by  the  Rev. 
W.  G.  C.  Hodgson,  vicar,  after  the  rebuilding  of  the 
church  :  they  have  all  been  used  as  building  stuff,  and  the 


pke-normAn  cross  fragments.  235 

weathering  is  the  work  of  the  centuries  before  they  were 
imbedded  in  the  old  church. 

The  Bridekirk  head  (VI)  has  much  hme  sticking  to  it. 
It  is  a  good  illustration  of  its  type,  and  seems  to  link  the 
old  Norman  church  from  which  it  was  taken  with  the  far 
past  of  the  times  of  the  saint  of  its  dedication, — St. 

The  spirals  on  both  sides  of  the  Isell  stone  are  very 
noticeable.  The  work  is  unfinished,  being  picked  out 
rather  than  worked  in  relief.  A  piece  of  the  same  cross 
has  been  built  by  the  vicar,  Rev.  W.  H.  Sharpe,  into  the 
west  wall  of  the  porch,  within.  At  the  bottom  of  the 
drawing  to  the  left  hand  will  be  seen  a  broad  arrow,  point 
downward;  this  would  be  the  sacred  emblem  of  Woden. 
In  Gautrick's  saga,*  the  "  sacrificer  marks  the  victims 
breast  with  a  spear  point,  and  devotes  him  to  Woden,  while 
the  halter  is  round  his  neck,  after  which  he  is  hanged." 
The  ceremony  of  marking  to  Woden  is  noticed  both  in 
Yuglinga  and  elsewhere  by  Ari.  The  spear  is  as  charac- 
teristic of  Woden  as  the  hammer  is  of  Thor.  The  cross 
itself  is  the  gallows  on  which  the  victim  is  hanged.  The 
tree,  the  ash  Yggdrasil,  is  the  horse  of  the  hanged  one — 
the  gallows.  The  cross  of  Christ  and  the  ash  Yggdrasil 
of  the  northern  tribes  bore  a  like  meaning,  at  a  certain 
time,  to  the  mixed  peoples  on  this  coast. 

At  Waberthwaite  near  Muncaster,  towards  the  more 
southern  limit  of  Copeland  which  was  filled  with  Scan- 
dinavian settlements,  you  may  see  the  churchyard  great 
cross  with  the  horse  clearly  sculptured  on  its  face.  Lord 
Muncaster  has  lately  had  this  cross  shaft  taken  from  its 
false  position  of  lintel  to  the  church  porch,  and  fixed  up- 
right in  its  own  socket  stone,  which  stood  waiting  for  its 
owner's  return,  near  by.    A  smaller  shaft  lies  in  the  vestry. 

*The  Rev.  T.  Lees,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  very  kindly  drew  my  attention  to  the  ex- 
tract from  Vigfusson.  The  subject  must  be  treated  separately  when  other 
remains  are  at  hand. 



The  more  norlhern  parts  of  Copeland,  the  border  of 
the  Strathclyde  whose  southern  boundary  was  the  Der- 
went,  abound  in  sculptures  of  a  less  pronounced  northern 
type.  It  would  appear  that  the  native  races  and  anglic 
or  so  called  Saxon  colonies  chiefly  held  sway  here. 

Durin.s^  the  work  done  at  the  parish  church  of  Working- 
ton, S.  Michael's,  since  the  tire,  two  fragments  have  been 
taken  from  the  vault  of  the  Curwen  famil}^  where  they  had 
been  used  as  building  material.  The}'  are  both  of  white 
sandstone.  A  plait  with  bosses  in  the  spaces  is  seen  on 
one  side  (Vll)  whilst  on  the  edge  is  the  ke}-  pattern  ending 
in  a  curve,  and  on  the  other  side  part  of  an  uncommon 
design  of  spirals. 

The  (paradise)  tree  appears  in  the  upper  part  of  the 
other  fragment  (VIII)  above  a  finely  worked  geometrial 
pattern  such  as  seen  in  the  book  of  Kells  and  other  early 
MSS.  formed  of  H  shaped  lines  set  diagonally. 

On  either  side  of  the  tree,  the  arms  of  the  cross  formerly 
extended  ;  these  have  been  cut  away,  most  likely  by  the 
workmen  who  built  up  the  vault.  The  two  edges  have 
knotwork  finishing  off  square  beneath  the  cross  arms,  see 
horizontal  drawings  VII,  VIII,  where  the  uncarved  portion 
shews  the  position  of  the  cross  arms. 

The  fragment  which  was  formerly  built  into  the  tower 
(vol.  IX,  p.  458)  has  been  taken  out,  and  proves  to  be 
worked  on  all  sides  with  plait  work  of  wythes.  The 
building  committee  intend  to  fix  up  these  valuable  sculp- 
tures in  the  west  porch — tower — of  the  church.  The 
Rev.  T.  Hackworth  and  the  clerk  of  the  works  have  been 
ver}-  careful  of  all  historic  finds. 

Several  years  ago  workmen  engaged  in  Gilcrux  church- 
yard found  the  upper  part  of  the  Gilcrux  circular  cross- 
head  X.  It  was  broken  into  two  small  pieces  which  they 
hid  in  a  drain,  and  afterwards  took  to  Mr.  Robinson  of 
Maryport,  who  iiiade  a  cast,  which  I  novv'  possess. 



At  the  alteration  of  the  chancel  lately,  the  Rev.  J.  C. 
Pigott,  vicar,  discovered  beneath  the  altar,  the  lower  part 
of  a  head,  being  the  boss,  the  greater  part  of  two  of  the 
arms  and  a  quarter  of  the  wheel ;  on  placing  the  casts 
and  the  newly-found  stone  together,  more  than  half  the 
cross  head  was  revealed.  It  resembles  the  Dearham 
Standing  Cross,  but  it  is  much  smaller,  very  roughly 
worked,  and  apparently  unfinishe.1.  This  cross  has  been 
reproduced  as  a  foot  stone  to  the  grave  of  the  late  H.  A. 
Spedding,  of  Mirehouse,  in  Bassenthwaite  churchyard 
with  a  copy  of  the  Dearham  Standing  Cross  as  a  head- 

The  Plumbland  triskele  fragment  was  walled  into  the 
church  tower  at  the  time  of  the  rebuilding  and  has  re- 
mained unnoticed.  It  bears  a  rude  spiral  running  scroll 
between  pieces  of  plaitwork  of  divided  strands,  having 
triskele  signs,  8  shaped  figure,  bosses,  and  svastika-like 
raised  surface  between  the  strands,  and  points  I  think  to 
a  Teutonic  settlement  at  a  very  early  time. 

These  and  other  remains  when  illustrated  and  thus 
brought  together,  for  comparison,  &c.  may  give  valuable 
testimony  to  a  history  which  has  so  far  only  been  written 
in  stone. 

The  evidence  of  the  various  settlements  of  Northmen 
and  Teutons  in  Strathclyde,  as  well  as  that  of  the  earliest 
missions  amongst  the  native  races  cannot  fail  to  be  in- 
teresting and  useful. 


Law  Ting  at  Fell  Foot,  Little  Langdale,  Westmorland.         i 
Hawkshead  Hall.  .  .  .  .  .7 

S.  Catherine's  Chapel,  Eskdale  .  .  '       50 

Appleb}'  Old  Bridge.         .  .  .  .  -34 

Excursion  and  Proceedings.         .  .  .  "5^ 

On    a   supposed   interment   of  a    Horse  with    Human    ' 

Remains  at  Lanercost.  .  .  ,  -70 

Some  Manorial  Halls  in  the  Barony  of  Gre3'Stoke.         .        73 
Recent  Roman  Discoveries.  ....     100 

Potters'  Marks  on  Roman  Pottery  found  in  Carlisle.     .     102 
The  Siege  of  Carlisle  in  1644-5.  .  .  .     104 

The  Seal  of  the  Statute  Merchant  of  Carlisle.     .  •     117 

Fragments  of  a  British  Cross  and  many  Early  English 
and  other  Grave  Covers,  found  in  Brom field  Church- 
yard. ......     120 

Church  Bells  in  Leath  Ward.       .  .  .  .127 

Keswick  Town  Clock.       .  .  .  .  -152 

Visitations  of  the  Plague  in  Cumberland  and  Westmor- 
land. ......     158 

Mayburgh  and  King  Arthur's  Round  Table         .  .     187 

An  instance  of  Infant  Marriage  in  the  Diocese  of  Carlisle.     220 

The  Dacre  Stone.  .  .  .  .  ,     226 

Pre-Norman  Cross  Fragments,  atAspatria,  Workington, 
Distington,  Bridekirk,  Gilcrux,  Plumbland,  and 
Isell.  .  .  '  .  230 

Jjublirattons  of  t\jt  Cumbrrlanb  antr  tilrstmorlanti 
Antiquarian  attb  ^rrhajologital  .^ocirtu. 































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